Massage Therapy Research Review

Massage Therapy Research Review

Tiffany Field, PhD

University of Miami/Miller School of Medicine and Fielding Graduate University

This narrative review on massage therapy effects involved a literature search for research that was published in the years 2016-2020. The review includes studies on massage therapy effects on preterm pain and growth, newborn hyperbilirubinemia and infant colic. The pediatric literature includes studies on behavior problems including ADHD and aggression and physical conditions including diarrhea, asthma, immune function and pain. The adult studies include massage therapy effects on psychological problems including stress and anxiety and physical conditions including fatigue, sleep disturbances, post-burn scarring, gastrointestinal problems and dementia. The musculoskeletal studies are focused on range of motion, balance, muscle activity, grip strength and performance recovery. The massage for pain literature is the most extensive including pain associated with labor, cesarean delivery, shoulder, neck, low back and upper back pain, arthritis, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, cancer, neuropathy, post-surgery, hospice and aging. The physiological/biochemical measures that have been used include systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, vagal activity, facial blood flow, EEG, cortisol and oxytocin. This section is followed by a discussion on potential underlying mechanisms and methodological limitations. The research continues to have methodological limitations including that the studies cannot be double blinded, they are typically not multivariate studies and they are often biased by their reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the randomized controlled trials included here as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses have concluded that massage therapy is typically effective when it is compared to treatment as usual control groups, More research is needed on massage therapy versus active control groups (e.g. exercise and physical therapy) in randomized, controlled trials.

Keywords: Massage Therapy; Research Review

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Tiffany Field. Massage Therapy Research Review. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews, 2021, 4:45. DOI: 10.28933/ijprr-2020-12-0805


1. Abdul-Sattar Khudhur, Ali, S. & Mirkhan Ahmed, H. (2018). Effect of change in position and back massage on pain perception during first stage of labor. Pain Management Nursing, 19, 288-294.
2. Ahmadidarrehsima, S., Mohammadpourhodki, R., Ebrahimi, H., Keramati, M. & Dianatinasab, M. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 2018 Sep 28;15(40. Pii:/j/jcim.2018.15.issue-4/jcim-2017-0183/jcim-2017-0183.
3. Ahmadipour, S., Mardani, M., Mohsenzadeh, A., Baharvand, P. & Nazeri, M.G. (2019). The lowering of bilirubin levels in full-term newborns by the effect of combined massage therapy and phototherapy practice. American Journal of Perinatology, 2019 Apr 18. Doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1685493. [Epub ahead of print].
4. Akazawa, N., Okawa, N., Kishi, M., Nakatani, K., Nishikawa, K. et al. (2016). Effects of long-term self-massage at the musculotendinous junction on hamstring extensibility, stiffness, stretch tolerance, and structural indices: A randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy in Sport, 21, 38-45.
5. Alimohammad, H.S., Ghasemi, Z., Shahriar, S., Morteza, S. & Arsalan, K. (2018). Effect of foot and hand massage with acute coronary syndrome: A randomized clinical trial. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practices, 31, 126-131.
6. Alvarez, M.J., Fernandez, D., Gomez-Salgado, J., Rodriguez-Gonzalez, D., Roson, M. & Lapena, S. (2017). The effects of massage therapy in hospitalized preterm neonate: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 69, 119-136.
7. Alvarez, M.J., Rodriguez-Gonzalez, D., Roson, M., Lapena, S., Gomez-Salgado, J. et al. (2019). Effects of massage therapy and kinesitherapy to develop hospitalized preterm infant’s anthropometry: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 46, e86-e91.
8. Alves da Silva, T., Striari Schujmann, D., Yamada da Silveira, L.T., Caromano, F.A. & Fu, C. (2017). Effect of therapeutic Swedish massage on anxiety level and vital signs of Intensive Care Unit patients. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 21, 565-568.
9. Ault, P., Plaza, A. & Paratz, J. (2018). Scar massage for hypertrophic burns scarring- A systematic review. Burns, 44, 24-38.
10. Ayik, C. & Ozden, D. (2018). The effects of preoperative aromatherapy massage on anxiety and sleep quality of colorectal surgery patients: A randomized controlled study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 36, 93-99.
11. Backus, D., Manella, C., Bender, A. & Sweatman, M. (2016). Impact of massage therapy on fatique, pain, and spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork, 9, 4-13.
12. Bahrami, T., Rejeh, N., Heravi-Karimool, M., Vaismoradi, M., Tadrisi, S.D. & Sieloff, C.L. (2018). Aromatherapy massage versus reflexology on female elderly with acute coronary syndrome. Nurses in Critical Care, 23, 229-236.
