Research Article of International Journal of Social Research
A BROWN PAPER SOLUTION TO THE CORONAVIRUS REVELATIONS OF MANY DEAD BLACKS, LATINXS, AND FEW SAID DOCTORS
Rupert Green, EdD, Robert Gordon, PhD, Nikita Matsunaga, PhD (Long Island University, NY)
Institute for Hands-on Science Engineering and Technology, Queens, New York
This paper takes the form of a Brown Paper on the Coronavirus epidemic regarding the observed absence of Black and Latinx Doctors as media commentators, the disproportionately high death rates among members of these groups, and societal calls to address the cause of these enduring problems. This work attempts to explain the discrepancy involved through a hyper-quizzical and culturally sensitive exploration of anthropological, cultural, historical, societal, and other factors by using a multipronged and nonconventional approach. By exploring the manner in which racism possibly informs the problem, various mechanisms that inform success or failure in different Black and Latinx sub-groups were explored. They include (e.g., acting White or Black, individuals’ attitudes and perceptions, deficit thinking, child-rearing style, honorary Whites, immigration effect, model minority, parental involvement, racial grammar, and White privilege). The looming ascendancy of both groups to majority-minority population informs the urgency to confront the problem. Determination emerged that as the rising tides will lift all Americans’ boats, raising Blacks and Latinxs’ academic and technical competency will boost the nation’s capacity to compete in an increasingly globalized and high-tech world. It challenges the paradox related to Blacks and Latinxs’ boat of educational achievement remaining stationary, despite the many rising tides of educational reforms, laws, and massive expenditures. A “NEW NORMAL” fostering collaboration between Asians, Blacks from the diaspora, Latinxs, and progressive Whites is recommended to address the problem. Critically, the need to elevate medical professionals as STEM role models for Black and Latinx children, as opposed to current Black and Latino thespians (entertainment figures, sports stars, and rap artists) or gangsters, is also recommended.
Keywords: Coronavirus, Black doctors, Blacks disproportionate death, Andrew Cuomo, Specialized schools, White Privilege, Jamaican
How to cite this article:
Rupert Green, Robert Gordon, Nikita Matsunaga. A BROWN PAPER SOLUTION TO THE CORONAVIRUS REVELATIONS OF MANY DEAD BLACKS, LATINXS, AND FEW SAID DOCTORS. International Journal of Social Research, 2020; 4:48. DOI: 10.28933/ijsr-2020-05-1905
1. Aldemir, J., & Kermani, H. (2017) Integrated STEM curriculum: Improving educational out-comes for Head Start children. Early Child De-velopment and Care, 187:11, 1694-1706, doi: 10.1080/03004430.2016.1185102
2. Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness, The New Press. Retrieved from Ebscohost database. (Order No. 829777)
3. Ambrose, D. (2013). Socioeconomic inequality and giftedness: Suppression and distortion of high Ability. Roeper Review, 35(2), 81–92. doi:10. 108 0/02783193.2013.766960
4. Anderson, M. (2015). Chapter 1: Statistical por-trait of the U.S. Black immigrant population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/04/09/a-rising-share-of-the-u-s-black-population-is-foreign-born/
5. Arnesen, I. (2018, Jul 09). A new immigration cri-sis? This time it could be from Haiti. The Daily Beast. Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 139631)
6. Bennett, L. (1985). Before the Mayflower: A histo-ry of America. New York: Penguin Books.
7. Black Tie Affair. (2017). FN: Footwear News, 73(39), 31
8. Blacks’ (n.d.). Blacks break with GOP began in 1928, study shows. Chronicle of Higher Educa-tion, 33(10), 7–10 Black Prodigies. (2014). Black kids with exceptional talents. BET. Retrieved from https://www.bet.com /news/national/photos/2013/ 09/10-black-child-prodigies-you-should-know.html#!083013-national-child-prodigies-students-class-hand-raised-kids-children-classroom-school
9. Borowczyk-Martins, D., Bradley, J., & Tarasonis, L. (2017). Racial discrimination in the U.S. labor market: Employment and wage differentials by skill. Labor Economics, 49, 106–127. doi:10.10 16/j.labeco.2017.09.007
10. Bremner, G. (2008). Blackwell handbook of in-fant development. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Re-trieved from ProQuest databases ebook central. Order No 242427.
