Impact of Workplace Bullying Amongst First Responders- Systematic Review

Impact of Workplace Bullying Amongst First Responders- Systematic Review

Walker, JM. and Stones, A.

North Central University

Psychiatric Research and Reviews1

The phenomenon of workplace bullying is pervasive and exposure to bullying leads to long-term, systemic and individual negative impacts to targets of bullying and the organizations in which they work. Multiple studies confirm that workplace bullying is associated with psychological trauma and serious negative long-term outcomes for targets including mental health disorders and in extreme cases suicide. Emergency service organizations by design are hierarchical in nature, creating power structures that can lead to increased potential for bullying. The literature shows that first responders who work in emergency service organizations report rates of workplace bullying at upwards of 60% (six times the National average). The prevalence of workplace bullying amongst first responders, given their already high stress jobs, along with the long term negative impacts to a targets health, mental health and wellbeing are significant and constitute a serious crisis within the emergency services community.

Keywords: workplace bullying, first responders, law enforcement, mental health, depression, anxiety, suicide

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Walker, JM. and Stones, A.. Impact of Workplace Bullying Amongst First Responders – Systematic Review. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews, 2020, 3:24. DOI: 10.28933/ijprr-2020-01-1205


1. Archer, D. (1999). Exploring “bullying” culture in the para-military organisation. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1/2), 94–105.
2. Baillien, E., Notelaers, G., De Witte, H., & Matthiesen, S. B. (2015). The relationship between the work unit’s conflict management styles and bullying at work: Moderation by conflict frequency. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32(3), 401–419.
3. Bano, S., & Malik, S. (2013). Impact of Workplace Bullying on Organizational Outcome. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 7(3), 618–627. Retrieved from
4. Bartlett, J. E., & Bartlett, M. E. (2011). Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Literature Review. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), 69–84.
5. Bartlett, J. E., & Bartlett, M. E. (2011). Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Literature Review. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), 69–84.
6. Beckley, A. (2014). Organisational justice: is the police service ready for it? Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 9(2), 176–190.
7. Blackstock, S., Harlos, K., Macleod, M. L. P., & Hardy, C. L. (2015). The impact of organisational factors on horizontal bullying and turnover intentions in the nursing workplace. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(8).
8. Branch, S., Ramsay, S., & Barker, M. (2013). Workplace bullying, mobbing and general harassment: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(3), 280–299.
9. Brewer, G., & Whiteside, E. (2012). Workplace Bullying and Stress Within the Prison Service. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 4(2), 76–85.
10. Brewer, P., & Venaik, S. (2011). Individualism–Collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(3), 436–445.
11. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development : experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press. Retrieved from
12. Brown, S. G., & Daus, C. S. (2015). The influence of police officers’ decision-making style and anger control on responses to work scenarios. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4(3), 294–302.
13. Brunetto, Y., Xerri, M., Shacklock, K., Farr-Wharton, B., & Farr-Wharton, R. (2016). Management, bullying and the work outcomes of Australian paramilitary. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology.
14. Campeau, H. (2015). “Police Culture” at Work: Making Sense of Police Oversight. British Journal of Criminology, 55(4), 669–687.
15. Carter, M., Thompson, N., Crampton, P., Morrow, G., Burford, B., Gray, C., & Illing, J. (2013). Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: A questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting. BMJ Open, 3(6), e002628.
16. Charles, S. T., Piazza, J. R., Mogle, J., Sliwinski, M. J., & Almeida, D. M. (2013). The wear and tear of daily stressors on mental health. Psychological Science, 24(5), 733–41.
17. Chirilă, T., & Constantin, T. (2013). Understanding Workplace Bullying Phenomenon through its Concepts: A Literature Review. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1175–1179.
18. Condon, B. B. (2015). Incivility as Bullying in Nursing Education. Nursing Science Quarterly, 28(1), 21–6.
19. Conlon, E., & Zandvoort, H. (2011). Broadening Ethics Teaching in Engineering: Beyond the Individualistic Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics, 17(2), 217–232.
20. Cooper, C. L., Hoel, H., & Faragher, B. (2004). Bullying is detrimental to health, but all bullying behaviours are not necessarily equally damaging. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 367–387.
