Adolescent Pornography: A Narrative Review
University of Miami/Miller School of Medicine, Fielding Graduate University
This narrative review is based on a literature search on PsycINFO and PubMed that involved entering the terms adolescent pornography. Following exclusion criteria, 31 papers could be classified as adolescent pornography studies including research on the prevalence, effects and risk factors for pornography. Most of the studies have been conducted in other countries where the prevalence of adolescent pornography has ranged from 8%-22% for habitual use. The effects of pornography have included legal problems, permissive attitudes and unrealistic expectations regarding sex as well as problematic behaviors including victimization and assault. The predictor or risk variables have included male gender, family dysfunction and sensation-seeking. Like other literature on adolescent problems, this research is limited by primarily deriving from self–report and parent report and by the absence of longitudinal data that might inform whether the data being reported are effects of or risk factors for adolescent pornography and the need for prevention/intervention research.
Keywords: adolescent pornography
How to cite this article:
Tiffany Field. Adolescent Pornography: A Narrative Review. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews, 2020, 3:36. DOI: 10.28933/ijprr-2020-03-0505
1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Adolescent Health Care., Committee opinion no 653 summary: Concerns regarding social media and health issues in adolescents and young adults. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2016 Feb;127(2):414. Doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001306.
2. Azmawati, M.N., Dalila, R., Idris, I.B. & Hod, R. (2017). Bullying and truancy: Predictors to sexual practices among school-going adolescents in Malaysia- A cross-sectional study. The Medical Journal of Malaysia, 72, 298-305.
3. Cornwell, J.K. (2013). Sexting: 21st-Century statutory rape. SMU Law Review, 66, 111-156.
4. Doornwaard, S.M., Bickham, D.S., Rich, M., ter Bogt, T.F. & van den Eijnden, R.J. (2015). Adolescents’ use of sexually explicit internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects. Developmental Psychology, 51, 1476-1488.
5. Doornwaard, S.M., Bickham, D.S., Rich, M., Vanwesenbeeck, I., van den Eijnden, R.J. & ter Bogt, T.F. (2014). Sex-related online behaviors and adolescents’ body and sexual self-perceptions. Pediatrics, 134, 1103-1110.
6. Doornwaard, S.M., van den Eijden, R.J., Baams, L., Vanwesenbeeck, I. & ter Bogt, T.F. (2016). Lower psychological well-being and excessive sexual interest predict symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit internet material among adolescent boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 73-84.
7. Doornwaard, S.M., van den Eijden, R.J., Overbeek, G. & ter Bogt, T.F. (2015). Differential developmental profiles of adolescents using sexually explicit internet material. Journal of Sex Research, 52, 269-281.
8. Doorwaard, S.M., den Boer, F., Vanwesenbeeck, I., van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J., Ter Bogt, T.F.M. & van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M. (2017). Dutch adolescents’ motives, perceptions, and reflections toward sex-related internet use: Results of a web-based focus-group study. Journal of Sex Research, 54, 1038-1050.
9. Efrati, Y. & Gola, M. (2018). Understanding and predicting profiles of compulsive sexual behavior among adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Addiction, 7, 1004-1014.
10. Field, T. (2018). Internet addiction in adolescents: A review. Journal of Addictions and Therapies, 1, 1-11.
11. Field, T. (2018). Cyberbullying: A narrative review. Journal of Addiction Therapy and Research, 2, 10-27.
12. Field, T. (2019). Adolescent sexting: A narrative review. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews.
13. Field, T. (2020). Facebooking by adolescents: A narrative review.
14. Gesser-Edelsburg, A. & Abed Elhadi Arabia, M. (2018). Discourse on exposure to pornography content online between Arab adolescents and parents: Qualitative study on its impact on sexual education and behavior. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2018 Oct 9;20(10):e11667. Doi: 10.2196/11667.
15. Hald, G.M., Kuyper, L., Adam, P.C. & de Wit, J.B. (2013). Does viewing explain doing? Assessing the association between sexually explicit materials and sexual behaviors in a large sample of Dutch adolescents and young adults. Journal of Sex Medicine, 10, 2986-2995.
16. Hokby, S., Hadlaczky, G., Westerlund, J., Wasserman, D., Balazs, J., Germanvicius, A. et al. (2016). Are mental health effects of internet use attributable to the web-based content or perceived consequences of usage? A longitudinal study of European adolescents. JMIR Mental Health, 2016 Jul 13;3(3):e31. Doi:10.2196/mental.5925.