13. Bahrami, T., Rejeh, N., Heravi-Karimool, M., Vaismoradi, M., Tadrisi, S.D. & Sieloff, C.L. (2017). Effect of aromatherapy massage on anxiety, depression, and physiologic parameters in older patients with the acute coronary syndrome: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Nursing Practices, 2017 Dec;23(6). Doi: 10.1111/ijn. 12601. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
14. Baniasadi, H., Hosseini, S.S., Abdollahyar, A. & Sheikhbardsiri, H. (2019). Effect of massage on behavioral responses of preterm infants in an educational hospital in Iran. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21, 1-9.
15. Boguszewski, D., Krupinski, M. & Bialoszewski, D. (2017). Assessment of the effect of Swedish massage and acupressure in rehabilitation of patients with low back pain. Preliminary report. Ortopedia, Traumatologica & Rehabilitacja, 19, 513-521.
16. Boitor, M., Martorella, G., Maheu, C., Laizner, A.M. & Gelinas, C. (2018). Effects of massage in reducing the pain and anxiety of the cardiac surgery critically ill- A randomized controlled trial. Pain Medicine, 2018 Mar 30. Doi: 10.1093/pm/pny055. [Epub ahead of print].
17. Boyd, C., Crawford, C., Paat, C.F., Price, A., Xenakis, L. et al. (2016). The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations- A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: Part II, cancer pain populations. Pain Medicine, 17, 1553-1568.
18. Buttagat, V., Narktro, T., Onsrira, K. & Pobsamai, C. (2016). Short-term effects of traditional Thai massage on electromyogram. Muscle tension and pain among patients with upper back pain associated with myofascial trigger points. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 28, 8-12.
19. Cabak, A., Kotnia, P., Banasinski, M., Obminski, Z. & Tomaszewski, W. (2016). The concept of “chair massage” in the workplace as prevention of musculoskeletal overload and pain. Orthopedia, traumatologia, and Rehabilitacja, 18, 279-288.
20. Cankaya, A. & Saritas, S. (2018). Effect of classic foot massage on vital signs, pain, and nausea/vomiting symptoms after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy, and Percutaneous Techniques, 2018 Oct 11. Doi: !0.1097/SLE.0000000000000586. [Epub ahead of print].
21. Capobianco, R.A., Mazzo, M.M. & Enoka, R.M. (2019). Self-massage prior to stretching improves flexibility in young and middle-aged adults. Journal of Sports Science, 37, 1543-1550.
22. Celenay, S.T., Kaya, D.O. & Akbayrak, T. (2016). Cervical and scapulothoracic stabilization exercises with and without connective tissue massage for chronic mechanical neck pain: A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Manual Therapy, 21, 144-150.
23. Cevik, K., Cetinkaya, A., Yigit Gokbel, K., Menekse, B., Saza, S. et al. (2018). The effect of abdominal massage on constipation in the elderly resting in rest homes. Gastroenterology Nursing, 41, 396-402.
24. Chen, P.J., Chou, C.C., Yang, L., Tsai, Y.L., Chang, Y.C. & Liaw, J.J. (2017). Effects of aromatherapy massage on pregnant women’s stress and immune function: A longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23, 778-786.
25. Chen, S.C., Yu, B.Y., J., Suen, L.K., Yu, J., Ho, F.Y. et al. (2019). Massage therapy for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 42, 389-399.
26. Cheraghbeigi, N., Modarresi, M., Rezaei, M. & Khatony, A. (2019). Comparig the effects of massage and aromatherapy massage with lavender oil on sleep quality of cardiac patients: A randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practice, 35, 253-258.
27. Chik, Y.M., Ip, W.Y. & Choi, K.C. (2017). The effect of upper limb massage on infants’ venipuncture pain. Pain Management Nursing, 18, 50-57.
28. Choi, H., Kim, S.J., Oh, J., Lee, M.N., Kim, S. et al. (2016). The effects of massage therapy on physical growth and gastrointestinal function in premature infants: A pilot study. Journal of Child Health Care, 20, 394-404.
29. Cottingham, P., Adams, J., Vempati, R., Dunn, J. & Sibbritt, D. (2018). The characteristics, experiences and perceptions of registered massage therapists in New Zealand: Results from a national survey of practitioners. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork, 11, 11-24.
30. Crawford, C., Boyd, C., Paat, C.F., Price, A., Xenakis, L. et al. (2016). The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations- A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: Part I, patients experiencing pain in the general population. Pain Medicine, 17, 1353-1375.
31. Daneau, C., Cantin, V. & Descarreaux, M. (2019). Effect of massage on clinical and physiological variables during muscle fatigue task in participants with chronic low back pain: A crossover study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics, 42, 55-65.
32. Darabpour, S., Kheirkhah, M. & Ghasemi, E. (2016). Effects of Swedish massage on the improvement of mood disorders in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 2016 Aug 10;18(11):e25461. Doi: 10.5812/ircmj.25461. eCollection.
33. Dehghan, M., Fatehi Poor, A., Mehdipoor, R. & Ahmadinejad, M. (2018). Does abdominal massage improve gastrointestinal functions of intensive care patients with an endotracheal tube?: A randomized clinical trial. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practice, 30, 122-128.