21. Coyne, I., & Monks, C. P. (2010). Bullying in different contexts: where does workplace bullying fit in and how can we learn from other contexts? 7th International Conference on Workplace Bullying Harassment. Retrieved from
22. Demir, D., Rodwell, J., & Flower, R. (2013). Workplace bullying among allied health professionals: Prevalence, causes and consequences. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 51(4).
23. Devonish, D. (2013a). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630–647.
24. Devonish, D. (2013b). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors: The mediating role of psychological well-being. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630–647.
25. Devonish, D. (2014). Job demands, health, and absenteeism: does bullying make things worse? Employee Relations, 36(2), 165–181.
26. Dobry, Y., Braquehais, M. D. M. D., & Sher, L. (2013). Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 25(3), 295–299.
27. Einarsen, S., Helge, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. (2003). Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. Taylor & Francis.
28. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23(1), 24–44.
29. Einarsen, S., & Nielsen, M. B. (2014). Workplace bullying as an antecedent of mental health problems: a five-year prospective and representative study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(2), 131–142.
30. Einarsen, S., & Nielsen, M. B. (2015). Workplace bullying as an antecedent of mental health problems: a five-year prospective and representative study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(2), 131–42.
31. Einarsen, S., Skogstad, A., Rørvik, E., Lande, Å. B., & Nielsen, M. B. (2016). Climate for conflict management, exposure to workplace bullying and work engagement: a moderated mediation analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5192(April), 1–22.
32. Emdad, R., Alipour, A., Hagberg, J., & Jensen, I. B. (2013). The impact of bystanding to workplace bullying on symptoms of depression among women and men in industry in Sweden: An empirical and theoretical longitudinal study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 86(6), 709–716.
33. Escartín, J., Rodríguez-Carballeira, A., Zapf, D., Porrúa, C., & Martín-Peña, J. (2009). Perceived severity of various bullying behaviours at work and the relevance of exposure to bullying. Work & Stress, 23(3), 191–205.
34. Escartín, J., Zapf, D., Arrieta, C., & Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á. (2011). Workers’ perception of workplace bullying: A cross-cultural study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(2), 178–205.
35. Etienne, E. (2014). Exploring workplace bullying in nursing. Workplace Health & Safety, 62(1), 6–11.
36. Farmer, D. (2011). Workplace Bullying: An increasing epidemic creating traumatic experiences for targets of workplace bullying. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(7), 196–203. Retrieved from
37. Francioli, L., Høgh, A., Conway, P., Costa, G., Karasek, R., & Hansen, Å. M. (2016). Do Personal Dispositions Affect the Relationship Between Psychosocial Working Conditions and Workplace Bullying? Ethics & Behavior, 26(6), 451–469.
38. Frederick, D. (2014). Bullying, mentoring, and patient care. AORN Journal, 99(5), 587–593.
40. Giorgi, G., Perminiene, M., Montani, F., Fiz-Perez, J., Mucci, N., & Arcangeli, G. (2016). Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: Impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress. Frontiers in Psychology, 7.
41. Glambek, M., Matthiesen, S. B., Hetland, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying as an antecedent to job insecurity and intention to leave: A 6-month prospective study. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(3), 255–268.
42. Glasø, L., Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Interpersonal Problems Among Perpetrators and Targets of Workplace Bullying. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(6), 1316–1333.
43. Gloor, J. L. (2014). Review of Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice, 2nd ed. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(1), 145–148.
44. Granstra, K. (2015). Nurse Against Nurse: Horizontal Bullying in the Nursing Profession. Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives, 60(4), 249–257.
45. Härkönen, U. (2007). The Bronfenbrenner ecological systems theory of human development. Scientific Articles of V International Conference PERSON.COLOR.NATURE.MUSIC, 1–19.
46. Hauge, L. J., Einarsen, S., Knardahl, S., Lau, B., Notelaers, G., & Skogstad, A. (2011). Leadership and role stressors as departmental level predictors of workplace bullying. International Journal of Stress Management, 18(4), 305–323.
47. Heather K. Spence Laschinger. (2014). Impact of Workplace Mistreatment on Patient Safety Risk and Nurse-Assessed Patient Outcomes. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 44(5), 284–290.
48. Hodgins, M., MacCurtain, S., & Mannix-McNamara, P. (2014). Workplace bullying and incivility: a systematic review of interventions. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 7(1).
