International Journal of Social Research

  • On the Nature of the French Verbal Forms in the Code-Switching of Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah Speakers of French

    Code-Switching is a process of bilingualism that involves the alternation of two languages in the course of a single conversation as a result of language contact phenomenon. This paper is about the conjugation of the verbal forms in the switches of bilingual Songhay-French, Bamanankan-French and Fulfulde-French speakers as pointed out in several studies by I. Abdoulaye (2013, 2016), M. Minkailou and I. Abdoulaye (2016, 2018), I. Abdoulaye and M. Minkailou (2017, 2019). The main objective of the present paper is to describe the verbal paradigm in the switches of these three different groups of francophone speakers according to the existing theories and models on Code-Switching and Code-Mixing constraints. Based on the Matrix Language Frame Model of C. Myers-Scotton (1993a, b), the paper aims at proposing and analysing a francophone alternative of grammatical constraint in code switching. The study uses secondary data collected from the research works cited above in which spontaneous and fresh conversations have been recorded, transcribed and translated into English in an oral corpus. The population of these three different investigations is heterogeneous consisting of bilingual Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah civil servants and university students. Examining the nature of the switches, the study purposely focuses on the intra-sentential code-switching, in which the participants alternate the two codes, inserting words from French into their respective native languages. Analysing the inflected forms of the French verbs embedded in Songhay, Bamanankan or Fulfulde codes, the study has revealed that all the switched verbs belong to the same verb form, the French past participle of the three verb groups (first, second and third). So, the study has concluded that this way of conjugating verbs in Code-Switching is typical to francophone second language leaners. This approach in Code-Switching that the authors are proposing as the Francophone Model of Switching Verbs is a result…

  • Alternative Family Forms or Social / Emotional Exploitation

    Throughout recent history there has been progress toward social equality specifically within the nuclear family. Unfortunately, occurring currently with this social progress has been a movement which has exploited woman and fostered the total rationalization of the emotional family member’s psyco-social emotional being. This effort will exam the Nuclear family from opposite Sociological perspectives: Marx’s Alienated Labor and Parsons’ Functionalist view of the nuclear family.

  • Women With Regenerative Potential As Against Women With Destructive Potential (The Case Study Of Amma Darko’s “Faceless”)

    The research looked at the woman with regenerative potentials and how reliable mentors they are to the benefit of society using Ama Darko’s Faceless. The purpose of the study was to use Ama Darko’s Faceless to showcase the position of the woman with regenerative potential irrespective education because though Education empowers women to have regenerative potentials other women who are uneducated also exhibit such traits in our societies. A qualitative approach was employed to look at views related to the African woman with regenerative potential and also adopted the traditional library research approach through the use of books, articles, journals and publications in as much as they contribute to the worth of the study. It was in-formed by the stiwanist theory. The main findings of the study indicate that the woes of irresponsible mothers who do not responsibly take care of the results of their pleasure with men are being disapproved. This disapproval is as a result of the pitiful portrayal of women with destructive potential as against positive up lifting portrayal of women with regenerative potential and making them reliable mentors of society. This change has come about as a result of women’s quest to assert themselves through education and contribute towards freeing their families from cultural and societal dogmas in which women were treated to subjugation and marginalization. A remarkable observation was the intentionality of ascribing to female characters more respectable roles in novels by various writers as the years go by. A conclusion drawn from the study is that education is still a major weapon of enhancing assertiveness in women but it is not the ultimate.

  • Gendered Inequalities in HIV/AIDS: Investigating Linkages between Degradation, Disenfranchisement, Unemployment and Disease

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the social, political, economic, and environmental forces that shape disproportionate HIV rates among women in less-developed countries. Specifically, we analyze how environmental degradation and women’s property rights condition female unemployment rates in poor nations and ultimately, patterns of disease. Using data from 105 less-developed nations, we construct a structural equation model to analyze influences on the proportion of HIV cases among women. We find that environmental degradation is an important, though often overlooked factor contributing to the female HIV burden across nations, through mechanisms such as female unemployment, disenfranchisement, and poor access to socio-health services. We also find that restrictions on property rights for women impact female unemployment and access to health services. Conclusions point to the efficacy of incorporating ecofeminist frameworks that emphasize ecological conditions alongside political, economic, and social forces to explain global health and gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS.

  • Dynamics of Norway’s Dual Citizenship Discourse: Challenges and Prospects for African Immigrants’ Integration and Political Engagement

    The unique principle of citizenship that enhances the possession of single citizenship, has long been the ideal of nationality laws. Yet, interest in dual citizenship has increased, triggered by the success of globalization and a gap in the ideal and reality of the principle of single citizenship. This article, therefore, offers an overview of Norway’s dual citizenship policy and the associated opportunities and risks for African immigrants inclusion. It incorporates facts and arguments for sociopolitical deliberation in an area where emotional reactions abound. Data were drawn from semi-structured interviews and analysis of policy documents. The findings demonstrate that allowing dual citizenship activates the prospects for better integration of immigrants in mainstream society. However, dual citizens can be denaturalized if their actions significantly harm the interests or image of the state. In this way, the policy constitutes a robust impetus toward standardization and normalization of practices that challenge social integration relations. These heuristics are particularly pernicious to immigrants, the casualties of this discourse, because the authorities are aware of a minimal backlash, considering their limited power to fight back politically. Moreover, a major obstacle in the naturalization of immigrants has been removed. This in turn have positive implications for greater identification of migrants with the country of residence, as well as better economic and sociopolitical participation.

