Research Article of Internal Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation
The Impact of a Rotating Balance Platform on Leg Neuromuscular Activity in Healthy Young Adults
Martin G. Rosario PT, Ph.D., CSFI, ATRIC1*, Carley Bowman SPT1, Abigail Versemann SPT1, Daniel Heistand SPT1
1Physical Therapy Program, Texas Woman’s University, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Balance is a functional activity that must be implemented in every type of rehabilitation for the back and lower extremities’ injury and pathology. With issues in these regions, balance is lessened, requiring exercises that enhance the patient’s stability.
Purpose: To determine the impact of activities on a rotating balance platform with tracking tasks for lower limb muscle activation.
Method: Twenty-five participants performed seven tasks on a balance board with a fixed middle fulcrum. For each trial, activation of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles was recorded using surface electromyography. Upon examination of the EMG data, the following variables were quantified: time to peak muscle activation, time to decay of muscle contraction, and time of muscle contraction duration.
Results: A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that TA exhibited significant modifications (P<0.001) with less time to peak, duration, and decay, whereas GA only notably compensated (P<0.001) with shorter duration and decay.
Conclusion: For subjects with balance alterations due to slower nerve conduction or muscle weakness in the lower limb, we suggest incorporating activities with rotational movements on the balance board, where muscle activation is challenged due to surface and tracking activities. When endurance is prescribed, front-to-back tasks contribute to prolonged muscle activation. Balance rehabilitation should consider muscle activation timing with tracking tasks for more precise and targeted muscle execution.
Keywords: Balance Control; Tibialis Anterior; Gastrocnemius; Neuromuscular Adaptation; Tracking input
How to cite this article:
Martin G. Rosario, Carley Bowman, Abigail Versemann, Daniel Heistand. The Impact of a Rotating Balance Platform on Leg Neuromuscular Activity in Healthy Young Adults. Internal Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2021; 4:22.. DOI: 10.28933/ijsmr-2021-04-0505
1. Pollock AS, Durward BR, Rowe PJ, Paul JP. What is balance? Clinical Rehabilitation. 2000;14(4):402–6.
2. Mancini M, Horak FB. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits. European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2010;46(2):239–248.
3. Alberts JL, Hirsch JR, Koop MM, Schindler DD, Kana DE, Linder SM, et al. Using Accelerometer and Gyroscopic Measures to Quantify Postural Stability. Journal of Athletic Training. 2015;50(6):578–88.
4. Petró B, Papachatzopoulou A, Kiss RM. Devices and tasks involved in the objective assessment of standing dynamic balancing – A systematic literature review. Plos One. 2017;12(9).
5. Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor control: Translating research into clinical practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
6. Giulio ID, Maganaris CN, Baltzopoulos V, Loram ID. The proprioceptive and agonist roles of gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles in maintaining human upright posture. The Journal of Physiology. 2009;587(10): 2399–416.
7. Yoon S-W. Analysis of the muscular activities of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles in functional reach. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2017;29(5):851–3.
8. Rosario MG, Mathis, M. Lower limb muscle activation and kinematics modifications of young healthy adults while pushing a variable resistance sled. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 2020; in press.
9. Mandalidis DG, Karagiannakis DN. A comprehensive method for assessing postural control during dynamic balance testing. MethodsX. 2020;7:100964.
10. Kisner C, Colby LA. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company; 2007.
11. Rosario MG, Marshall J, Herkert A, Binoy B, Windham H, Orozco E. (2020). Lower Limb Neuromuscular Modification and Standing Postural Control Alteration in Apparent Asymptomatic People Living with HIV. J Rehab Pract Res. 2020;1(1):102.
12. Karunakaran KK, Pilkar R, Ehrenberg N, Bentley KS, Cheng J, Nolan KJ. Kinematic and Functional Gait Changes After the Utilization of a Foot Drop Stimulator in Pediatrics. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2019;13.
13. Rosario MG. Neuromuscular timing modification in responses to increased speed and proportional resistance while pushing a sled in young adults. European Journal of Human Movement. 2020;44;50-66
14. Rosario MG, Hyder A, Orozco E, Vélez JG, Quiñones, CL, Bayron F. Evaluating static postural control in subjects with controlleddiabetes mellitus II. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 2020;15(2);344-354.
15. Park EC, Kim SG, Lee CW. The effects of virtual reality game exercise on balance and gait of the elderly. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(4):1157-1159