49. Hodson, G., Hogg, S. M., & MacInnis, C. C. (2009). The role of “dark personalities” (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 686–690.
50. Hoel, H., & Beale, D. (2006). Workplace Bullying, Psychological Perspectives and Industrial Relations: Towards a Contextualized and Interdisciplinary Approach. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(2), 239–262.
51. Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. (2001). Origins of bullying (pp. 3–19).
52. Hogh, A., Hansen, Å. M., Mikkelsen, E. G., Persson, R., Hansen, A. M., Mikkelsen, E. G., & Persson, R. (2012). Exposure to negative acts at work, psychological stress reactions and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 73(1), 47–52.
53. Hong, J. S., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological system analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(4), 311–322.
54. Houck, N. M., & Colbert, A. M. (2016). Patient Safety and Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ePub(ePub), ePub-ePub.
55. Hurley, J., Hutchinson, M., Bradbury, J., & Browne, G. (2016). Nexus between preventive policy inadequacies, workplace bullying, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 25(1), 12–18.
56. Hutchinson, M. (2013). Bullying as workgroup manipulation: A model for understanding patterns of victimization and contagion within the workgroup. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3).
57. Hutchinson, M., & Hurley, J. (2013). Exploring leadership capability and emotional intelligence as moderators of workplace bullying. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), 553–562.
58. Hutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2015). The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care. Nursing Inquiry, 22(1), 13–26.
59. Johnson, S. L. (2011). An ecological model of workplace bullying: a guide for intervention and research. Nursing Forum, 46(2), 55–63.
60. Johnson, S. L., & Rea, R. E. (2009). Workplace Bullying. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(2), 84–90.
61. Johnston, M., Phanhtharath, P., & Jackson, B. S. (2009). The bullying aspect of workplace violence in nursing.(Healthy Workplace, part 2). Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 32(4), 287.
62. Karatza, C., Zyga, S., Tziaferi, S., & Prezerakos, P. (2016). Workplace bullying and general health status among the nursing staff of Greek public hospitals. Annals of General Psychiatry, 15, 7.
63. Kwan, S. S. M., Tuckey, M. R., & Dollard, M. F. (2016). The role of the psychosocial safety climate in coping with workplace bullying: A grounded theory and sequential tree analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(1), 133–148.
64. Leach, L. S., Poyser, C., & Butterworth, P. (2016). Workplace bullying and the association with suicidal ideation/thoughts and behaviour: a systematic review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 74(1), oemed-2016-103726.
65. Lee, C. (2011). An ecological systems approach to bullying behaviors among middle school students in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(8), 1664–1693.
66. Leigh, L., Robyn, R., Geldenhuys, M., & Gobind, J. (2014). The inferences of gender in workplace bullying: A conceptual analysis. Gender & Behaviour, 12(3), 6059–6069.
67. Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 165–184.
68. Linton, D. K., & Power, J. L. (2013). The personality traits of workplace bullies are often shared by their victims: Is there a dark side to victims? Personality and Individual Differences, 54(6), 738–743.
69. Longo, J., & Hain, D. (2014). Bullying: a hidden threat to patient safety. Nephrology Nursing Journal : Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses’ Association, 41(2), 193–99; quiz 200. Retrieved from
70. Lovell, B. L., & Lee, R. T. (2011). Impact of Workplace Bullying on Emotional and Physical Well-Being: A Longitudinal Collective Case Study. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 20(3), 344–357.
71. Lutgen-Sandvik, P., Tracy, S. J., & Alberts, J. K. (2007). Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception, degree and impact. Journal of Management Studies, 44(6), 837–862.
72. Lynch, J. (2002). Workplace Bullying: Implications for Police Organisations: A Critical Issues in Policing Paper. Retrieved from
73. MacIntosh, J., Wuest, J., Gray, M. M., & Aldous, S. (2010). Effects of workplace bullying on how women work. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32(7), 910–931.
74. Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2004). Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 335–356.
75. McKay, R. B. (2013). Confronting workplace bullying: Agency and structure in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Administration & Society, 46(5), 548–572.
76. McTernan, W. P., Dollard, M. F., & LaMontagne, A. D. (2013). Depression in the workplace: An economic cost analysis of depression-related productivity loss attributable to job strain and bullying. Work & Stress, 27(4), 321–338.
