International Journal of Social Research

  • Expressed Beliefs Concerning the Demographic Characteristics of Various Types of Criminal Offenders

    People often think of certain demographic characteristics when they are asked about particular kinds of criminal offenders and behaviors. Having set beliefs and attitudes about particular kinds of social groups often comes with negative labeling, stereotyping, and unfavorable treatment. This study examined what came into the minds of 573 people when they were asked about specific kinds of criminal groups or offenders. The findings from this study confirmed that there are clear patterns in the ways that people tend to think when they are asked about the demographics of criminal offenders. Research participants from all demographic backgrounds generally displayed common thoughts and beliefs about which types of people fall into specific offending categories, such as serial killers being White, gang members being Hispanic, prison inmates being Black, drug addicts being White, and outlaw bikers being White. Across all categories it was found that most people think of males when it comes to criminal offending. Other clear patterns revealed included thoughts about offenders typically being young and from the lower class; although there were some deviations from this for certain types of offenders and groups (e.g., outlaw bikers). The findings from this study should be useful across a number of fields such as psychology, criminology, sociology, social work, and corrections.

  • Relevance of Relationship between the Ministers and Civil Servants in India

    In a cabinet form of Government relationship between Ministers and Civil Servants plays an important role for functioning of a successful government because the ministers are members of Parliament and direct elected by the people from their respective constituencies, so they always claim their supermacy. In the other hand Civil Servants are selected on the countrywide merit for a certain age on permanentbasis so they never forget their merits and permanent cadre. Therefore a major difficulty the adjustment of relations between the two are prevailed from the very beginning in India. In fact the relations between the ministers and civil servants are very delicate. But, unfortunately in India traditions have so far been developed to put them on a satisfactory and enduring basis. All the facts have discussed ahead in this context.

  • The Role of Public Participation in Local Government Public Decision-making –taking Jiangmen Nuclear Fuel Project in Guangdong Province as an Example

    Public participation in public decision-making is of great significance for speeding up the transformation of government functions and embodying people’s ownership. Therefore, in the process of local decision-making, expanding public participation and attaching importance to the important value of public participation are of far-reaching significance to the formulation of local decision-making in China. For various reasons, the role of public participation in local government decision-making has not been well reflected. To achieve effective public participation in local government decision-making, we need to improve the quality of public political participation and cultivate good political participants; we need to improve the public participation mechanism in government public decision-making, expand the channels for public participation in decision-making; strengthen the guidance and supervision of the media, and purify the media environment for public participation in government decision-making.

  • The relationship of the professional quality of life and coping strategies of staff and volunteers working with refugees in resettlement

    Compassion fatigue (CF), a combination of burnout (BO) and secondary traumatic stress (STS), is common among helpers who are exposed to indirect trauma; therefore, it affects their quality of life (QOL). Professional Quality of life (ProQOL) and Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) are identified as essential constructs in understanding health or quality of life of helpers working with survivors of trauma. The purpose of this quantitative, correlation study was to investigate the relationship between professional quality of life and coping strategies of helpers who interact with individuals from the refugee background in resettlement. Data were collected via an online survey link distributed through gatekeepers of the refugee resettlement agencies to measure the relationship, if any, between QOL and coping strategies utilized by helpers working with people from a refugee background and to increase understanding of the types of coping strategies helpers can use to facilitate better work environment, better professional quality of life, and slower burnout rates so as to contribute to the theory of migration, traumatology, and professional quality of life. Participating helpers indicated their preferred coping strategies and their quality of life which were calculated using SPSS version 24 for Windows. There was a strong positive correlation (p>.05) among dimensions of the ProQOL and coping strategies. Most helpers reported average to high compassion satisfaction (CS) and low BO and STS. The findings suggest that teaching and increasing awareness of these predictors might positively influence the QOL of helpers of refugee background populations.

  • Study on Analysis of the Theoretical Abstraction of Economic Sociology and Embeddedness on Economic Action

    Economics believes that economic behavior in the pursuit of interests will not involve any social behavior or relationship. However, with the continuous development of society, personal economic behavior does not fully encourage and atomize, but a clock is in the process of changing social relations. From the perspective of economic sociology, starting from the perspective of embeddedness, expounding and explaining economic behavior, and proposing several theoretical abstract researches on “economic behavior”, in order to provide some guidance and help for relevant researcher.