34. Diego, M., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Deeds, O., Ascencio, A. & Begert, G. (2007). Preterm Infant Massage Elicits Consistent Increases in Vagal Activity and Gastric Motility That Are Associated With Greater Weight Gain. Acta Pediatrica, 96, 1588-1591.
35. Domingo, A.R., Diek, M., Goble, K.M., Maluf, K.S., Goble, D.J. et al. (2017). Short-duration therapeutic massage reduces postural upper trapezius muscle activity. Neuroport, 18, 108-110.
36. Efe Arsian, D., Kutluturkan, S. & Korkmaz, M. (2018). The effect of aromatherapy massage on knee pain and functional status in participants with osteoarthritis. Pain Management Nursing, 2018 Mar 5. Pii: S1524-9042(16)30228-4. Doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2017.12.001. [Epub ahead of print].
37. Eguchi, E., Funakubo, N., Tomooka, K., Ohira, T., Ogino, K. & Tanigawa, T. (2016). The effects of aroma foot massage on blood pressure and anxiety in Japanese community-dwelling men and women: A crossover randomized controlled trial. PLoS One, 2016 Mar 24;11(3):e0151712. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151712. eCollection.
38. Elmoneim, M., Mohamed, A. Awad, A., El-Hawary, A. Salem, N. El helaly, R. Nasef, N. & Abdel-Hady, H. (2020).Effect of tactile/kinesthetic massage therapy on growth and body composition of preterm infants. European Journal of Pediatrics.
39. Farber, K. & Wieland, L.S. (2016). Massage for low back pain. Explore (NY), 12, 215-217.
40. Fazeli, M.S., Pourrahmat, M.M., Liu, M., Guan, L. & Collet, J.P. (2016).The effect of head massage on the regulation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system: A pilot randomized crossover trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22, 75-80.
41. Field, T (2019). Pediatric Massage Therapy Research: A Narrative Review. Children, 6, 1-12.
42. Field, T. (2016). Knee osteoarthritis pain in the elderly can be reduced by massage therapy, yoga and tai chi: A review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practices, 22, 87-92.
43. Field, T. (2016). Massage Therapy Research Review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 24:19-31.
44. Field, T., Diego, M., & Hernandez-Reif, M. (2010). Moderate Pressure is Essential for Massage Therapy Effects. International Journal of Neuroscience, 120, 381-385.
45. Field, T., Diego, M., Cullen, C., Hernandez-Reif, M., Sunshine, W., & Douglas, S. (2002). Fibromyalgia Pain and Substance P Decrease and Sleep Improves After Massage Therapy. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 8, 72-76.
46. Field, T., Diego, M., Delgado, J., Garcia, D., & Funk, C.G., (2013). Rheumatoid Arthritis in Upper Limbs Benefits from Moderate Pressure Massage Therapy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 19, 101-3.
47. Field,T., Diego, M.,Gonzalez, G. & Funk, C.G.(2014). Neck Arthritis Pain is Reduced and Range of Motion is Increased by Massage Therapy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 20, 219-223.
48. Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Dieter, J., Kumar, A., Schanberg, S. & Kuhn, C. (2008). Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1) Increase in Preterm Infants
Following Massage Therapy. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 463-466.
49. Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., Yando, R. & Bendell, D. (2003). Pregnancy Anxiety and Comorbid Depression and Anger Effects on the Fetus and Neonate. Depression and Anxiety, 17, 140-151.
50. Field, T., Gonzalez, G., Diego, M., & Funk, C.G. (2015). Knee Arthritis Pain is Reduced and Range of Motion Increased Following Massage Therapy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 21, 233-237.
51. Field, T., Gonzalez, G., Diego,M. & Mindell, J. (2016).Mothers Massaging Their Newborns With Lotion versus No Lotion Enhances Mothers’ and Newborns’ Sleep. Infant Behavior and Development, 45:31-37.
52. Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Diego, M., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2005). Cortisol Decreases and Serotonin and Dopamine Increase Following Massage Therapy. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115, 1397-1413.
53. Field, T., Sauvageau, N., Gonzalez, G. & Diego, M. (2019). Hip pain is reduced by massage therapy.
54. Field, T., Schanberg, S. M., Scafidi, F., Bauer, C. R., Vega Lahr, N., Garcia, R., Nystrom, J., & Kuhn, C. M. (1986). Tactile/Kinesthetic Stimulation Effects on Preterm Neonates. Pediatrics, 77, 654 658.
55. Fung, J.K.K. & Tsang, H.W. (2018). Management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia by an aroma-massage with acupressure treatment protocol: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27, 1812-1825.
56. Gao, L., Jia, C. & Huang, H. (2018). Paediatric massage for treatment of acute diarrhea in children: A meta-analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018 Sep 18;18(1):257. Doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2324-4.