77. Miller, H., & Rayner, C. (2012). The Form and Function of “Bullying” Behaviors in a Strong Occupational Culture: Bullying in a U.K. Police Service. Group & Organization Management, 37(3), 347–375.
78. Miller, H., & Rayner, C. (2012). The Form and Function of “Bullying” Behaviors in a Strong Occupational Culture: Bullying in a U.K. Police Service. Group & Organization Management, 37(3), 347–375.
79. Miller, H., & Rayner, C. (2012). The Form and Function of “Bullying” Behaviors in a Strong Occupational Culture: Bullying in a U.K. Police Service. Group & Organization Management, 37(3), 347–375.
80. Namie, G. (2003). Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility. Ivey Business Journal, 68(2), 1–6.
81. Nielsen, M. B. (2013). Bullying in work groups: The impact of leadership. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 127–136.
82. Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2012). Outcomes of exposure to workplace bullying: A meta-analytic review. Work & Stress, 26(4), 1–24.
83. Nielsen, M. B., & Knardahl, S. (2015). Is workplace bullying related to the personality traits of victims? A two-year prospective study. Work & Stress, 29(2), 128–149.
84. Nielsen, M. B., Mageroy, N., Gjerstad, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen, 12–13(3), 1233–1238.
85. Nielsen, M. B., Magerøy, N., Gjerstad, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening : Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke, 134(12–13), 1233–8.
86. Nielsen, M. B., Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2010). The impact of methodological moderators on prevalence rates of workplace bullying. A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(4), 955–979.
87. Nielsen, M. B., Nielsen, G. H., Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2015). Workplace bullying and suicidal ideation: A 3-wave longitudinal Norwegian study. American Journal of Public Health, 105(11), e23–e28.
88. Nielsen, M. B., Tangen, T., Idsoe, T., Matthiesen, S. B., Magerøy, N., & Mager??y, N. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence of bullying at work and at school. A literature review and meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 21, 17–24.
89. O’Donnell, S. M., & MacIntosh, J. A. (2015). Gender and Workplace Bullying: Men’s Experiences of Surviving Bullying at Work. Qualitative Health Research, 26(3), 351–366.
90. Okechukwu, C. A., Souza, K., Davis, K. D., & de Castro, A. B. (2014). Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: Contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities. American Journal of Industrial Medicine.
91. Olive, K., & Cangemi, J. (2015). Workplace Bullies: Why they are successful and what can be done about it? Organization Development Journal, 33(2), 19–31. Retrieved from
92. Ovayolu, O., Ovayolu, N., & Karadag, G. (2014). Workplace Bullying in Nursing. Workplace Sealth & Safety, 62(9).
93. Owoyemi, O. A. (2011). Exploring Workplace Bullying in a Para-Military Organisation (PMO) in the UK: A Qualitative Study. International Business Research, 4(2), 116–125.
94. Parkins, I. S., Fishbein, H. D., & Ritchey, P. N. (2006). The influence of personality on workplace bullying and discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(10), 2554–2577.
95. Parzefall, M., & Salin, D. M. (2010). Perceptions of and reactions to workplace bullying : A social exchange perspective. Human Relations, 63(3), 761–780.
96. Podsiadly, A., & Gamian-Wilk, M. (2015). Personality traits as predictors or outcomes of being exposed to bullying in the workplace. Personality and Individual Differences.
97. Qureshi, M. I., Rasli, A. M., & Zaman, K. (2014). A New Trilogy to Understand the Relationship among Organizational Climate, Workplace Bullying and Employee Health. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 9(2), 133–146.
98. Reknes, I., Pallesen, S., Magerøy, N., Moen, B. E., Bjorvatn, B., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Exposure to bullying behaviors as a predictor of mental health problems among Norwegian nurses: Results from the prospective SUSSH-survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(3), 479–487.
99. Robinson, S. L., Wang, W., & Kiewitz, C. (2014). Coworkers behaving badly: The Impact of coworker deviant behavior upon individual employees. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 123–143.
100. Rooyen, J. Van, & McCormack, D. (2013). Employee perceptions of workplace bullying and their implications. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 6(2), 92–103.