  • Travel behavior characteristics in Nigeria’s most commercialized urban development: a Study of Eti-Osa Local Government, Lagos Nigeria

    Globalisation has enhanced the rate of urbanisation and influenced the travel behaviour characteristics across the cities of the world. Remarkably, in the case of Nigeria, especially in the most commercialised local government area, the travel pattern seems erratic and unpredictable; problems associated with urban mobility include delay, traffic congestion, and chaotic trip pattern characteristics. In this regards, most related studies seems to be biased towards the developed economics urban metropolitan areas. Therefore this study intends to examine the travel behavior characteristics in Nigeria’s most commercialised local government area. The methodology involves both the qualitative and the quantitative methods. The data is analysed with descriptive, chi-square statistical and regression analytical techniques. The study reveals that socio-economic characteristics especially gender, and the female to be specific contributes more to the volume of trips in the study area than the men. In addition, it shows there is a significant relationship between the mode of transport and level of accessibility among the residents of policy.

  • Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Coca-Cola’s Print Advertising

    With the development of the Internet, the expression of information is not limited to words, but it develops into other modes, such as images, sounds, actions, etc. This study is based on the visual grammar. The visual grammar proposed by Kress and Van Leeuwen is based on Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics. Coca-Cola as a popular soft drink brand, its graphic advertising design can be said to be very mature and representative. This study is based on visual grammar to carry on the thorough analysis to the American Coca-Cola classic print advertisement, carries on the analysis to each print advertisement from the reproduction meaning, the interactive meaning and the composition meaning. The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. In the Coca-Cola print advertisement in the United States, the professional characteristics of the characters are obvious. 2. Advertising language can directly express the benefits of the product. 3. The combination of image mode and language mode in the Coca-Cola print advertisement can be explained by visual grammar.

  • Tattoos, is it the new form of rebellion in China?

    When I first came to China, one thing tattoos were equated to: the mark of criminals, ‘loose women’ and gangsters. In other words, tattoos equated with rebellion or bad boy/girl behavior. The stereotypes which go with it! This was back in 2009, as time transpired [at least a decade], it actually became a symbol of defiance within the young-College educated and professional generation; whether it was covered or not. This form of rebellion was a stand-up against everything which had been forced into them, since their childhood. Like the period of the 1960s in American counterculture, China in theory is going through the same thing: whether it’s sexual exploration, homosexuality and now, tattoos. These are considered outside the norms and therefore, counterculture. It’s my point to prove that the ink on the body is the new symbolism of rebellion. Spreading like literal wildfire throughout Mainland China. In a still conservative society, the young-College students and professionals of today are coming at odds with their parents and older generation. In this investigative paper, I aim to show the reader why! Therefore, taking people back in history, with examples like: Yueh Fei, when the tattoo was accepted and hopefully demonstrating with interviews/opinions that this trend continues to grow in China.

  • The Ethical Issues in Ethnographic Research

    Doing and conducting ethnographic research, the role of the researcher’s motivations, design of the research, reflexive nature of the researcher’s self, the nature of interpretation of the findings, and above all the moral and ethical stands of the researcher is been scrutinized per se as it deals with human agencies. The moral and ethical issues with its politicization and objectified imposition on the ethnographer are key concern of the present article. The authors are inclined to reflect the major and significant dimensions of ethical issues in ethnographic and/or social research along with its limitations, prejudices, contradictions and complexities in contemporary ethnographic practices in different academic discourses.

  • Citizenship and Identity Crisis: A brief account of African Experience

    Introduction The concept and practice of citizenship are usually associated with the relationship between individuals and the political community in which they reside. This statement can broadly be analyzed in terms of membership and identity. Furthermore different paradigms available on the intellectual discourse came up with their respective views pertinent the issue. Towards A definition As a matter of history definition of the term citizenship was closely associated with ancient city states of Greece. Accordingly citizens were defined as free individuals, (i.e.) men, who were involved in the public affairs of the city-state. A citizen was connected to the civic virtues of Athenian democracy, which was marked by the subordination of the private life to the dedication to public affairs and the common good. (Held, 1996). The citizen was a “homo politicus” With the political and social hegemony of Christianity during the Middle Ages. This way of understanding citizenship eclipsed and was replaced by (“homo credens”) (Held, 1996). A public political order or public life outside the religious order of Christianity was abandoned. The order of things was not connected to the public realm of republican commitment of the citizens, but to subordination to the will of God. The republican virtues of citizenship gained a new foothold during the Renaissance in the Italian city-states. Still, it was the French revolution, starting in 1789, that provided the framework for thinking and practicing citizenship within the formation of modern nation states. Below there is a description of how the heritage of the French revolution is still with us today, and likewise the political and social processes that constitute significant challenges to this heritage. However, before doing so, it might be a good idea shortly to explore some features of the concept of citizenship from a more abstract and politically theoretical point of…