57. Garg, B.D., Kabra, N.S. & Balasubramanian, H. (2019). Role of massage therapy on reduction of neonatal hyberbilirubinemia in term and preterm neonates: A review of clinical trials. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 32, 301-309.
58. Gensic, M.E., Smith, B.R. & LaBarbera, D.M. (2017). The effects of effleurage hand massage on anxiety and pain in patients undergoing chemotherapy. JAAPA, 30, 36-38.
59. Givi, M., Sadeghi, M., Garakyaraghi, M., Eshghinezhad, A., Moeni, M. & Ghasempour, Z. (2018). Long-term effect of massage therapy on blood pressure in prehypertensive women. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 2018 Apr 3;7:54. Doi: 10.4103/jehp_88_16. eCollection.
60. Gok Metin, Z. & Ozdemir, L. (2016). The effects of aromatherapy massage and reflexology on pain and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Pain Management Nursing, 17, 140-149.
61. Gok Metin, Z., Arikan Donmez, A., Izgu, N., Ozdemir, L. & Arsian, I.E. (2017). Aromatherapy massage for neuropathic pain and quality of life in diabetic patients. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49, 379-388.
62. Goncalves, L.L., Voos, M.C., de Almeida, M.H.M. & Caromano, F.A. (2017). Massage and storytelling reduce and improve academic performance in children attending elementary school. Occupational Therapy International, 2017 Jan 19;2017:5087145. Doi: 10.1155/2017/5087145.
63. Grafton-Clarke, C., Grace, L., Roberts, N. & Harky, A. (2018). Can postoperative massage therapy reduce pain and anxiety in cardiac surgery patients? Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, 2018 Dec 1. Doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivy310. [Epub ahead of print].
64. Guo, J., Li, L., Gong, Y., Zhu, R., Xu, J. et al. (2017). Massage alleviates delayed onset muscle soreness after strenuous exercise: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 2017 Sept 27; 8:747. Doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00747. eCollection 2017.
65. Hernandez-Reif, M., Field, T., Largie, S., Diego, M., Manigat, N., Seoanes, M., & Bornstein, J. (2005). Cerebral Palsy Symptoms in Children Decreased Following Massage Therapy. Early Child Development and Care, 175, 445-456.
66. Hoffman, M.D., Badoski, N., Chin, J. & Stuempfle, K.J. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of massage and pneumatic compression for ultramarathon recovery. The Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 46, 320-326.
67. Hohl, R., Deslandes, A.C. & Marmora, C.H.C. (2019). The effect of single-dose massage session on autonomic activity, mood, and affective responses in major depressive disorder. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 2019 Feb 27:898010119832493. Doi: 10.1177/0898010119832493. [Epub ahead of print].
68. Hsu, C.H., Chi, C.C., Chen, P.S., Wang, S.H., Tung, T.H. et al. (2019). The effects of aromatherapy massage on improvement of anxiety among patients receiving palliative care: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Mar;98(9):e14720. Doi: 10.1097/MD.00000000000014720.
69. Hsu, W.C., Guo, S.E. & Chang, C.H. (2019). Back massage intervention for improving health and sleep quality among intensive care unit patients. Nursing in Critical Care, 2019 Apr 3. Doi: 10.1111/nicc. 12428. [Epub ahead of print].
70. Iwamoto, K., Mizukami, M., Asakawa, Y., Yoshio, M., Ogaki, R. et al. (2016). Effects of friction massage of the popliteal fossa on dynamic changes in muscle oxygenation and ankle flexibility. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28, 2713-2716.
71. Jabraeile, M., Rasooly, A.S., Farshi, M.R. & Malakouti, J. (2016). Effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Nigerian Medical Journal, 57, 160-163.
72. Jagan, S., Park, T. & Papathanassoglou, E. (2019). Effects of massage on outcomes of adult intensive care unit patients: A systematic review. Nursing Critical Care, 2019 Mar 4. Doi: 10.1111/nicc.12417. [Epub ahead of print].
73. Jahdi, F., Mehrabadi, M., Mortazavi, F. & Haghani, H. (2016). The effect of slow-stroke back massage on the anxiety levels of Iranian women on the first postpartum day. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 2016 Jun 7; 18(8):e34270. eCollection 2016 Aug.
74. Joseph, L.H., Hancharoenkul, B., Sitilertpisan, P., Pirunsan, U. & Paungmali, A. (2018). Effects of massage as a combination therapy with lumbopelvic stability exercises as compared to standard massage therapy in low back pain: A randomized cross-over study. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork, 11, 16-22.
75. Jung, G.S., Choi, I.R., Kang, H.Y. & Choi, E.Y. (2017). Effects of meridian acupressure massage on body composition, edema, stress, and fatigue in postpartum women. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 23, 787-793.
76. Kao, Y.H., Huang, Y.C., Chung, U.L., Hsu, W.N., Tang, Y.T. et al. (2017). Comparisons for effectiveness of Aromatherapy and acupressure massage on quality of life in career women: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 23, 451-460.