11. Brenneman, K., Lange, A., & Nayfeld, I. (2019). Integrating STEM into preschool education; de-signing a professional development model in di-verse settings. Early Childhood Education Jour-nal, 47(1), 15–28. Doi:10.1007/s10643-018-0912-z
12. Brody, L. (2018, Oct 03). Some parents pay up to $400 an hour to prep 4-year-olds for NYC’s gifted test; use of test scores questioned by critics, but some parents hope children gain an edge. Wall Street Journal (Online) Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses data-base. (Order No. 2115704775)
13. Brubaker, B. (1991, Mar 17). Athletic shoe indus-try goes beyond big business. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 281341999)
14. Bruce, M. A., & Cunnigen, D. (2014). Race in the Age of Obama: Part 2. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
15. Budryk, Z. (2020, April 8). Cuomo vows to inves-tigate racial disparities in COVID-19 deaths: ‘Why do the poorest people always pay the highest price? The Hill.com. Retrieved from https://thehill. com/homenews/state-watch/491797-cuomo-on-disproportionate-minority-covid-deaths-why-do-the-poorest
16. Butler, J. S. (2005). Entrepreneurship and self-help among Black Americans: A reconsideration of race and economics: Vol. Rev. ed. NY: State University of New York Press.
17. Carrillo, J. F. (2013). “I Always Knew I Was Gift-ed”: Latino males and the mestiz@ theory of in-telligences (MTI). Berkeley Review of Education, 4(1), 69–95. Retrieved from Ebscohost data-base. (Order No. 169723)
18. Cecilia C. Lo, & Mantak Yuen. (2014). Coping strategies and perceived sources of support among gifted students with specific learning disabilities: Three exploratory case studies in Hong Kong. Gifted & Talented Internation-al, 29(1/2), 125–136. doi:10.1080/15332276.2014.11678435
19. Chang, C. (2018. Sept 24). Whose side are Asian-Americans on? A proposal to integrate New York City’s top public high schools would be a boon to Black and Latinx students—and a disaster for Asians. The Newrepublic.com. Re-trieved from https://newrepublic.com/article /151328/whose-side-asian-americans-on
20. Chen, J. M., Kteily, N. S., & Ho, A. K. (2019). Whose side are you on? Asian Americans’ mis-trust of Asian–White biracials predicts more ex-clusion from the ingroup. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(6), 827–841. doi: 10.1177/01 46167218798032
21. Chu, M. (2016). What’s missing in most of our early childhood degrees? Focusing more deeply on relationships and learning with infants, tod-dlers, and their families. Journal of Early Child-hood Teacher Education, 37(4), 264–281. doi: 10.1080/10901027.2016.1241966
22. Coates, R. D. (2011). Covert Racism: Theories, Institutions, and Experiences. Leiden, Boston: Brill
23. Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. popula-tion: 2014 to 2060, Current Population Reports, P25-1143, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC.
24. Cole, D. (2010). New York City rivals share a drive to be tops. U.S. News & World Report, 147(1), 66. Retrieved from Ebscohost data-bases. (Order No. AN=47092858)
25. Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: plan-ning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston, MA: Pearson Learn-ing Solutions.
26. Deiisle, J. R. (1999). Neither freak nor geek: The gifted among us. Education Week, 19(9), 36.
27. DuCloux, K. (2009). The at-risk student perspec-tive of education in an alternative education pro-gram (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 3355330)
28. Duxbury, S. W. (2019). Fear or loathing in the US? Public opinion and the rise of racial dispari-ty in mass incarceration, 1978 – 2015. Conference papers–American Sociological Association, 1–52.
