An individual’s dietary and supplement strategies can influence markedly their physical performance. Issues related to knowledge of nutrition and dietary supplementation (DS) are understudied in professional athletes. Supplements nowadays are used with the aim of improve body composition, of which the origins are multiplex in structure. Many approaches to improve the response to resistance training are the use of pre-/post-/in between workout nutritional interventions; with beverages garnering significant interest. The health benefits and risks of dietary supplement use are controversial as there is no visible immediate benefits observed. Sports nutrition recommendations for endurance exercise however remains a complex issue with often opposing views and advice by various health care professionals. Many athletes, at all levels of competition, place great emphasis on the use of dietary supplements, but of all the factors that determine athletic performance, supplements can play only a very small role. Compared with factors such as talent, training, tactics, and motivation, nutrition has a small effect on performance, and supplements can be no more than a minor part of the athlete’s nutrition strategy.
Athletes utilize numerous strategies to reduce body weight or body fat and to increase stamina prior to competition. Personalized nutrition in athletic populations aims to optimize health, body composition, and exercise performance by targeting dietary recommendations to an individual’s genetic profile. Additionally, athletes’ nutritional requirements may vary widely depending on sport, position, timing of season, and training vs rest day. Bodily hydration during sporting activity is one of the best indicators of health in athletes and can be a limiting factor for sport performance. Treatment for athletes is primarily to increase energy availability and often requires a team approach including a sport physician, sports dietitian, physiologist, and psychologist. Maximizing athletic performance is a passion that athletes, coaches, athlete support professionals, and sports scientists share. A thorough understanding of the basics of all aspects of human physiology and the ability of the body to adapt to the environmental stress of exercise training is the foundation we use to explain the incredible athletic and sport performances that are commonplace in today’s world.
Systematization of Nursing Assistance (SAE) in the Care of the Victim Patient of Spinal Cord Injury in the Light of Orems Theory of Self-Care
Objectives: To report the experience of nursing students in assistance based on the Systematization of Nursing Care (SAE), founded by Self-care theory of Dorothea Orem, directed the patient victims of Trauma Spinal Cord (TRM). Methodology: study of the type of experience report. The experience occurred during the practical class of the discipline of Adult Health II given in an emergency hospital, located in Arapiraca-AL. During the care, anamnesis and physical examination, diagnosis, planning, implementation and nursing evaluation were performed. Results: some of the nursing diagnoses were anxiety, attitude towards positive care, impaired physical mobility, self-care deficit for bathing and hygiene, among others. Regarding the nursing interventions, some of them were to accompany the patient, administer medications, monitor respiratory condition, assess musculoskeletal condition, evaluate neurological condition, assist in mobility, among others. From this, the expected results were defined as presenting gas exchange with normalization of CO2 and O2 standards, improvement of respiratory pattern, passive physical mobility, anxiety relief, among others. Final considerations: It was noted that the patient with TSC benefits from developing an individual and targeted care plan. The implementation of the SAE ensures the role of nurses in the care and ensures a practice based on scientific evidence and nursing theories. The performance of academics in the hospital care service promotes the gain of experience and, thus, allows a better performance as a nurse practitioner.
Introduction: Nutritional status is the condition that the body assumes due to the nutrition and metabolic expenditure, representing the sum of the interaction of somatic and functional elements responsible for the absorption of nutrients and adequacy of physiological needs. The deficit in the nutritional status of athletes has a direct impact on physical performance, anthropometry and glycemia. Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status related to the physical performance of athletes, founder and marathon runners of Petrolina before and after the nutritional intervention. Methodology: The population was composed by 10 athletes and marathonists of the Petrolinense Association of Athletics. The evaluation of the nutritional status was performed through anthropometric analysis: body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), skin fold and circumferences. Results and Discussion: After nutritional intervention, athletes reduced body weight (p = 0.034) and BMI (p = 0.025). Consequently, they decreased the percentage of subcutaneous fat by the bioimpedance method (p = 0.012), and promoted an increase in muscle mass (p = 0.010). With the application and orientation of the alimentary plane, only the folds of the abdominal (p = 0.034) and the calf (p = 0.001) showed a reduction in the subcutaneous lipid content. It is possible to verify a strong relation between the energy expenditure of the race and the anthropometric measures, mainly with the corporal mass. This association is explained by the fact that athletes who reduce their weight by the loss of body fat improve the relation with the content of lean mass, therefore, increasing muscle power, with a direct impact on performance. Conclusion: The union of the evaluation of the nutritional status of the athletes and the subsequent nutritional intervention, they developed more their physical conditioning, reflecting less fatigue, better efforts during training and better results in competitions.