77. Kapoor, Y. & Orr, R. (2017). Effect of therapeutic massage on pain in patients with dementia. Dementia (London), 16, 119-125.
78. Kennedy, A.B., Patil, N. & Trilk, J.L. (2018). ‘Recover quicker, train harder, and increase flexibility’: Massage therapy for elite paracyclists, a mixed-methods study. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medical, 2018 Jan 26;4(1):e000319. Doi: 10. 1136/bmjsem-2017-000319.
79. Kim, D.W., Lee, D.W., Schreiber, J., Im, C.H. & Kim, H. (2016). Integrative evaluation of automated massage combined with thermotherapy: Physical, physiological, and psychological viewpoints. Biomed Research International, 2016;2016:2826905. Doi: 10.1155/2016/2826905. Epub 2016.
80. Kim, J.H., Hwang, U.J., Jung, S.H., Gwak, G.T. & Kwon, O.Y. (2019). Immediate improvements of supination range of motion and strength following pronator teres muscle friction massage: A clinical trial comparing people with and without supination limited motion. Journal of Manual Manipulation Therapies, 27, 109-114.
81. Kinkhead, B., Schettler, P.J., Larson, E.R., Carroll, D., Sharenko, M. et al. (2018). Massage therapy decreases cancer-related fatigue: Results from a randomized early phase trial. Cancer, 124, 546-554.
82. Komori, T., Kageyama, M., Tamura, Y., Tateishi, Y. & Iwasa, T. (2018). Anti-stress effects of simplified aroma hand massage. Mental Illness, 2018 Jun 18;10(1):7619. Doi: 10.4081/mi.2018.7619. eCollection.
83. Koras, K. & Karabulut, N. (2018). The effect of foot massage on postoperative pain and anxiety levels in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery: A randomized controlled experimental study. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, 2018 Nov 20. Pii: S1089-9472(18)30298-3. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpan.2018.07.006. [Epub ahead of print].
84. Korkmaz, G. & Esenay, F. (2020). Effects of Massage Therapy on Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia in Newborns Who Receive Phototherapy.J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2020 49(1):91-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2019.11.004.
85. Koyama, T., Kobayashi, K., Hama, T., Murakami, K. & Ogawa, R. (2016). Standardized scalp massage results in increased hair thickness by inducing stretching forces to dermal papilla cells in the subcutaneous tissue. Eplasty, 2016 Jan 25; 16:e8. eCollection 2016.
86. Li, Q., Becker, B., Wernicke, J., Chen, Y., Zhang, Y. et al. (2019). Foot massage evokes oxytocin release and activation of orbitofrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 101, 193-203.
87. Li, X., Zhong, Q. & Tang, L. (2016). A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of using oil massage to promote infant growth. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 31, e313-322.
88. Liao, I.C., Chen, S.L., Wang, M.Y. & Tsai, P.S. (2016). Effects of massage on blood pressure in patients with hypertension and prehypertension: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 31, 73-83.
89. Lopez, G., Liu, W., Milbury, K., Spelman, A., Wei, Q. et al. (2017). The effects of oncology massage on symptom self-report for cancer patients and their caregivers. Supportive Care in Cancer, 25, 3645-3650.
90. Lu, W.P., Tsai, W.H., Lin, L.Y., Hong, R.B. & Hwang, Y.S. (2018). The beneficial effects of massage on motor development and sensory processing in young children with developmentaldelay: A randomized control trial study. Developmental Rehabilitation, 2018 Oct 30:1-9. Doi: 10.1080/17518423.2018. 1537317. [Epub ahead of print].
91. MacSween, A., Lorrimer, S., van Schaik, P., Holmes, M. & van Wersch, A. (2018). A randomized crossover trial comparing Thai and Swedish massage for fatigue and depleted energy. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 22, 817-828.
92. Margenfeld, F., Klocke, C. & Joos, S. (2019). Manual massage for persons living with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal Nursing Studies, 2019 Jan 4. Pii: S0020-7489(18)30272-4. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.12.012. [Epub ahead of print].
93. Massingill, J., Jorgensen, C., Dolata, J. & Sehgal, A.R. (2018). Myofascial massage for chronic pain and decreased upper extremity mobility after breast cancer surgery. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork, 11, 4-9.
94. Mccubbin, T., Kempe, K.L. & Beck, A. (2017). Complementary and alternative medicine in an integrated health care delivery system: Users of chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage services. The Permanente Journal, 21, 16-172.
95. McFeeters,S., Pront, L., Cuthbertson, L. & King, L. (2016). Massage, a complementary therapy effectively promoting the health and well-being of older people in residential care settings: A review of the literature. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 11, 266-283.
96. Mei, L., Miao, X., Chen, H., Huang, X. & Zheng, G. (2017). Effectiveness of Chinese hand massage on anxiety among patients awaiting coronary angiography: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 32, 196-203.