29. Edward, Z., & Sally, J. (2010). The hidden history of head start. In Does head start work? does it work enough? Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393767.003.001 3
30. Elderman, S. (2019, Feb 2). Black, Hispanic stu-dents still struggling despite rising graduation rates. The New York Post. Retrieved from https ://nypost.com/2019/02/02/black-hispanic-students-still-struggling-despite-rising-graduation-rates/
31. Evans, W. N., Garthwaite, C., & Moore, T. J. (2016). The White/Black educational gap, stalled progress, and the long-term consequences of the emergence of crack cocaine markets. Review of Economics & Statistics, 98(5), 832–847. doi: 10.1162/REST_a_00635
32. Ford, D. Y. (2014). Segregation and the un-derrepresentation of Blacks and Hispanics in gifted education: Social inequality and deficit paradigms. Roeper Review, 36(3), 143–154. doi:10.1080/02783193.2014.919563
33. Foster, J. (2013). White race discourse: Preserv-ing racial privilege in a post-racial society. Re-trieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com
34. Garcia, M. (2012). The Central Park five. Cineaste, 38(1), 53–55.
35. Gist, C. D. (2018). Human resource development for racial/ethnic diversity: Do school systems value teachers of color? Advances in Develop-ing Human Resources, 20(3), 345–358. https://doi .org/10.1177/1523422318778014
36. Graff, G. (2011). Everything has changed, but nothin’ has changed: Shame, racism, and a dream deferred. The Journal of Psychohisto-ry, 38(4), 346–358.
37. Gray, R., & Francis, E. (2007). The implications of US experiences with early childhood interven-tions for the UK Sure Start Programme. Child: Care, Health & Development, 33(6), 655–663. https:// doi-org. kean.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214. 2006.00682.x
38. Green, R. (2002). Advocating for and getting the best education for your children. New York: Sea-burn Press.
39. Green, R. (2012). Attitudes and perceptions of vocational education in New York City: Implica-tions for the mayor’s school reform initiative (Doc-toral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dis-sertations and Theses database. (Order No. 3504865)
40. Green, R. (2018). New York States brightest third grade readers. International Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Science, (3), 3. Retrieved from http://ijhassnet.com/file/Dr.Rupert%20Green.pdf
41. Hanscombe, K. B. (2012). Socioeconomic status (SES) and children’s intelligence (IQ): In a UK-representative sample SES moderates the envi-ronmental, not genetic, effect on IQ. PLoS ONE, 7(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030320
42. Hargrave, C. P. (2015). Counter space: Analysis of educational structures of an after-school pro-gram that fosters black academic success narra-tives. The Journal of Negro Education, 84(3), 348-361. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/ docview/1770939750?accountid=139631
43. Harper, S. R., & Wood, J. L. (2015). Advancing Black male student success from preschool through Ph.D. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publish-ing.
44. Harris, A. L. (2005). Do African Americans really resist school: An in-depth examination of the oppositional culture theory. Humanities and so-cial sciences (66), 2, 547.
45. Harris, E.A. (2019, March 15). The astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson will return to television after the broadcasters of his shows announced Friday that they had completed their investigation into sexual misconduct allegations against him. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/15/arts/neil-degrasse-tyson-sexual-misconduct.html
46. Hartman, H. (1997b). Human learning and instruc-tion. New York: City College of the City Universi-ty of New York.
47. Ho, J. A. (2015). Racial ambiguity in Asian Amer-ican culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univer-sity Press.
