International Journal of Social Research

  • Dynamics of Norway’s Dual Citizenship Discourse: Challenges and Prospects for African Immigrants’ Integration and Political Engagement

    The unique principle of citizenship that enhances the possession of single citizenship, has long been the ideal of nationality laws. Yet, interest in dual citizenship has increased, triggered by the success of globalization and a gap in the ideal and reality of the principle of single citizenship. This article, therefore, offers an overview of Norway’s dual citizenship policy and the associated opportunities and risks for African immigrants inclusion. It incorporates facts and arguments for sociopolitical deliberation in an area where emotional reactions abound. Data were drawn from semi-structured interviews and analysis of policy documents. The findings demonstrate that allowing dual citizenship activates the prospects for better integration of immigrants in mainstream society. However, dual citizens can be denaturalized if their actions significantly harm the interests or image of the state. In this way, the policy constitutes a robust impetus toward standardization and normalization of practices that challenge social integration relations. These heuristics are particularly pernicious to immigrants, the casualties of this discourse, because the authorities are aware of a minimal backlash, considering their limited power to fight back politically. Moreover, a major obstacle in the naturalization of immigrants has been removed. This in turn have positive implications for greater identification of migrants with the country of residence, as well as better economic and sociopolitical participation.

  • Second Language Acquisition and Learning: Rethinking the Pedagogical Applicability of Stephen Krashen’s Monitor Model

    The monitor model, being one of its kind postulating the rigorous process taken by learners of second language, has since its inception in 1977, stirred sterile debates the globe over. Since then, Krashen has been rethinking and expanding his hypothetical acquisition notions, improve the applicability of his theory. The model has not been becoming, and it therefore faces disapproval on the basis of its failure to be tested empirically and, at some points, its contrast to Krashen’s earlier perceptions on both first and second language acquisition. In this paper, the writers deliberate upon Krashen’s monitor model, its tenets as well as the various ways in which it impacts, either negatively or positively upon educational teaching and learning.

  • Toward a bridge theory of modernity: Seeing self and society as processes

    The examination and exploration for the nature and meanings of Modernity have been recently presented in philosophy, sociology and psychology books and journal articles. This article presents some of the important ideas in these disciplines and provides a perspective that integrates three disciplines (Philosophy, Sociology, and Psychology) and five authors’ views on Modernity (Charles Taylor, Jaan Valsiner, Anthony Giddens, Herbert Hermans, and Hartman Rosa). The paper first presents an overview of these authors. It goes on to illustrate several common themes of their work: 1) the role of narrative and a semiotic perspective as tools for understanding modernity, 2) a developmental orientation and exploration of how self and society might be seen as developmental processes, and 3) a beginning of a reorienting of philosophy, sociology and psychology as interconnected disciplines. The goal of presenting the views of these authors is to gain a perspective on why it is valuable to understand the historical period we live in (modernity), the roles played by narrative and semiotics and the developmental nature of humans and their culture, and how listening to the melody and tone of modernity aids in understanding modernity.


    This paper takes the form of a Brown Paper on the Coronavirus epidemic regarding the observed absence of Black and Latinx Doctors as media commentators, the disproportionately high death rates among members of these groups, and societal calls to address the cause of these enduring problems. This work attempts to explain the discrepancy involved through a hyper-quizzical and culturally sensitive exploration of anthropological, cultural, historical, societal, and other factors by using a multipronged and nonconventional approach. By exploring the manner in which racism possibly informs the problem, various mechanisms that inform success or failure in different Black and Latinx sub-groups were explored. They include (e.g., acting White or Black, individuals’ attitudes and perceptions, deficit thinking, child-rearing style, honorary Whites, immigration effect, model minority, parental involvement, racial grammar, and White privilege). The looming ascendancy of both groups to majority-minority population informs the urgency to confront the problem. Determination emerged that as the rising tides will lift all Americans’ boats, raising Blacks and Latinxs’ academic and technical competency will boost the nation’s capacity to compete in an increasingly globalized and high-tech world. It challenges the paradox related to Blacks and Latinxs’ boat of educational achievement remaining stationary, despite the many rising tides of educational reforms, laws, and massive expenditures. A “NEW NORMAL” fostering collaboration between Asians, Blacks from the diaspora, Latinxs, and progressive Whites is recommended to address the problem. Critically, the need to elevate medical professionals as STEM role models for Black and Latinx children, as opposed to current Black and Latino thespians (entertainment figures, sports stars, and rap artists) or gangsters, is also recommended.


    A feature of the modern society is the city which tries to express itself by means of social and physical environment. One of the means of expression are events whose activities engage local residents, visitors, guests, tourists, and, of course, distant spectators by means of smart global technologies. Cultural activities manifest by implementing cultural projects of various areas, starting from one-time local events, and ending with large-scale international projects. Cultural tourism is a great opportunity of urban and regional tourism development. Implementation of cultural events in cities can have impact on cultural tourism development and its planning, and can be one of the very important economic as well as sociocultural impact of tourism that manifests by created infrastructure, increasing supply of services and entertainment, and lively cultural life in cities. The work is relevant because it reveals for the first time how mega cultural events in cities are or can be an effect for cultural tourism development in cities.

