Juggling the Many Voices Inside: What It Means to Be an Emerging Adult
Richard Morehouse1, Merel Visse2, Brian Singer-Towns3, John Vitek4
1Professor Emeritus Viterbo University/Praxis 1706 North Salem Road, La Crosse, WI 54603; 2Associate Professor of Care Ethics University of Humanistic Studies, Department of Care Eth-ics, Kromme Nieuwegracht 29, 3512 HD Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Special Projects Director, Saint Mary’s Press 702 Terrace Heights, Winona, MN 55987; 4President, Saint Mary’s Press 702 Terrace Heights, Winona, MN 55987
Background: Our late modern society has a focus on self-realization, managerialism and instrumental reasoning. A logic of choice dominates the lives of emerging adults. They are focused on “self-managing” their lives. Although many emerging adults can “flourish”, others are “floundering,” struggling with anxiety or lower self-perceptions. Theories on self-realization which focus on a capability or self-determination approach seem inadequate for understanding this reality.
Aim: This article critically examines what it means to be an emerging adult in late modern society. It aims to counterbalance the dominant theories of self-realization by exploring a dialogical view on the “self”. It pays attention to the voices of the “selves” of emerging adults, including the internalized voice of society itself.
Method: A narrative approach was followed. First, an interpretive narrative study was carried out with female respondents. The study employed in-depth focus group and individual interviews and the transcripts of the interviews were then analyzed thematically. We further analyzed the data according to the Listening Guide Approach.
Findings: Self-realization is a dynamic relational and moral process. The findings illustrate the multiple voices and I-positions of emerging adults. In addition, the findings illustrate that in addition to agency, “passive receptivity” also plays an important role in the process of becoming an emerging adult.
Keywords: emerging adults, narrative, dialogical self, self-realization, listening guide, passive receptivity
How to cite this article:
Richard Morehouse, Merel Visse, Brian Singer-Towns, John Vitek. Juggling the Many Voices Inside: What It Means to Be an Emerging Adult. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews, 2019, 2:13. DOI: 10.28933/ijprr-2019-04-2105
1. Arnett, J.J. (2006). Emerging adulthood: what is it, what is it good for? Child Development Per-spective, (1)2: 68-73.
2. Beck, U. & Beck-Gernheim, E. (2002). Individual-ization: Institutionalized Individualism and its So-cial and Political Consequences. Sage Publica-tions.
3. Bekhet, A.K. & Zauszniewski, J.A. (2012). Meth-odological triangulation: an approach to under-standing data. Nursing Research (20) 2:40-3.
4. Bröckling, U. (2015). The Entrepreneurial Self. Fabricating a new type of subject. Sage Publica-tions.
5. Bruner, J. (1991). The narrative construction of reality. Critical Inquiry, 18 (1):1-21.
6. Bruner, J. (1962). The new educational technolo-gy. American Behavioral Scientist, 6(3):5-7.
7. Campbell, B. & Manning, J. (2018). The rise of victimhood culture: Microaggressions, safe spaces, and the new culture wars. Springer.
8. Clandinin J. (2007). Handbook of Narrative In-quiry: Mapping a Metholodology. Sage Publica-tion.
9. Curran, T. & Hill, A. (2017). Perfectionism is in-creasing over time. A meta-analysis of birth co-hort differences from 1989-2016. American Psy-chological Association, (145)4:410-429.
10. Drescher,E. ( 2016). Choosing our religion: The spiritual lives of American nones. Oxford univer-sity Press
11. Erikson, E.H. (1994). Identity: Youth and crisis (No. 7). WW Norton & Company.
12. Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stan-ford University Press.
13. Gilligan, C., et al. (1990). Making connections: the relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma Willard School. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
14. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psycho-logical Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
15. Gilligan, C. & Eddy, J. (2017). Listening as a path to psychological discovery: an introduction to the listening guide. Perspectives Medical Ed-ucation (2017) 6:76–81.
16. van Langenhove, L. & Harré, R. (1999). Introduc-ing Positioning Theory. In R. T. Harré, & L. van Langenhove (Eds.), Positioning theory. Moral contexts of intentional action (pp. 14-31). Ox-ford: Blackwell.
17. Hankivsky, O. (2014). Rethinking care ethics: On the promise and potential of an intersectional analysis. American Political Science Review, 108(2), 252–264.
18. Harré, R. & Moghaddam, M. (2003). The Self and Others. Positioning Individuals and Groups in Personal, Political, and Cultural Contexts. Prae-ger.
19. Hermans, J.M. (2018). Society in the self. A the-ory of identity in democracy. Oxford University Press.
20. Hermans, J.M. & Hermans-Konopka, A. (2010). The Dialogical Self Theory, Positioning and Counter-Positioning in a Globalizing Society Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, first edition.
21. hooks, b. (1990). Yearning: race, gender and cul-tural politics. Boston, MA: South-End Press.://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-018-9873-7
22. Laceuille, H. (2018). Aging and self-realization. Cultural narratives about later life. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag.
