Research Article of Internal Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation
The biceps brachii role in the stabilization of the cross punch
Marco Prenassi1 , Renato D. Donato2,3 , Simona Mrakic-Sposta4* , Lorenzo Rossi5, Luca Andreoletti3, Alessandra Vezzoli4, and Sara Marceglia6
1UO Neurofisiopatologia, Fondazione IRRCS Ca’Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; 2Heracles Gymnasium SSD s.r.l. Fortitudo ETS, Milan, Italy; 3Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute,Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; 4Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, IFC –CNR, Milan, Italy; 5Newronika s.r.l.;6Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy
Purpose: starting from an injury background, we assumed that the biceps brachii’s activations could have an important role in upper limbs injury. In this work we analyzed whether different activations of the biceps brachii impact on the power transfer of the punch and how boxers of different skill levels activate the biceps brachii when deliver a punch according to their skill level and efficacy.
Methods: we enrolled, basing on official rankings, 23 skilled (n=6) and unskilled boxers. Subjects were instructed to perform three cross punches directed to a fixed elastic target triggered by the coach whistling, and were monitored through a surface electromyography sensor (EMG) on the biceps brachii to estimate the muscular activation during the performance, and through an accelerometer placed inside the elastic impact target to estimate the impact energy. We analyzed the oscillatory content of the EMG signal in order to assess the muscular activation between skilled and unskilled boxers, and between weak and strong punches.
Results: both skilled and unskilled boxers threw strong, medium and weak strikes. Skilled boxers performed better than unskilled boxers (47% vs 25% in the “strong punch” category).The EMG analysis revealed a significant increase of lower and higher frequencies (2-4 Hz and 15-17 Hz) and a decrease on the medium frequencies (7-9 Hz) in the skilled boxers compared to the unskilled boxers in strong punches. Weak punches had a similar activation patterns in the two groups.
Conclusions: our results support the hypothesis that skilled boxers adapt their activation pattern of the biceps to better stabilize the punch delivery (and thus increasing the transfer of force).
Keywords: Boxing; Biceps brachii; EMG analysis; Punch; Shoulder injury; Tendon detachment
How to cite this article:
Marco Prenassi, Renato D. Donato, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Lorenzo Rossi, Luca Andreoletti, Alessandra Vezzoli, and Sara Marceglia. The biceps brachii role in the stabilization of the cross punch. Internal Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2020; 3:13. DOI: 10.28933/ijsmr-2020-10-2105
1. Förstl H, Haass C, Hemmer B, Meyer B, Halle M. Boxing-acute complications and late sequelae: from concussion to dementia. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010 Nov;107(47):835-9. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2010.0835. Epub 2010 Nov 26. Review. PubMed PMID: 21173899; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3003467
2. McCrory P, Zazryn T, Cameron P. The evidence for chronic traumatic encephalopathy in boxing. Sports Med. 2007;37(6):467-76. Review. PubMed PMID:17503873
3. Blennow K, Popa C, Rasulzada A, Minthon L, Wallin A, Zetterberg H. There is a strong evidence that professional boxing results in chronic brain damage. The more head punches during a boxer’s career, the bigger is the risk. Lakartidningen. 2005 Sep 5-11;102(36):2468-70, 2472-5. Review. Swedish. PubMed PMID: 16196432.
4. Ribeiro LM, Botton MA. Isolated Trapezoid Fracture in a Boxer. Am J Case Rep.2019 Jun 5; 20:790-793. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.915757. Review. PubMed PMID: 31164626; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6561143.
5. Melone CP Jr, Polatsch DB, Beldner S. Disabling hand injuries in boxing: boxer’s knuckle and traumatic carpal boss. Clin Sports Med. 2009 Oct;28(4):609-21, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2009.06.004. Review. PubMed PMID:19819405.
6. Noble C. Hand injuries in boxing. Am J Sports Med. 1987 Jul-Aug;15(4):342-6. PubMed PMID: 3661815.
7. Hanna WA, Laier P. Hand injuries from combat sports. Unfallchirurg. 2015 Jun;118(6):507-14. doi: 10.1007/s00113-015-0014-y. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 26013389.
8. Lenetsky, S., Brughelli, M., And Harris, N.K. 2015. Shoulder function and scapular position in boxers. Phys. Ther. Sport Off. J. Assoc. Chart. Physi-other. Sports Med. 16, 355–360
9. Kaur, N., Bhanot, K., Brody, L.T., Bridges, J., Berry, D.C., and Ode, J.J. 2014). Effects of lower extremity and trunk muscles recruitment on ser-ratus anterior muscle activation in healthy male adults. Int. J. Sports Phys. Ther. 9, 924–937.
10. Horns, J., Jung, R., And Carrier, D.R. 2015. In vitro strain in human metacarpal bones during striking: testing the pugilism hypothesis of hom-inin hand evolution. J. Exp. Biol. 218, 3215–3221.
11. Minkowski, E., forword on “Attitudes et mouve-ments” di F.J.J Buytendijk, Bruges, Descléè de Brouwer, 1957, p.5
12. Lacquaniti F, Maioli C. The role of preparation in tuning anticipatory and reflex responses during catching. J Neurosci. 1989 Jan;9(1):134-48
13. Nigg Bm, Wakeling Jm, Impact forces and mus-cle tuning: a new paradigm. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2001;29(1):37-41
14. Nigg Bm. The role of impact forces and foot pronation: a new paradigm. Clin J Sport Med. 2001 Jan;11(1):2-9. Review
15. Lemme Nj, Ready L, Faria M, Defroda Sf, Gil Ja, Owens Bd. Epidemiology of boxing-related upper extremity injuries in the United States. Phys Sportsmed. 2018 Nov;46(4):503-508.
16. Jordan Bd, Voy Ro, Stone J. Amateur Boxing Injuries at the US Olympic Training Center, Phys Sportsmed. 1990 Feb;18(2):80-90
17. Siewe J, Rudat J, Zarghooni K, Sobottke R, Eysel P, Herren C, Knöll P, Illgner U, Michael J. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study. Int J SportsMed. 2015 Mar;36(3):249-53
18. Tong-Iam R, Rachanavy P, Lawsirirat C. Kine-matic and kinetic analysis of throwing a straight punch: the role of trunk rotation in delivering a powerful straight punch. J Phys Educ Sport. 2017;17(4):2538–2543.
19. Nakano G, Iino Y, Imura A, Kojima T. Transfer of momentum from different arm segments to a light movable target during a straight punch thrown by expert boxers. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(6):517–523.
20. Federazione Pugilistica Italiana. Regolamento A.O.B.http://www.fpi.it/fpi/statuto-e-regolamenti. html. Published July 2017.
21. A.O.B. Open Boxin. A.I.B.A. Regulations, Glove Specifications and Guidelines, Appendix E. 2017.
22. Welch P. The use of fast Fourier transforms for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodo-grams. IEEE Trans Audio Electroacoustics. 1967;15(2):70–73.
23. Merletti R, Di Torino P. Standards for reporting EMG data. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1999;9(1):3-4.
24. Mormino G. Per Una Teoria Dell’imitazione. Raf-faello Cortina Editore; 2016. Raffaello Cortina Editore; 2016.