101. Salin, D. (2003). Workplace Bullying Among Business Professionals. Framework, 56(117), 1213–1232.
102. Salin, D. (2015). Risk factors of workplace bullying for men and women: The role of the psychosocial and physical work environment. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(1), 69–77.
103. Salin, D., & Hoel, H. (2013). Workplace bullying as a gendered phenomenon. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(3), 235–251.
104. Samnani, A.-K. (2013). “Is this bullying?” Understanding target and witness reactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology., 28(3), 290–305.
105. Samnani, A.-K. K., & Singh, P. (2014). Performance-enhancing compensation practices and employee productivity: The role of workplace bullying. Human Resource Management Review, 24(1), 5–16.
106. Samnani, A. K., & Singh, P. (2012). 20 Years of workplace bullying research: A review of the antecedents and consequences of bullying in the workplace. Aggression and Violent Behavior.
107. Sansone, R. A., & Sansone, L. A. (2015). Workplace bullying: A tale of adverse consequences. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 12(1–2), 32–37. Retrieved from
108. Saunders, P., Huynh, A., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2007). Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 30(4–5), 340–354.
109. Schafer, K., Stutter, R., & Gibbons, S. (2015). Characteristics of Individuals and Employment Among First Responders. Retrieved from
110. Sheehan, M., & Griffiths, J. (2011). Understanding the context of workplace health management as it relates to workplace bullying. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 4(1), 5–12.
111. Skarbek, A. J., Johnson, S., & Dawson, C. M. (2015). A Phenomenological Study of Nurse Manager Interventions Related to Workplace Bullying. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(10), 492–7.
112. Spector, P. E., Zhou, Z. E., & Che, X. X. (2014). Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: A quantitative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(1), 72–84.
113. Spence Laschinger, H. K., & Nosko, A. (2015). Exposure to workplace bullying and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology: The role of protective psychological resources. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(2), 252–262.
114. Swearer, S. M., & Hymel, S. (2015). Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis–stress model. American Psychologist, 70(4), 344–353.
115. Tehrani, N. (2012). Workplace bullying: Symptoms and solutions. In Workplace bullying: Symptoms and solutions (p. xvi, 302).
116. Thirlwall, A. (2015). Organisational sequestering of workplace bullying: Adding insult to injury. Journal of Management and Organization, 21(2), 145–158.
117. Trépanier, S.-G., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2013). Workplace Bullying and Psychological Health at Work: The Mediating Role of Satisfaction of Needs for Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness. Work & Stress, 27(2), 123–140.
118. Tuckey, M. R., & Neall, A. M. (2014). Workplace Bullying Erodes Job and Personal Resources: Between-and Within-Person Perspectives. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4), 413–424.
119. Turner, J. S., & Leach, D. J. (2012). Behavioural Activation Therapy: Philosophy, Concepts, and Techniques. Behaviour Change.
120. Valentine, S., Fleischman, G., & Godkin, L. (2015). Rogues in the ranks of selling organizations: using corporate ethics to manage workplace bullying and job satisfaction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 143–163.
121. Verkuil, B., Atasayi, S., & Molendijk, M. L. (2015a). Workplace bullying and mental health: A meta-analysis on cross-sectional and longitudinal data. PLoS ONE, 10(8), e0135225.
122. Verkuil, B., Atasayi, S., & Molendijk, M. L. (2015b). Workplace bullying and mental health: A meta-analysis on cross-sectional and longitudinal data. PLoS ONE, 10(8), e0135225.
123. Vickers, M. H. (2014). Towards Reducing the Harm: Workplace Bullying as Workplace Corruption-A Critical Review. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 26(2), 95–113.
124. Walker, J. (2017). A quantitative study of the prevalence and impact of workplace bullying amongst first responders. Northcentral Univeresity. Retrieved from
125. Ward, J., & Winstanley, D. (2006). Watching the watch: The UK Fire Service and its impact on sexual minorities in the workplace. Gender, Work and Organization, 13(2), 193–219.
126. Wright, W., & Khatri, N. (2015). Bullying among nursing staff. Health Care Management Review, 40(2), 139–147.
127. Zabrodska, K., & Kveton, P. (2013). Prevalence and Forms of Workplace Bullying Among University Employees. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 25(2), 89–108.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.