17. Holoyda, B., Landess, J., Sorrentino, R. & Friedman, S.H. (2018). Trouble at teens’ fingertips:Youth sexting and the law. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 36, 170-181.
18. Kastbom, A.A., Sydsjo, G., Bladh, M., Priebe, G. & Svedin, C.G. (2016). Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: A cross-sectional study. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 7, 1-11.
19. Kohut, T. & Stulhofer, A. (2018). The role of religiosity in adolescents’ compulsive pornography use: A longitudinal assessment. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapies, 44, 759-755.
20. Koletic, G. (2017). Longitudinal associations between the use of sexually explicit material and adolescent’s attitudes and behaviors: A narrative review of studies. Journal of Adolescence, 57, 117-133.
21. Koletic, G., Cohen, N., Stulhofer, A. & Kohut, T. (2019). Does asking adolescents about pornography make them use it? A test of the question-behavior effect. Journal of Sex Research, 56, 137-141.
22. Landripet, I., Busko, V. & Stulhofer, A. (2019). Testing the content progression thesis: A longitudinal assessment of pornography use and preference for coercive and violent content among male adolescents. Social Science Research, 81:32-41.
23. Lorang, M.R., McNiel, D.E. & Binder, R.L. (2016). Minors and sexting: Legal implications. Journal of American Psychiatry and Law, 44, 73-81.
24. Ma, C.M. & Shek, D.T. (2013). Consumption of pornographic materials in early adolescents in Hong Kong. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 26, 18-25.
25. Maas, M.K., Bray, B.C. & Noll, J.G. (2019). Online sexual experiences predict subsequent sexual health and victimization outcomes among female adolescents: A latent class analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48, 837-849.
26. Marret, M.J. & Choo, W.Y. (2018). Victimization after meeting with online acquaintances: A cross-sectional survey of adolescents in Malaysia. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33, 2352-2378.
27. Martyniuk, U. & Stulhofer, A. (2018). A longitudinal exploration of the relationship between pornography use and sexual permissiveness in female and male adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 69, 80-87.
28. Mattebo, M., Larsson, M., Tyden, T., Olsson, T. & Haggstrom-Nordin, E. (2012). Hercules and Barbie? Reflections on the influence of pornography and its spread in the media and society groups of adolescents in Sweden. European Journal of Contraceptive and Reproductive Health Care, 17, 40-49.
29. Mattebo, M., Tyden, T., Haggstrom-Nordin, E., Nilsson, K.W. & Larsson, M. (2013). Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden. Journal of Development and Behavior in Pediatrics, 34, 460-468.
30. Mattebo, M., Tyden, T., Haggstrom-Nordin, E., Nilsson, K.W. & Larsson, M. (2018). Pornography consumption and psychosomatic and depressive symptoms among Swedish adolescents: A longitudinal study. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 123, 237-246.
31. Peter, J. & Valkenburg, P.M. (2016). Adolescents and pornography: A review of 20 years of research. Journal of Sex Research, 53, 509-531.
32. Pizzol, D., Bertoldo, A. & Foresta, C. (2016). Adolescents and web porn: A new era of sexuality. International Journal of Adolescent Medical Health, 28, 169-73.
33. Primack, A.J. (2017). Youth sexting and the First Amendment: Rhetoric and child pornography
34. doctrine in the age of translation. New Media & Society, 20, 2917-2933.
35. Rasmussen, K. & Bierman, A. (2016). How does religious attendance shape trajectories of pornography use across adolescence? Journal of Adolescence, 49, 191-203.
36. Shek, D.T. & Ma, C.M. (2016). A six-year longitudinal study of consumption of pornographic materials in Hong Kong. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 29, 12-21.
37. Stulhofer, A., Tafro, A. & Kohut, T. (2019). The dynamics of adolescents’ pornography use and psychological well-being: A six-wave latent growth and latent class modeling approach. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2019 Mar 27. Doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01318-4. [Epub ahead of print].
38. Van Ouystel, J., Ponnet, K. & Walrave, M. (2014). The associations between adolescents’ consumption of pornography and music videos and their sexting behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behaviors and Social Networking, 17,772-778.