48. Howard, S. (2019). Exonerees in black and white: The influence of race on perceptions of those who falsely confessed to a crime. Psychology, Crime & Law, 25:9, 911-924. doi: 10.1080/1068316X.2019.1597091
49. Ifatunji, M. A. (2016). A test of the Afro Caribbe-an model minority hypothesis. Du Bois Review, 13(1),109-138.doi:10.1017/S1742058X16000035
50. Imoagene, O. (2013). A success story: Educa-tional and occupational attainment and mobility of the African second generation in the U.S. and U.K. Conference papers — American Sociological Association, 1–31. Retrieved from Ebscohost database. (Order No. 111792254)
51. Itzigsohn, J., Giorguli, S., & Vazquez, O. (2005). Immigrant incorporation and racial identity: Ra-cial self-identification among Dominican immi-grants. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 28(1), 50–78. doi:10. 1080/0141984042000280012
52. Jiannbin, L, S. (2017). The meaning of honorary whiteness for Asian Americans: Boundary ex-pansion or something else? Comparative Sociol-ogy, 16(6), 788–813. doi-10.1163 /15691330-12341445
53. Jolly, J. L., & Kettler, T. (2008). Gifted education research 1994-2003: A disconnect between priori-ties and practice. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 31(4), 427–446. Retrieved from Ebsco-host databases. (Order No. 508080383)
54. Kang, C. (2018). Stylistics and the teaching of advanced English for senior English ma-jors. Theory and Practice in Language Stud-ies, 8(10), 1346-1350. doi:10.17507/tpls.0810.13
55. Kobayashi, K. (2019). Learning by preparing‐to‐teach and teaching: A meta‐analysis. Japanese Psychological Research, 61(3), 192–203. doi: 10.1111/jpr.12221
56. Kohler, M., Aldridge, J., Christensen, L. M., & Kilgo, J. (2012). Tiger moms: Five questions that need to be answered. Childhood Education, 88(1), 52-53. Retrieved from ProQuest Disserta-tions and Theses database. (Order No. 1468447973)
57. Krapohl, E., & Plomin, R. (2016). Genetic link be-tween family socioeconomic status and chil-dren’s educational achievement estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Molecular Psychiatry, 21(3), 437–443. doi:10.1038/mp.2015.2
58. Krogstad, J. M, & Fry, R. (2014). Dept. of Ed. projects public schools will be ‘majority-minority’ this fall. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/08/18/u-s-public-schoolsexpected-to-be-majority-minority-starting-this-fall/
59. Krupnick, M. (2015, May 21). These groups of Asian-Americans rarely attend college, but Cali-fornia is trying to change that. PBS News Hour. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/newshour /education/these-groups-of-asian-americans-rarely-attend-college-but-california-is-trying-to-change-that
60. Kuryla, P. (2011). Barack Obama and the Ameri-can island of the colour blind. Patterns of Preju-dice, 45(1/2), 119–132. Doi: 10.1080/0031322X. 2011.563150
61. Lamb, R., Akmal, T., & Petrie, K. (2015). Devel-opment of a cognition-priming model describing learning in a STEM classroom. Journal of Re-search in Science Teaching, 52(3), 410–437. doi:/10.1002/tea.21200
62. Langenkamp, A.G. (2019). Latino/a immigrant parents’ educational aspirations for their chil-dren, Race Ethnicity and Education, 22:2, 231-249, doi: 10.1080/13613324.2017.1365054
63. MacDonald, A., Huser, C., Sikder, L. D. (2019). Effective early childhood stem education: Find-ings from the little scientists evaluation. Early Childhood Education Journal. doi:10.1007/s106 43-019-01004-9
64. Marsh, J., Hogan, B, Musumeci, N, & Golding, B. (2020, April 8). Racial breakdown of NYC coronavirus deaths reveals ‘disparities,’ de Blasio says. The NY Post. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2020/04/08/de-blasio-releases-racial-bre akdown-data-of-coronavirus-deaths/
65. Mast, B. (2018). School performance of schools assigned to HUD-assisted households. City-scape, 20(3), 189-221. Retrieved from Disserta-tions and Theses database. (Order No. (2174189255)
66. Mayo, A., & Siraj, I. (2015). Parenting practices and children’s academic success in low-ses fam-ilies. Oxford Review of Education, 41(1), 47–63.