97. Miccio, R.S. & Cowen, V.S. (2018). A regional analysis of U.S. reimbursement guidelines for massage therapy. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork, 11, 11-16.
98. Mindell, J.A., Lee, C.I., Leichman, E.S. & Rotella, K.N. (2018). Massage-based bedtime routine: Impact on sleep and mood in infants and mothers. Sleep Medicine, 41, 51-57.
99. Mohamadi, M., Piroozi, S., Rashidi, I. & Hosseininifard, S. (2017). Friction massage versus kinesiotaping for short-term management of latent trigger points in the upper trapezius: A randomized controlled trial. Chiropractic Manual Therapy, 2017 Sep 12;25:25. Doi: 10.1186/s12998-017-0156-9.
100. Molouki, A., Hosseini, S.M., Rustaee, M. & Tabatabaee, S.M. (2016). The immediate effects of manual massage of forearm on power-grip strength and endurance in healthy young men. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15, 112-120.
101. Momenfar, F., Abdi, A., Salari, N., Soroush, A. & Hemmatpour, B. (2018). Studying the effect of abdominal massage on the gastric residual volume in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Journal of Intensive Care, 2018 Aug 10;6:47. Doi: 10.1186/s40560-018-0317-5. eCollection.
102. Montibeler, J., Domingos, T.D.S., Braga, E.M., Gnatta, J.R., Kurebayashi, L.F.S. & Kurebayashi, A.K. (2018). Effectiveness of aromatherapy massage on the stress of the surgical center nursing team: A pilot study. Revisita da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 2018 Aug 23;52:03348.
103. Najafi Ghezeljeh, T. & Mohaddes Ardebili, F. (2018). Cpmparing the effect of patients preferred music and Swedish massage on anticipatory anxiety in patients with burn injury: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practices, 32, 55-60.
104. Nakano, H., Kodama, T., Ueda, T., Mori, I., Tani, T. & Murata, S. (2019). Effect of hand and foot massage therapy on psychological factors and EEG activity in elderly people requiring long-term care: A randomized cross-over study. Brian Science, 2019 Mar 4;9(3). Pii: E54. Doi: 10.3390/brainsci9030054.
105. Naruse, S.M., Cornelissen, P.L. & Moss, M. (2018). ‘To give is better than to receive?’ Couples massage significantly benefits both partners’ wellbeing. Journal of Health Psychology, 2018 Mar 1:1359105318763502. Doi: 10. 1177/1359105318763502. [Epub ahead of print].
106. Nedelec, B., Couture, M.A., Calva, V., Poulin, C., Chouinard, A. et al. (2019). Randomized controlled trial of the immediate and long-term effect of massage on adult postburn scar. Burns, 45, 128-139.
107. Nelson, N.L. & Churilla, J.R. (2017). Massage therapy for pain and function in patients with arthritis: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96, 665-672.
108. Niemi, A.K. (2017). Review of randomized controlled trials of massage in preterm infants. Children(Basel), 2017 Apr 3;4(4). Pii: E21. Doi: 10.3390/children4040021.
109. Nishimura, H., Okuda, I., Kunizawa, N., Inoue, T., Nakajima, Y. et al. (2017). Analysis of morphological changes after facial massage by a novel approach using three-dimensional computed tomography. Skin Research and Technology, 23, 369-375.
110. Nunes, G.S., Bender, P.U., de Menezes, F.S., Yamashitafuji, I., Vargas, V.Z. et al. (2016). Massage therapy decreases pain and perceived fatique after long-distance Ironman triatholon: A randomized trial. Journal of Physiotherapy, 62, 83-87.
111. Ozlu, Z.K. & Bilican, P. (2017). Effects of aromatherapy massage on the sleep quality and physiological parameters of patients in a surgical intensive care unit. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14, 83-88.
112. Parmar, R., Brewer, B.B. & Szalacha, L.A. (2018). Foot massage, touch, and presence in decreasing anxiety during a magnetic resonance imaging: A feasibility study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 24, 268-275.
113. Pasyar, N., Rambod, M. & Kahkhaee, F.R. (2018). The effect of foot massage on pain intensity and anxiety in patients having undergone a tibial shaft fracture surgery: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Orthopedic Trauma, 32, e482-e486.
114. Pedersen, K. & Bjorkhem-Bergman, L. (2018). Tactile massage reduces rescue doses for pain and anxiety: An observational study. BMJ Support for Palliative Care, 8, 30-33.
115. Perlman, A., Fogerite, S.G., Glass, O., Bechard, E., Ali, A. et al. (2019). Efficacy and safety of massage for osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 34,379-386.
116. Polastri, M., Clini, E.M., Nava, S. & Ambrosino, N. (2019). Manual massage therapy for patients with COPD: A scoping review. Medicina (Kaunas), 2019 May 17;55(5).pii: E151. Doi: 10.3390/medicina55050151.
117. Poppendieck, W., Wegmann, M., Ferrauti, A., Kellmann, M., Pfeiffer, M. et al. (2016). Massage and performance recovery: A meta-analytical review. Sports Medicine, 46, 183-204.
