Since independence in Senegal, the agricultural sector has been considered the vanguard of development. With this intention, sector development strategies at a cost of billion dollars have been formulated around technical, economic and social axes. The technical axis consisted of introducing agricultural equipment and infrastructure, rebuilding the seed bank, and improving hydraulic management. The economic axis involved developing a formal credit system and new marketing systems. The social axis stressed new production units and professional associations. The results of these strategies of intensification, improved profitability, and producer organization remain limited and Senegalese agriculture continues to experience cyclical crises. Why don’t these strategies of modernization achieve the expected results? What strategy is needed to modernize and develop agriculture in Africa, and particularly in Senegal? To answer these questions, we introduce an analytic framework based on a study of over 50 years of Senegalese agricultural policy and practice (Ndiaye, 2013). This framework provides new policy insights by more clearly distinguishing between development strategy components, actors and consequences.
Technological dependence, captive market and outsourcing in the Spanish telecommunications equipment industry Angel Calvo (UB)
This article addresses the complex relations between the expansion of multinationals and economic nationalism in Southern Europe during a period of industrial crisis, growing economic integration and intense technological change, all amidst a notable alteration of the regulatory framework. The paper focuses on the process of global restructuring of the telecommunications industry in the two final decades of the 20th century and the first years of the new millennium. The period encompasses the transition from an industry based on the close linkage, if not strict integration, between the monopoly of the telephone service and the national telecommunication equipment industry. Methodologically, it is based on a case study – that of the International Telecommunication and Electronics Company -, on an interdisciplinary approach and on varied sources. The article reveals the factors behind the transformation of a vertically integrated company into one that outsourced its production before being engulfed by the globalized economy. It also highlights the role of international markets and, more specifically, the Latin American market.
Resilience and Quality of Life Among People Serving Prison Sentences in Penitentiary Institutions: The Mediating Role of Social Support
The aim of this study was to explore the associations between resilience and quality of life and the possible mediating influence of social support. As dependent variables, we tested QoL global score and its specific components: psychosocial, psychophysical, subjective, and metaphysical. In addition, we tested global social support and its aspects—psychosocial, psychophysical, subjective, and metaphysical—as mediators. The models we constructed are acceptable and each of the predictors is significant. The study confirmed the mediating effect of social support on QoL in prisoners.
Social class control and domination in America: A critical revisitation of the Great Depression as lived by Americans, through the novel The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck
One of the crucial events that have marked the world in general and the United States of America in particular in the early twentieth century, has been the Great depression ; it was a great economic crisis faced by the America, the already most powerful nation of the world. And if America was a victim, it clearly no doubt that the Great Depression was an international concern. In America, even though all social classes of people have suffered this economic crisis, the main victims have been the lower class, the one composed of employees and farm workers who have been exploited and despised by those wealthy people, bankers and employers, with government being passive. This has turned many into permanent migrants in search of better living. Such a situation could not go without drawing the attention of many writers, and the novel, The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck is set in that context. Steinbeck has then sought to expose and condemn both the American’s upper social class disastrous policy and attitudes toward the working class, and the American government’s siding with the rich to worsen the great majority of people bad condition. In the novel, Steinbeck’s protagonists have first been deprived from the land they were born to live on, and have been obliged to migrate just to face an increasingly worse situation that will turn them from peaceful peasants into defensive murderers.