67. McCleary-Gaddy, A. T., & Miller, C. T. (2017). Preference for second-generation African immi-grants over native-born Black Americans: A col-lege admission simulation. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 40(1), 6-17. doi: 10.1080/ 01973 533 .2017.1390751
68. McCleary-Gaddy, A. T., & Miller, C. T. (2018). Preference for second-generation African immi-grants over native-born Black Americans: A col-lege admission simulation. Basic & Applied So-cial Psychology, 40(1), 6–17. doi:10.1080/01973533.2017.1390751
69. Meg, M. B. (2004, Jun 27). Boy, interrupted; there’s no such thing as a normal adolescence when you’re a child prodigy, but 13-year-old Sho Yano is proving he can make it in academia’s big leagues. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 42020964)
70. Merelman, R. M. (2002). American politics-bitter fruit: The politics of black-Korean conflict in New York City. The American Political Science Re-view, 96(2), 424-425. Retrieved from Ebscohost database. (Order No. 214417798)
71. Mexican. (2011, Aug 06). Mexican child prodigy graduates as psychologist, soon to be physi-cian. EFE News Service. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 881377231)
72. Model, S. (2008). West Indian immigrants: A Black success story? New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Retrieved from Ebscohost data-base. (Order No. 1069806)
73. Monahan, R. (2010, July 6). Schoolkids’ suspen-sions thru the roof. The New York Daily News, p. 2. Retrieved from http://www.nydailynews.com /new-york/education/schoolkids-suspensions-roof-expert-40-rise-major-crisis-discipline-article-1.464043
74. Monk, C., Georgieff, M. K., & Osterholm, E. A. (2013). Research review: Maternal prenatal dis-tress and poor nutrition–mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive develop-ment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychia-try, 54(2), 115–130.
75. Mood, A. (1969). Macro-analysis of the American educational system. Operations Research, 17(5), 770-784.
76. Moskowitz, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, (67), 86-87. Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu /login ?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F312270740%3Facc
77. Myer, T. S. (2016, Mar 31). ‘Babies aren’t born smart’. Pensacola News Journal. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 1777451252)
78. National Science Board & National Science Foundation. (2019). Higher education in science and engineering. science and engineering indica-tors 2020. Alexandria, VA. Retrieved from https:// ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20197/.
79. NCES (2020). Characteristics of public and pri-vate elementary and secondary school teachers in the United States: Results from the 2017–18 national teacher and principal survey first look. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Re-trieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2020142
80. NCES. (2018). Percentage of public-school stu-dents enrolled in gifted and talented programs, by sex, race/ethnicity, and state: Selected years, 2004 through 2013-14. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs /digest/d17/tables/dt17_204.90.aspA
81. Ng, J. C., Lee, S. S., & Pak, Y. K. (2007). Chap-ter 4: Contesting the model minority and perpet-ual foreigner stereotypes–A critical review of lit-erature on Asian Americans in education. Review of Research in Education, 31(1), 95–130.
82. Norris, D. (2010). Raising the educational re-quirements for teachers in infant toddler class-rooms: Implications for institutions of higher ed-ucation. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Edu-cation, 31(2), 146–158. doi:10.1080/109010210 037 81221
83. NYCDOE. (2016). Office of English language learners: Demographic report. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/FD5EB945-5C27-44F8-BE4B-E4C65D7176F8/0/2013DemographicReport_june2013_revised.pdf
84. NYS. (2019, Feb 15). Governor Cuomo announc-es closure of additional prisons following record declines in incarceration and crime rates. Re-trieved from https://www.governor.ny.gov /news/governor-cuomo-announces-closure-additional-prisons-following-record-declines-incarceration-and
85. NYS. (2020). Criminal justice reform: Creating a fairer, safer, and more just system for all New Yorkers. Retrieved from https://www.governor.ny.gov/programs/criminal-justice-reform
86. Odom, L. L., & McNeese, R. M. (2014). “Having Our Say”: High achieving African American male college graduates speak about parental in-volvement and parenting style. Education Lead-ership Review of Doctoral Research, 1(1), 91–105.
87. Ogbu, J. U. (2004). Collective identity and the burden of “Acting White” in Black history, com-munity, and education. The Urban Review, 36(1), 1
88. O’hara, A. (2018, June 6). Battle rages over plan intended to diversify NYC specialized high schools. Gothamist.com. Retrieved from https://gothamist.com/news/battle-rages-over-plan-intended-to-diversify-nyc-specialized-high-schools
89. Okamura, J. (2011). Barack Obama as the post-racial candidate for a post-racial America: Per-spectives from Asian America and Ha-waii. Patterns of Prejudice, 45(1/2), 133–153. doi:10.1080 /0031322X.2011.563159
90. Otto, W. J. (2016). What teachers should know about why these students perform so well: An examination of Korean-American achievement through student perspectives of East Asian par-enting beliefs, styles and practices. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 9(1), 167–181.