  • Modernization strategies and agricultural development in Senegal: A model for policy analysis

    Since independence in Senegal, the agricultural sector has been considered the vanguard of development. With this intention, sector development strategies at a cost of billion dollars have been formulated around technical, economic and social axes. The technical axis consisted of introducing agricultural equipment and infrastructure, rebuilding the seed bank, and improving hydraulic management. The economic axis involved developing a formal credit system and new marketing systems. The social axis stressed new production units and professional associations. The results of these strategies of intensification, improved profitability, and producer organization remain limited and Senegalese agriculture continues to experience cyclical crises. Why don’t these strategies of modernization achieve the expected results? What strategy is needed to modernize and develop agriculture in Africa, and particularly in Senegal? To answer these questions, we introduce an analytic framework based on a study of over 50 years of Senegalese agricultural policy and practice (Ndiaye, 2013). This framework provides new policy insights by more clearly distinguishing between development strategy components, actors and consequences.

  • Technological dependence, captive market and outsourcing in the Spanish telecommunications equipment industry Angel Calvo (UB)

    This article addresses the complex relations between the expansion of multinationals and economic nationalism in Southern Europe during a period of industrial crisis, growing economic integration and intense technological change, all amidst a notable alteration of the regulatory framework. The paper focuses on the process of global restructuring of the telecommunications industry in the two final decades of the 20th century and the first years of the new millennium. The period encompasses the transition from an industry based on the close linkage, if not strict integration, between the monopoly of the telephone service and the national telecommunication equipment industry. Methodologically, it is based on a case study – that of the International Telecommunication and Electronics Company -, on an interdisciplinary approach and on varied sources. The article reveals the factors behind the transformation of a vertically integrated company into one that outsourced its production before being engulfed by the globalized economy. It also highlights the role of international markets and, more specifically, the Latin American market.

  • Resilience and Quality of Life Among People Serving Prison Sentences in Penitentiary Institutions: The Mediating Role of Social Support

    The aim of this study was to explore the associations between resilience and quality of life and the possible mediating influence of social support. As dependent variables, we tested QoL global score and its specific components: psychosocial, psychophysical, subjective, and metaphysical. In addition, we tested global social support and its aspects—psychosocial, psychophysical, subjective, and metaphysical—as mediators. The models we constructed are acceptable and each of the predictors is significant. The study confirmed the mediating effect of social support on QoL in prisoners.

  • Social class control and domination in America: A critical revisitation of the Great Depression as lived by Americans, through the novel The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck

    One of the crucial events that have marked the world in general and the United States of America in particular in the early twentieth century, has been the Great depression ; it was a great economic crisis faced by the America, the already most powerful nation of the world. And if America was a victim, it clearly no doubt that the Great Depression was an international concern. In America, even though all social classes of people have suffered this economic crisis, the main victims have been the lower class, the one composed of employees and farm workers who have been exploited and despised by those wealthy people, bankers and employers, with government being passive. This has turned many into permanent migrants in search of better living. Such a situation could not go without drawing the attention of many writers, and the novel, The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck is set in that context. Steinbeck has then sought to expose and condemn both the American’s upper social class disastrous policy and attitudes toward the working class, and the American government’s siding with the rich to worsen the great majority of people bad condition. In the novel, Steinbeck’s protagonists have first been deprived from the land they were born to live on, and have been obliged to migrate just to face an increasingly worse situation that will turn them from peaceful peasants into defensive murderers.

  • Revenge for Humiliation as A Possible Cause of WWI

    The causes of WWI: a problem that most historians have found difficult or even impossible to solve. My review of a book, The Sleepwalkers (2012), by the historian C. Clark, illustrates this problem (Scheff 2018). It is a best seller, and has been highly praised by reviewers. One example: “For a century the question of the origins of World War I has bedeviled historians. But no one who examines the question will be able to ignore “The Sleepwalkers’’. (David M. Shribman, March 23, 2013. Boston Globe.) However, like most attempts, Clark’s book doesn’t solve the puzzle. His solution is not clear, but it seems to be that both Germany and France were more or less equally at fault. However, the majority of attempts by other investigators seem to place Germany at fault, but with little or no systematic evidence. In particular they do not propose a clear and obvious MOTIVE for starting the war. It seems to me, however, that it was France that had such a motive: There is a hidden aspect of Clark’s book that neither the author nor any of the reviewers’ mention: humiliation as a possible cause of the war. When I searched Clark’s text, there were 18 mentions of humiliation, the first on page 51, the last on page 558. A large part of this usage occurs when the author quotes the major players in WWI: they use it to explain motives. For example, Edward Gray, Prime Minister in England during WWI is quoted as saying “If Britain were forced to choose between peace and the surrender of her international pre-eminence …peace at that price would be a humiliation intolerable …to endure.” (pp. 210). He seems to be saying that avoiding humiliation is a motive that would cause England to go to war. The philosopher…