  • Second Language Acquisition and Learning: Rethinking the Pedagogical Applicability of Stephen Krashen’s Monitor Model

    The monitor model, being one of its kind postulating the rigorous process taken by learners of second language, has since its inception in 1977, stirred sterile debates the globe over. Since then, Krashen has been rethinking and expanding his hypothetical acquisition notions, improve the applicability of his theory. The model has not been becoming, and it therefore faces disapproval on the basis of its failure to be tested empirically and, at some points, its contrast to Krashen’s earlier perceptions on both first and second language acquisition. In this paper, the writers deliberate upon Krashen’s monitor model, its tenets as well as the various ways in which it impacts, either negatively or positively upon educational teaching and learning.

  • Toward a bridge theory of modernity: Seeing self and society as processes

    The examination and exploration for the nature and meanings of Modernity have been recently presented in philosophy, sociology and psychology books and journal articles. This article presents some of the important ideas in these disciplines and provides a perspective that integrates three disciplines (Philosophy, Sociology, and Psychology) and five authors’ views on Modernity (Charles Taylor, Jaan Valsiner, Anthony Giddens, Herbert Hermans, and Hartman Rosa). The paper first presents an overview of these authors. It goes on to illustrate several common themes of their work: 1) the role of narrative and a semiotic perspective as tools for understanding modernity, 2) a developmental orientation and exploration of how self and society might be seen as developmental processes, and 3) a beginning of a reorienting of philosophy, sociology and psychology as interconnected disciplines. The goal of presenting the views of these authors is to gain a perspective on why it is valuable to understand the historical period we live in (modernity), the roles played by narrative and semiotics and the developmental nature of humans and their culture, and how listening to the melody and tone of modernity aids in understanding modernity.


    This paper takes the form of a Brown Paper on the Coronavirus epidemic regarding the observed absence of Black and Latinx Doctors as media commentators, the disproportionately high death rates among members of these groups, and societal calls to address the cause of these enduring problems. This work attempts to explain the discrepancy involved through a hyper-quizzical and culturally sensitive exploration of anthropological, cultural, historical, societal, and other factors by using a multipronged and nonconventional approach. By exploring the manner in which racism possibly informs the problem, various mechanisms that inform success or failure in different Black and Latinx sub-groups were explored. They include (e.g., acting White or Black, individuals’ attitudes and perceptions, deficit thinking, child-rearing style, honorary Whites, immigration effect, model minority, parental involvement, racial grammar, and White privilege). The looming ascendancy of both groups to majority-minority population informs the urgency to confront the problem. Determination emerged that as the rising tides will lift all Americans’ boats, raising Blacks and Latinxs’ academic and technical competency will boost the nation’s capacity to compete in an increasingly globalized and high-tech world. It challenges the paradox related to Blacks and Latinxs’ boat of educational achievement remaining stationary, despite the many rising tides of educational reforms, laws, and massive expenditures. A “NEW NORMAL” fostering collaboration between Asians, Blacks from the diaspora, Latinxs, and progressive Whites is recommended to address the problem. Critically, the need to elevate medical professionals as STEM role models for Black and Latinx children, as opposed to current Black and Latino thespians (entertainment figures, sports stars, and rap artists) or gangsters, is also recommended.


    A feature of the modern society is the city which tries to express itself by means of social and physical environment. One of the means of expression are events whose activities engage local residents, visitors, guests, tourists, and, of course, distant spectators by means of smart global technologies. Cultural activities manifest by implementing cultural projects of various areas, starting from one-time local events, and ending with large-scale international projects. Cultural tourism is a great opportunity of urban and regional tourism development. Implementation of cultural events in cities can have impact on cultural tourism development and its planning, and can be one of the very important economic as well as sociocultural impact of tourism that manifests by created infrastructure, increasing supply of services and entertainment, and lively cultural life in cities. The work is relevant because it reveals for the first time how mega cultural events in cities are or can be an effect for cultural tourism development in cities.

  • Modernization strategies and agricultural development in Senegal: A model for policy analysis

    Since independence in Senegal, the agricultural sector has been considered the vanguard of development. With this intention, sector development strategies at a cost of billion dollars have been formulated around technical, economic and social axes. The technical axis consisted of introducing agricultural equipment and infrastructure, rebuilding the seed bank, and improving hydraulic management. The economic axis involved developing a formal credit system and new marketing systems. The social axis stressed new production units and professional associations. The results of these strategies of intensification, improved profitability, and producer organization remain limited and Senegalese agriculture continues to experience cyclical crises. Why don’t these strategies of modernization achieve the expected results? What strategy is needed to modernize and develop agriculture in Africa, and particularly in Senegal? To answer these questions, we introduce an analytic framework based on a study of over 50 years of Senegalese agricultural policy and practice (Ndiaye, 2013). This framework provides new policy insights by more clearly distinguishing between development strategy components, actors and consequences.