Introduction: Food behavior is determined by interactions between physiological, psychological, genetic and environmental factors, besides being related to the nutritional status of the individual, represented by the sum of the interaction of somatic and functional elements responsible for nutrient absorption and adequacy of the physiological needs. Objective: To evaluate the dietary intake related to the physical performance of athletes, dietitians and marathon runners of Petrolina before and after the nutritional intervention. Methodology: The population was 10 athletes of the Petrolinense Association of Athletics (APA). Food intake was performed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24h recall (R24h). Calories, macronutrients and micronutrients were quantified before and after nutritional intervention. The consumption analysis was performed by dietwin. Results and Discussion: The energy consumed by the athletes was lower than the recommendation (p = 0.015); the carbohydrates and lipids consumed also presented inferior to the recommendations. In addition, only the protein did not differentiate between the consumed and the recommendation (p = 0.07). No changes were observed in relation to consumption and recommended (after intervention) at calcium and sodium levels – p> 0.05. There was also no statistical difference between the intake of saturated fat (p = 0.856) and fibers (p = 0.887). The lower consumption of energy and carbohydrates by the athletes according to the physical modality practiced, can affect the yield. The lipid intake lower than the recommendations was related to the concern in reducing the weight and to combat the increase of the subcutaneous fat, altering the corporal composition. Conclusion: It was observed that the evaluation and intervention is important so that the athlete’s menus is adequate and, consequently, avoid the installation of a systematically deficient energy picture that can negatively reflect on health, affecting the athletic performance.
Introduction: The type of diet influences the metabolic functions and leads to changes in weight and/or body composition. Researchers have been trying to develop animal models in order to mimic the metabolic states of disorder that occur in humans. Aim: To analyze the metabolic changes after administration of a hyperlipid diet in Swiss mice. Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice weighing 39 – 44g with 120 days old were used. The control group (CG) was maintained on a standard balanced diet (Presence®: 23% protein, 4% fat, 50% carbohydrate and 23% other components), whereas the experimental group (EG) received a special diet with formulation with a high fat content (37.20% encephalon powder, 41.86% crushed feed, 18.60% lard and 2.32% cellulose). The Protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA) of the Center for Higher Education and Development (CESED), with Protocol No. 2010/4573. The statistic was performed by Student’s t-test. Results: The initial weight of the animals of the GC and GE groups were 383g and 389g, respectively, and the final weight was 385g and 424g, respectively, with a difference of 39g more for the group that received only the hyperlipidic diet. Cholesterol analysis were 57.4 ± 5.38 for GC and 100.2 ± 10.43 for the GE, where p = 0.0013, whereas for triglycerides values observed were of 50.4 ± 16.62 and 91, 91,6 ± 30.6 respectively. Discussion: The hyperlipid diet significantly increased animal weight, plasma triglyceride concentration, and cholesterol. As demonstrated in other studies this diet was also efficient in increasing body adiposity in this study. Conclusion: The hyperlipidic diet elaborated in this study demonstrates as an excellent model for induction of obesity and dyslipidemia in mice.
Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease related to modern lifestyle and inactivity, accounting for 90-95% of diagnosed cases. The beginning of continuous physical practices characterized as aof form prevention for people susceptible to this type of illness. Objectives: describe how physical activity can prevent the onset of diabetes mellitus type 2. Methodology: It is an integrative review, which used articles were obtained from the data base: MEDLINE. The descriptors being used: Healthy behaviors, Type 2 diabetes, Exercise and Quality of life, using the logical AND operator. Through employee, descriptors were identified 18 publications, of which 12 were excluded for not suit the theme of the study, editorials and reviews. Being admitted the following inclusion criteria: articles published in Portuguese and English, the years 2010 to 2017. The guiding question was: how physical exercise helps in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus? Results and Discussion: The items used were published one in each year, respectively: 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014 and two in 2015, which showed that physical activities with guidance and regulars contributes positively to the reduction of weight and levels of cholesterol, and is associated with significant improvements in blood pressure, the same way that adds sensitivity to insulin and therefore improves the quality of life related to health. The article 2015 reports the existence dandy cost savings with treatment as prevention reduces spending on medication. Conclusion: It is proven that improvements in lifestyle, along with constant practice of physical exercise and low intensity prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Introduction: The high yield sport is an activity where athletes need to improve performance, seeking expected results. Breathing supports, influencing the supply and transport of oxygen; reduction in fatigue, feeling of effort and athlete’s decision. Goals: Increase muscle strength and respiratory capacity, verifying cardiorespiratory repercussions in training. Methodology: The study was conducted at Sport Club do Recife, with 5 male Handball players individuals. Were submitted to respiratory assessment through POWER BREATHE carehealth 2 controlled by the breathlink software, performing 2 sessions 10 minutes long, 2 times a week, for 5 weeks. The charge for first session was 60% of the maximum inspiratory pressure (Pimáx) increased by 5%. Results: There has been an increase in Pimax in 80% of athletes, being 75% raised the average volume of air inspired by incursion. All presented beneficial physiological adaptations with the progression of respiratory load imposed and improves the sense of effort by the Borg scale. Conclusion: It was evidenced that the respiratory muscle training is an important tool in the preparation of high performance athletes, due to provide increased inspiratory muscle force, pulmonar volumes and capacities; and, reducing the sensation of dyspnea and muscle fatigue.