International Journal of Social Research

  • Travel behavior characteristics in Nigeria’s most commercialized urban development: a Study of Eti-Osa Local Government, Lagos Nigeria

    Globalisation has enhanced the rate of urbanisation and influenced the travel behaviour characteristics across the cities of the world. Remarkably, in the case of Nigeria, especially in the most commercialised local government area, the travel pattern seems erratic and unpredictable; problems associated with urban mobility include delay, traffic congestion, and chaotic trip pattern characteristics. In this regards, most related studies seems to be biased towards the developed economics urban metropolitan areas. Therefore this study intends to examine the travel behavior characteristics in Nigeria’s most commercialised local government area. The methodology involves both the qualitative and the quantitative methods. The data is analysed with descriptive, chi-square statistical and regression analytical techniques. The study reveals that socio-economic characteristics especially gender, and the female to be specific contributes more to the volume of trips in the study area than the men. In addition, it shows there is a significant relationship between the mode of transport and level of accessibility among the residents of policy.

  • Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Coca-Cola’s Print Advertising

    With the development of the Internet, the expression of information is not limited to words, but it develops into other modes, such as images, sounds, actions, etc. This study is based on the visual grammar. The visual grammar proposed by Kress and Van Leeuwen is based on Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics. Coca-Cola as a popular soft drink brand, its graphic advertising design can be said to be very mature and representative. This study is based on visual grammar to carry on the thorough analysis to the American Coca-Cola classic print advertisement, carries on the analysis to each print advertisement from the reproduction meaning, the interactive meaning and the composition meaning. The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. In the Coca-Cola print advertisement in the United States, the professional characteristics of the characters are obvious. 2. Advertising language can directly express the benefits of the product. 3. The combination of image mode and language mode in the Coca-Cola print advertisement can be explained by visual grammar.

  • Tattoos, is it the new form of rebellion in China?

    When I first came to China, one thing tattoos were equated to: the mark of criminals, ‘loose women’ and gangsters. In other words, tattoos equated with rebellion or bad boy/girl behavior. The stereotypes which go with it! This was back in 2009, as time transpired [at least a decade], it actually became a symbol of defiance within the young-College educated and professional generation; whether it was covered or not. This form of rebellion was a stand-up against everything which had been forced into them, since their childhood. Like the period of the 1960s in American counterculture, China in theory is going through the same thing: whether it’s sexual exploration, homosexuality and now, tattoos. These are considered outside the norms and therefore, counterculture. It’s my point to prove that the ink on the body is the new symbolism of rebellion. Spreading like literal wildfire throughout Mainland China. In a still conservative society, the young-College students and professionals of today are coming at odds with their parents and older generation. In this investigative paper, I aim to show the reader why! Therefore, taking people back in history, with examples like: Yueh Fei, when the tattoo was accepted and hopefully demonstrating with interviews/opinions that this trend continues to grow in China.

  • The Ethical Issues in Ethnographic Research

    Doing and conducting ethnographic research, the role of the researcher’s motivations, design of the research, reflexive nature of the researcher’s self, the nature of interpretation of the findings, and above all the moral and ethical stands of the researcher is been scrutinized per se as it deals with human agencies. The moral and ethical issues with its politicization and objectified imposition on the ethnographer are key concern of the present article. The authors are inclined to reflect the major and significant dimensions of ethical issues in ethnographic and/or social research along with its limitations, prejudices, contradictions and complexities in contemporary ethnographic practices in different academic discourses.

  • Citizenship and Identity Crisis: A brief account of African Experience

    Introduction The concept and practice of citizenship are usually associated with the relationship between individuals and the political community in which they reside. This statement can broadly be analyzed in terms of membership and identity. Furthermore different paradigms available on the intellectual discourse came up with their respective views pertinent the issue. Towards A definition As a matter of history definition of the term citizenship was closely associated with ancient city states of Greece. Accordingly citizens were defined as free individuals, (i.e.) men, who were involved in the public affairs of the city-state. A citizen was connected to the civic virtues of Athenian democracy, which was marked by the subordination of the private life to the dedication to public affairs and the common good. (Held, 1996). The citizen was a “homo politicus” With the political and social hegemony of Christianity during the Middle Ages. This way of understanding citizenship eclipsed and was replaced by (“homo credens”) (Held, 1996). A public political order or public life outside the religious order of Christianity was abandoned. The order of things was not connected to the public realm of republican commitment of the citizens, but to subordination to the will of God. The republican virtues of citizenship gained a new foothold during the Renaissance in the Italian city-states. Still, it was the French revolution, starting in 1789, that provided the framework for thinking and practicing citizenship within the formation of modern nation states. Below there is a description of how the heritage of the French revolution is still with us today, and likewise the political and social processes that constitute significant challenges to this heritage. However, before doing so, it might be a good idea shortly to explore some features of the concept of citizenship from a more abstract and politically theoretical point of…