118. Porreca, A., Parolin, M., Bozza, G., Freato, S. & Simonelli, A. (2017). Infant massage and quality of early mother-infant interactions: Are there assocaitions with maternal psychological wellbeing, marital quality, and social support? Frontiers in Psychology, 2017 Jan 17;7:2049. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02049. eCollection 2017.
119. Rahmani, A., Naseri, M., Salaree, M.M. & Nehrir, B. (2016). Comparing the effect of foot reflexology massage, foot bath and their combination on quality of sleep in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Journal of Caring Sciences, 5, 299-306.
120. Ranjibaran, M., Khorsandi, M., Matourypour, P. & Shamsi, M. (2017). Effect of massage therapy on labor pain reduction in primiparous women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials in Iran. Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research, 22, 257-261.
121. Rapaport, M.H., Schettler, P., Larson, E.R., Edwards, S.A., Dunlop, B.W. et al. (2016). Acute Swedish massage monotherapy successfully remediates symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder: A proof-of-concept, randomized controlled study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 77, e883-891.
122. Rasool, F., Memon, A.R., Kiyani, M.M. & Sajjad, A.G. (2017). The effect of deep cross friction massage on spasticity of children with cerebral palsy: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 67, 87-91.
123. Rodondi, P.Y., Dubois, J., Bill, A.S., Koutaissoff, D., Ros, J. et al. (2018). Primary care physician’ attitude and reported prescribing behavior for chronic low back pain: An Exploratory cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 2018 Sept 27; 13(9):e0204613. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204613. eCollection.
124. Rodriguez-Marsilla, J., Gonzalez-Sanchez, B., Torres-Piles, S., Martin, J.G., Jimenez-Palomares, M. et al. (2017). Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: A systematic review. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 2017 Jun 8;25:e2903. Doi: 10.1590/1518-8345.1774.2903
125. Ruan, D., Li, J., Liu, J., Li, D., Ji, N. et al. (2019). Acupoint massage can effectively promote recovery of gastrointestinal function after gynecologic laparoscopy. Journal of Investigative Surgery, 2019 Mar 27:105. Doi: 10.1080/08941939. 2019.1577515. [Epub ahead of print].
126. Saatsaz, S., Rezaei, R., Alipour, A. & Beheshti, Z. (2016). Massage as adjuvant therapy in the management of post-caesarean pain and anxiety: A randomized clinical trial. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practices, 24, 92-98.
127. Sable, A., Sivabalan, T. & Shetti, A.N. (2017). Effectiveness of back massage on sleep pattern among patients with congestive cardiac failure. Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research, 22, 359-362.
128. Sankaran, R., Kamath, R., Nambiar, V. & Kumar, A. (2018). A prospective study on the effects of Ayurvedic massage in post-stroke patients. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 2018 Dec 19. Pii: S0975-9476(17)30478-3. Doi: 10.1016/j.jaim.2018.02.137.
129. Schaub, C., Von Gunten, A., Morin, D., Wild, P., Gomez, P., & Popp, J. (2018). The effects of hand massage on stress and agitation among people with dementia in a hospital setting: A pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.43, 319-332.
130. Seifert,G., Kanitz, J.L., Rihs, C., Krause, I., Witt, K. et al. (2018). Rhythmical massage improves autonomic nervous system function: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 16, 172-177.
131. Sheidaei, A., Abadi, A., Zayeri, F., Nahidi, F., Gazerani, N. et al. (2016). The effectiveness of massage therapy in the treatment of infantile colic symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2016 Apr 9;30:351. eCollection 2016.
132. Simonelli, M.C., Doyle, L.T., Columbia, M., Wells, P.D., Benson, K.V. et al. (2018). Effects of connective tissue massage on pain in primiparous women after cesarean birth. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 47, 591-601.
133. Siverdale, N., Wherry, M. & Roodhouse, A. (2019). Massage and reflexology for post-operative cancer cystectomy patients: Evaluation of a pilot service. Complementary and reflexology for post-operative cancer cystectomy patients: Evaluation of a pilot service. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practices, 34, 109-112.
134. Smith, C.A., Levett, K.M., Collins, C.T., Dahlen, H.G., Ee, C.C. & Suganuma, M. (2018). Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2018 Mar 28;3:CD009290. Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009290.
135. Staveski, S.L., Boulanger, K., Erman, L., Lin, L., Almgren, C. et al. (2018). The impact of massage and reading on children’s pain and anxiety after cardiovascular surgery: A pilot study. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 19, 725-732.
136. Stefansson, S.H., Brandsson, S., Langberg, H. & Arnason, A. (2019). Using pressure massage for Achilles tendinopathy: A single-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing a novel treatment versus an eccentric exercise protocol. Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019 Mar 21; 7(3):2325967119834284. Doi: 10.1177/2325967119834282.