23. Lukianoff, G. and Haidt, J., 2018. The coddling of the American mind: How good intentions and bad ideas are setting up a generation for failure. Penguin.
24. Leary, M.R., Twenge, J.M. & Quinlivan, E., 2006. Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression. Personality and social psychol-ogy review, 10(2), pp.111-132.
25. Leget, C. (2017). Art of Living, Art of Dying: spir-itual care for a good death. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, UK.
26. Lieblich, A. (1998). Narrative Research: reading, analysis and interpretation. Sage Publications.
27. Lorey, I. (2014). State of Insecurity. Government of the Precarious. Verso Books.
28. McAdams, D.P., Josselson, R.E. & Lieblich, A.E., 2006. Identity and story: Creating self in narrative. American Psychological Association.
29. McAdams, D.P., 1993. The stories we live by: Personal myths and the making of the self. Guil-ford Press.
30. MacIntyre, A. (1984). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. 2d ed. Notre Dame, Ind.: Universi-ty of Notre Dame Press, 3rd edition with new pro-logue, 2007.
31. Macpherson, C.B. (1977). The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy. Oxford University Press.
32. Madara, S.R., Maheshwari, P. & Pon Selvan, C. (2018). Future of Millennial generations: a review. Conference: 2018 Advances in Science and En-gineering Technology International Conferences (ASET), DOI: 10.1109/ICASET.2018.8376927,
33. Marion, J.L. (2002). Being Given: toward a phe-nomenology of givenness. Transl: Jeffrey L. Kosky. Stanford University Press.
34. McCarty, R.J. & Vitek, J. (2017). Going, going, gone: the dynamics of disaffiliation in young Catholics. Minnesota: St. Mary’s Press.
35. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chi-cago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
36. Morehouse, R. (2012). Beginning interpretive in-quiry: a step by step approach to research and evaluation. Routledge.
37. Nelson, L.J. & Padilla-Walker, L.M (2008). Nel-son, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Badger, Sarah; Barry, Carolyn Mcnamara; Carroll, Jason S; et al. Journal of Youth and Adolescence; New York, (37)5: 605-615. DOI:10.1007/s10964-007-9203-5
38. Nelson, L.J. & Padilla-Walker, L.M. (2013). Flour-ishing and floundering in emerging adult college students. Emerging Adulthood, (1)1:67-78.
39. Nistelrooij, I. van & Visse, M.A. (2018). Me? The invisible call of responsibility and its promise for care ethics: a phenomenological view. Medicine, Health Care, Philosophy.
40. Nussbaum, M. (2000). The Capabilities Ap-proach. Cambridge University Press.
41. Oldenburg, Ray (1989). The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. New York: Paragon House.
42. Raggat, P. (2006). Putting the five-factor model into context: evidence linking big five traits to narrative identity. Journal of Personality (74)5: 1321-48
43. Ricoeur, P. (1992). Oneself as Another, trans. Kathleen Blamey, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p.119.
44. Ricoeur, P. (1995). Fragility and responsibility. Philosophy and Social Criticism. 21 (5-6):15-22
45. Riessman, C. (2008). Narrative methods for the human sciences. Sage publications.
46. Rosa, H. (2016). Social acceleration. A new theo-ry of modernity. New York: Colombia University Press.
47. Ryan. R.M. & Deci, E.K. (2017). Self-Determination Theory: basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness. Guilford Press.
48. Ritchhart, R., Church, M. & Morrisson, K. (2011). Making things visible: how to promote engage-ment, understanding and independence for all learners. Jossey-Bass Publishers.
49. Schiff, B. (2006). The promise (and challenge) of an innovative narrative psychology. Narrative Inquiry, 16 (1), 19-27.
50. Stake, R. (2019). Lecture on Talent, Diversity, Comparing and Meaning (shared with second au-thor).
51. Stake, R. (1995). The Art of Case Study Re-search. Sage Publications.
52. Taylor, C. (1989). Sources of the self: The mak-ing of the modern identity. Cambridge: Cam-bridge University Press.
53. Taylor, C. (1991). The ethics of authenticity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
54. Taylor, C. (2007). A secular age. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
55. Tronto, J.C. (2013). Caring Democracy. Markets, Equality, and Justice, New York, London: New York University Press.
56. Twenge, J.M., (2017). IGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebel-lious, More Tolerant, Less Happy–and Complete-ly Unprepared for Adulthood–and What That Means for the Rest of Us. Simon and Schuster.
57. Visse, M.A. & Abma, T.A. (2018). Evaluation for a Caring Society. IAP Publishers.
58. Vosman, F. & Niemeijer, A. (2017). Rethinking critical reflection on care: late modern uncertainty and the implications for care ethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy: DOI 10.1007/s11019-017-9766-1
59. Walker, M. U. (2007). Moral understandings. A feminist study in ethics. London, UK: Routledge.