91. Pagones, S. (2018, March). Brutal video shows thugs jump teen for $2K Air Jordans. The New York Post. Retrieved from https://nypost.com /2018/05/02/brutal-video-shows-thugs-jump-teen-for-2k-air-jordans/
92. Peréa, F. C. (2011). Language, gender, and aca-demic performance: A study of the children of Dominican immigrants. El Paso, Texas: LFB Scholarly Publishing. Retrieved from Ebscohost database. (Order No. 520559)
93. Pershing, J. A. (2015). White paper. Performance Improvement, 54(8):2–3. doi:10.1002/pfi.21505
94. Phelan, C. (2004). Baby brains: The smartest ba-by in the whole world. The Booklist, 101(6), 584. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and The-ses database. (Order No. 235580429)
95. Pong, S-L., Johnston, J., & Chen, V. (2010). Au-thoritarian parenting and Asian adolescent school performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan. International Journal of Behavioral Devel-opment, 34(1), 62–72. doi:10.1177/01650254 09345073
96. Portes, A., & MacLeod, D. (1996). Educational progress of children of immigrants: The roles of class, ethnicity, and school context. Sociology of Education, 69(4), 255-275. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 216366075)
97. Poza, L., Brooks, M. D., & Valdés, G. (2014). Entre familia: Immigrant parents’ strategies for involvement in children’s schooling. School Community Journal, 24(1), 119–148. Retrieved from Ebscohost. (Order No. EJ1032245)
98. Quintana, F. (1974). The brown paper: Education and Chicanos in New Mexico, 1973-74. Retrieved from Ebscohost database. (Order No. ED113120)
99. Richardson, R. (2020, April 8th). Bill O’Reilly’s macabre take: Many who died from Coronavirus ‘were on their last legs anyway’. Mediaite. Re-trieved from https://www.mediaite.com/news /bill-oreillys-macabre-take-many-who-died-from-coronavirus-were-on-their-last-legs-anyway/
100. Rogers, V. (2013). The specter of slav-ery: The misallocation of education to black Americans and its contribution to declining American economic viability. Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy, 53–61. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses data-base. (Order No. 1691279013)
101. Romano, S. (2014). The political and so-cial construction of poverty: Central and Eastern European Countries in Transition. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.
102. Ruffins, P. (2011). Justice for all, di-verse. Issues in Higher Education, 28(10), 16–17.
103. Rzaskowski, M., Harlaar, N., Arden, R., Krapohl, E., Rimfeld, K., McMillan, A., … Plomin, R. (2014). Genetic influence on family socioeconomic status and children’s intelligence. Intelligence, 42, 83–88. doi: 10.1016/j.intell. 2013.11.002
104. Shapiro, E., & Mays, J. C. (2019, Aug 27). De Blasio weighs eliminating gifted pro-grams in New York. New York Times.com. Re-trieved from https://www.nytimes.com /2019/08/27 /nyregion/de-blasio-gifted-talented-nyc.html
105. Shih, K. Y., Chang, T.-F., & Chen, S.-Y. (2019). Impacts of the model minority myth on Asian American individuals and families: Social justice and critical race feminist perspec-tives. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 11(3), 412–428. doi.10.1111/jftr.12342
106. Smyth, J., & McInerney, P. (2013). Mak-ing ‘space’: Young people put at a disadvantage re-engaging with learning. British Journal of Soci-ology of Education, 34(1), 39–55. doi: 10.1080/01425692.2012.744735
107. Stambaugh, T., & Ford, D. Y. (2015). Microaggressions, multiculturalism, and gifted individuals who are Black, Hispanic, or low in-come. Journal of Counseling & Develop-ment, 93(2), 192–201. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.2015.00195.x
108. Stein, H. F., & Allcorn, S. (2018). A Fate-ful convergence: Animosity toward Obamacare, hatred of Obama, the rise of Donald Trump, and overt racism in America. Journal of Psychohisto-ry, 45(4), 234–243.