137. Sundberg, T., Cramer, H., Sibbritt, D., Adams, J. & Lauche, R. (2017). Prevalence, patterns and predictors of massage practitioner utilization: Results of a US nationally representative survey. Musculoskeletal Science & Practice, 32, 31-37.
138. Taheri, P.A., Goudarzi, Z., Shariat, M., Nariman, S. & Matin, E.N. (2018). The effect of a short course of moderate-pressure sunflower oil massage on the weight gain velocity and length of NICU stay in preterm infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 50, 22-27.
139. Tanaka, R., Umehara, T., Kawabata, Y. & Sakuda, T. (2018). Effect of continuous compression stimulation on pressure-pain threshold and muscle spasms in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized trial. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 41, 315-322.
140. Turan, N. & Ast, T.A. (2016). The effect of abdominal massage on constipation and quality of life. Gastroenterology Nursing, 39, 48-59.
141. Tutun Yumin, E., Simsek, T.T., Sertel, M., Ankarali, H. & Yumin, M. (2017). The effect of foot plantar massage on balance and functional reach in patients with type II diabetes. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 33, 115-123.
142. Unal, K.S. & Balci Akpinar, R. (2016). The effect of foot reflexology and back massage on hemodialysis patients’ fatigue and sleep quality. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 24, 139-144.
143. Unalmis Erdogan, S., Yanikkerem, E. & Goker, A. (2017). Effects of low back massage on perceived birth pain and satisfaction. Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practice, 28, 169-175.
144. Uysal, N., Kuluturkan, S. & Ugur, I. (2017). Effects of foot massage applied in two different methods on symptom control in colorectal cancer patients: Randomised control trial. International Journal of Nursing Practices, 2017 Jun;23(3). Doi: 10.1111/ijn.12532. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
145. Vagedes, J., Fazeli, A., Boening, A., Helmert, E., Berger, B. & Martin, D. (2019). Efficacy of rhythmical massage in comparison to heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with dysmenorrhea- A randomized, controlled trial. Complementary Therapeutic Medicine, 42, 438-444.
146. Weekly, T., Riley, B., Wichman, C., Tibbits, M. & Weaver, M. (2018). Impact of massage therapy intervention for palliative care patients and their family caregivers. Journal of Palliative Care, 2018 Nov 22: 825859718810727. Doi: 10. 1177/0825859718810727.
147. Wiecek, M., Szymura, J., MacieJczyk, M., Szygula, Z., Cempla, J. et al. (2018). Energy expenditure for massage therapists during performing selected classical massage techniques. International Journal of Occupational Medicine & Environmental Health, 31, 677-684.
148. Wikstrom, E.A., Song, K., Lea, A. & Brown, N. (2017). Comparative effectiveness of plantar-massage techniques on postural control in those with chronic ankle instability. Journal of Athletic Training, 52, 629-635.
149. Wu, J., Yang, X.W. & Zhang, M. (2017). Massage therapy in children with asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017;2017:5620568. Doi: 10. 1155/2017/5620568.
150. Xue, M., Fan, L., Ge, L.N., Zhang, Y., Ge, J.L., Gu, J. et al. (2016). Postoperative foot massage for patients after caesarean delivery. Zeitschrift fur Gurburtshilfe und. Neonatologie, 220, 173-178.
151. Yang, Y.P., Lee, F.P., Chao, H.C., Hsu, F.Y. & Wang, J.J. (2016). Comparing the effects of cognitive stimulation, reminiscence, and aroma-massage on agitation and depressive mood in people with dementia. Journal of American Medical Directors Association, 17, 719-724.
152. Yang, Y.P., Wang, C.J. & Wang, J.J. (2016). Effect of aromatherapy massage on agitation and depressive mood in individuals with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42, 38-46.
153. Yeun, Y.R. (2017). Effectiveness of massage therapy on the range of motion of the shoulder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 29, 365—369.
154. Yi, R., Bratchenko, W.W. & Tan, V. (2018). Deep friction massage versus steroid injection in the treatment of lateral Epicondylitis. Hand (NY), 13, 56-59.
155. Zargham-Boroujeni, A., Elsagh, A. & Mohammadizadeh, M. (2017). The effects of massage and breastfeeding on response to venipuncture pain among hospitalized neonates. Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research, 22, 308-312.
156. Zhang, M., Wang, L., Wang, Y. & Tang, J. (2018). The influence of massage on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 2018 Apr 9:1-6. Doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018. 1455183. [Epub ahead of print].
157. Zhang, X. & Wang, J. (2019). Massage intervention for preterm infants by their mothers: A randomized controlled trial. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 2019 Apr;24(2):e12238. Doi: 10.1111/jspn. 12238.
158. Zink, K.K., Chini, B., Cowens, J., Kremer, L. & Lin, L. (2019). Improving clinical outcomes and quality of life with massage therapy in youth and young adults with cystic fibrosis: A pilot study. International Journal of Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork, 12, 4-15.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details)

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.