  • Rural Hierarchy of Prosperity: A Study of Livelihood Diversification and Its Implications on Rurality

    This study aimed to analyze the social changes in rural areas as a consequence of the shift of peasants to non-agrarian activities. Social change in the context of this paper is associated with livelihood diversification and its implications for rural restratification and its characteristic today.The research is conducted using qualitative method through community case study approach. Data collection is obtained through direct observation, face-to-face interviews and personal history. Respective perspective from three generations is used to track community history and changes that occur in the context of the village, community, and agricultural activities. The result shows that economic diversification has created a new rurality. New rurality or present-day rural characteristic are indicated by increasing prosperity, and agriculture that is no longer the dominant source of income. Livelihood diversification provides opportunities for vertical social mobility for the rural poors which are the offsprings of farm laborers and tenants who choose to become migrant workers in Korea. There has been a restratification characterized by the emergence of migrant groups as a new social class that shifts the upper class position previously occupied by landlords and their descendants. They are a new upper class in social stratification in the rural that manages to show their prosperity through the accumulation of capital from remittances they brought back to the village.

  • Study on the Impact of Climate Change on Regional Instability

    In this paper we will discuss the problem on how the regional instability of a country can be affected by the climate change. Based on the data collected about the national vulnerabilities, we select fifteen indicators by the principal component analysis. A new three-level indicator system is then established to assess the country’s vulnerability. To obtain and optimize the weight for each indicator used at different levels, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) are used. Based on this work, a measurement system including the climate, economic, security, politics and human development is set up to measure the vulnerability of the country.

  • Deconstructing the employment problem of adult autism spectrum disorders from the Strength Perspective

    The data show that the prevalence of autism in China is on the rise. As autistic patients grow up, their employment problems are highlighted. The current employment situation of older autistic groups is not ideal. This paper breaks away from the original “problem perspective” and “defect perspective” and introduces the “ strength perspective “ into the employment problem of adult autism spectrum disorders. After analyzing the contradiction between action and self-awareness in the plan, personal superiority and social discrimination, and the contradiction between membership and social security, from the perspective of superiority, the expectations and suggestions that are conducive to the employment of adult autism spectrum disorders are proposed.

  • Cyberspace of the Fourth Scientific and Technological Revolution

    The aim of the article is to analyze briefly a modern phenomenon of the cyber space from the sociological and environmental viewpoints. The cyberspace is a material system constructed by a man. This space is now shaping by the technical means developed by the Fourth scientific and technological revolution (hereafter the STR-4). As a result, we are now living within a complex and inseparable sociobiotecnical reality of a double quality. It’s both environment and a variety of the agents, social, natural and virtual. The carrying structure of the cyberspace is an all-embracing and all-penetrating informational network. Three models of this space are considered: technocratic, socially constructed and alternative ones. The cyberspace is an instrument of capitalist accumulation, a particular branch of it and self-sustained phenomenon of a high complexity. The basic laws of its development are defined both by technological progress and contradictory global-local trends of evolution of a global whole. The cyberspace is a very mobile structure conditioned by the struggle for resources and geopolitical domination of the global stakeholders and therefore this space works as a promoter of global hybrid wars and other state of emergence. The media is a necessary instrument of a power, more influential than any other social institution of modern society. Therefore, it’s an inseparable part of the cyberspace. At the same time this space is shaped by many civil organizations and the individuals. Finally, the cyberspace is Janus like because it is simultaneously absolutely necessary for users and potentially risky for them.

  • A New Mode of Enterprise Social Work Service – Industrial Park Service

    Enterprise social work service has a variety of different models which is on the site and has a lot of limitations and problems. Based on the analyses of different service modes of enterprise social work, this paper adopts case method to analyze in-depth one of those modes of industrial park under the guidance of social workers.We believe that because compared with site service, the enterprise social work service in the industrial park is not in the enterprise, has no direct conflict of interests with the enterprise and are not supervised or constrained by the enterprise, the social workers of industrial park have more autonomy, more teamwork spirit, cover more people, have larger space, can provide more efficient service and get more social recognition and support. Therefore, it is a more feasible and effective choice for China to purchase the service mode of enterprise social work in industrial parks by a third party (government).