109. Stephens, D. L. (2017). Post-racial or most-racial? Race and politics in the Obama era. Political Science Quarterly, 132(2), 351–353. doi-10.1002/polq.12635
110. Sternberg, R. (1996). Neither elitism nor egalitarianism: Gifted education as a third force in American education, Roeper Re-view, 18:4, 261-263, doi: 10.1080/0278319960955375
111. Sullivan, S. (2006). Revealing whiteness: The unconscious habits of racial privilege (Ser. American philosophy). Bloomington Indiana: In-diana University Press.
112. Superior Children. (1935, Oct. 21). Medi-cine: Superior children. New York Times. Re-trieved from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,755224,00.html
113. Texley, J., & Ruud, R. M. (2018). Teaching STEM literacy: A constructivist approach for ages 3 to 8. Minnesota: Redleaf Press.
114. Trytten, D. A., Lowe, A. W., & Walden, S. E. (2012). “Asians are Good at Math. What an Awful Stereotype”: The model minority stereo-type’s impact on Asian American engineering students. Journal of Engineering Educa-tion, 101(3), 439–468.doi:10.1002/j.2168-9830.2012tb00057 .x
115. U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). About His-panic origin. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/topics/population/hispanic-origin/about.html
116. Valdez, C. R., Padilla, B., & Valentine, J. L. (2013). Consequences of Arizona’s immigra-tion policy on social capital among Mexican mothers with unauthorized immigration status. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 35(3), 303–322. Retrieved from Ebscohost databases. (Order No. EJ1027402)
117. Wassink, J., Perreira, K. M., & Harris, K. M. (2017). Beyond race/ethnicity: Skin color and cardiometabolic health among Blacks and His-panics in the United States. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 19(5), 1018-1026. Doi:10.1007/s10903-016-0495-y
118. What Is. (n.d.). What is the difference between a research paper and a review paper? Retrieved from https://www.editage.com/insights/what-is-the-difference-between-a-research-paper-and-a-review-paper
119. Williams, J.P. (2018, Aug 31). Why America needs more black doctors racial dispari-ties in health and health care providers persist in the U.S., and may go hand in hand. Retrieved from. https://www.usnews.com/news/healthiest-communities/articles/2018-08-31/why-america-needs-more-black-doctors
120. Wu, E. D. (2013). The color of success: Asian Americans and the origins of the model mi-nority. Princeton University Press, 2013. Re-trieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 1458381)
121. Yakin, H. (2019, March 2). Cuomo’s threat to close three prisons has many up in arms. Retrieved from. Record online.com. Re-trieved from https://www.recordonline.com/news/20190 302/cuomos-threat-to-close-three-prisons-has-many-up-in-arms
122. Yook, E. L. (2013). Culture shock for Asians in U.S. academia: Breaking the model mi-nority myth. Lanham: Lexington Books. Re-trieved from Ebscohost database. (Order No. 670084)
123. Young, A. (2009). Honorary white-ness. Asian Ethnicity, 10(2), 177-185. doi:10. 108 0/14631360902906862
124. Zhao, Y., & Qui, W. (2009, Jan). How good are the Asians? Refuting four myths about Asian American academic achievement. Phi Del-ta Kappan, 90(5), 338-334. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Order No. 218516673)
125. Zhou, M. (1999). Forever foreigners or honorary Whites? The Asian ethnic experience today. Social Forces, 78(2), 816–818. doi-org.kean.idm.oclc.org/10.2307/3005585
126. Zigler, E., C. Taussig, & K. Black (1992). Early childhood intervention: A promising pre-ventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist 47: 997 – 1006. Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
127. Zigler, E., Marsland, K. W., & Lord, H. (2009). The tragedy of child care in America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
128. Zigler, E., Finn-Stevenson, M., Hall. N. W. (2002). The first three years and be-yond:BrainDevelopment and Social Policy, Yale University Press. (Order No. 3420055
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.