The causes of WWI: a problem that most historians have found difficult or even impossible to solve. My review of a book, The Sleepwalkers (2012), by the historian C. Clark, illustrates this problem (Scheff 2018). It is a best seller, and has been highly praised by reviewers. One example: “For a century the question of the origins of World War I has bedeviled historians. But no one who examines the question will be able to ignore “The Sleepwalkers’’. (David M. Shribman, March 23, 2013. Boston Globe.) However, like most attempts, Clark’s book doesn’t solve the puzzle. His solution is not clear, but it seems to be that both Germany and France were more or less equally at fault. However, the majority of attempts by other investigators seem to place Germany at fault, but with little or no systematic evidence. In particular they do not propose a clear and obvious MOTIVE for starting the war. It seems to me, however, that it was France that had such a motive: There is a hidden aspect of Clark’s book that neither the author nor any of the reviewers’ mention: humiliation as a possible cause of the war. When I searched Clark’s text, there were 18 mentions of humiliation, the first on page 51, the last on page 558. A large part of this usage occurs when the author quotes the major players in WWI: they use it to explain motives. For example, Edward Gray, Prime Minister in England during WWI is quoted as saying “If Britain were forced to choose between peace and the surrender of her international pre-eminence …peace at that price would be a humiliation intolerable …to endure.” (pp. 210). He seems to be saying that avoiding humiliation is a motive that would cause England to go to war. The philosopher…
The purpose of this article is to explore the human insecurities of indoor sex workers and coping strategies they use to reduce their insecurities of different kind in the case of Woldia Town. The article employed 10 purposively selected indoor sex workers for in-depth interviews and four key informants (2pimps: owners of the bar house and 2 NGOs working on sex workers) as a key informant interviewee. In addition, one FGD was held with indoor sex workers to elicit group ideas about the issue. The article revealed that indoor sex workers are found to be faced with different human insecurities in their work and coping strategies that they are using to reduce their security threats. In general, the study conclude that indoor sex workers are at a high risk of insecurities therefore serious attention must be paid in order to address this problem and it suggests that the government, police department, NGO projects and the community are expected to do a lot to reduce the problem.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the scientific production on the scenarios of school bullying through searches in online journals in the areas of Health, Social Sciences and Humanities, from 2013 to 2018. METHOD: This is an integrative literature review. The sample consisted of 43 publications. RESULTS: The survey revealed that the 2014, 2017 and 2018 period presented a number of (21.42%) publications, followed by 2013 to 2016 (14.28%) and finally the 2015 period corresponding to (7.14%). of the total score of publications. As for the predominant country of origin of the main author was Colombia (28.57%). The predominant area of knowledge of the first author was psychology (42.85%). CONCLUSION: The discussion about the practice of school violence, Bullying, has gained notoriety due to the intensification and severity of the phenomenon in the various scenarios, especially in educational institutions, whether public or private. The information gathered through this study stimulates the current, contemporary debate, collaborating for future research on this subject.
Tea culture is a very long-standing cultural representative of China. It has a profound and extensive influence all over the world. Tea culture contains very rich philosophies and spiritual connotations, which can give people a lot of thought inspiration. The sports spirit represented by football is also a valuable asset in the process of cultural development in China. How to effectively integrate the traditional tea culture and sports spirit in our country has received great attention from people and has also become a lot of experts and scholars. Object of inquiry. This article focuses on the analysis and research of the fusion strategy between tea culture and sports spirit.
People often think of certain demographic characteristics when they are asked about particular kinds of criminal offenders and behaviors. Having set beliefs and attitudes about particular kinds of social groups often comes with negative labeling, stereotyping, and unfavorable treatment. This study examined what came into the minds of 573 people when they were asked about specific kinds of criminal groups or offenders. The findings from this study confirmed that there are clear patterns in the ways that people tend to think when they are asked about the demographics of criminal offenders. Research participants from all demographic backgrounds generally displayed common thoughts and beliefs about which types of people fall into specific offending categories, such as serial killers being White, gang members being Hispanic, prison inmates being Black, drug addicts being White, and outlaw bikers being White. Across all categories it was found that most people think of males when it comes to criminal offending. Other clear patterns revealed included thoughts about offenders typically being young and from the lower class; although there were some deviations from this for certain types of offenders and groups (e.g., outlaw bikers). The findings from this study should be useful across a number of fields such as psychology, criminology, sociology, social work, and corrections.
In a cabinet form of Government relationship between Ministers and Civil Servants plays an important role for functioning of a successful government because the ministers are members of Parliament and direct elected by the people from their respective constituencies, so they always claim their supermacy. In the other hand Civil Servants are selected on the countrywide merit for a certain age on permanentbasis so they never forget their merits and permanent cadre. Therefore a major difficulty the adjustment of relations between the two are prevailed from the very beginning in India. In fact the relations between the ministers and civil servants are very delicate. But, unfortunately in India traditions have so far been developed to put them on a satisfactory and enduring basis. All the facts have discussed ahead in this context.