Review Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Adulteration methods and current trends in authentic identification of botanical materials used for the pharmaceuticals
L.Sarvananda1*, Mohamed Shafras2, Amal D Premarathna3
1Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; 2Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya; 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and chemical profiling techniques have their own limitations for authentication of plant species. DNA-based markers give the new directions to pharmacognosy. It is important to distinguish accurately the authentic plant sources for herbal drugs because adulteration and substitutions diminish their efficacy and reduce the trust of users as well as it is necessary to convert botanical materials into scientifically valid herbal drugs. Proper integration of molecular techniques as analytical tools with conventional knowledge will lead to the development of a comprehensive system of identification of medicinal plants that can be conveniently applied at the research and industry level for quality control of botanicals. The review derives the advantages of DNA-based method for the purpose of correct identification of herbal material and discrimination of originals from the plant-derived adulterants.
Keywords: Phytopharmaceuticals, medicinal plants, Adulterations, Herbal Preparation
How to cite this article:
L.Sarvanand, Mohamed Shafras, Amal D Premarathna. Adulteration methods and current trends in authentic identification of botanical materials used for the pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2019, 4:17.
1. Abba D, Inabo HI, Yakubu SE, Olonitola OS (2009) Contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in kaduna metropolis. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med 6:70–77.
2. Abdin MZ, Mirza KJ, Khan S, et al (2012) Development and detection efficiency of SCAR markers of Cuscuta reflexa and its adulterant Cuscuta chinensis. J Food Drug Anal 20:471–477.
3. Agarwa P, Sharma B, Fatima A, Jain SK (2014) An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4:245–252.
4. Agarwal M, Rai V, Khatoon S, Mehrotra S (2014) Effect of microbial load on therapeutically active constituent glycyrrhizin . Indian J Tradit Knowl 13:319–324.
5. Aronson JK (2009) Herbal Medicine-Introduction and general information. In: Meyler’s Side Effects of Herbal Medicines. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–30
6. Balasubramani SP, Murugan R, Ravikumar K, Venkatasubramanian P (2010) Development of ITS sequence based molecular marker to distinguish, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) from its adulterants. Fitoterapia 81:503–508. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.01.002
7. Balasubramani SP, Seethapathy GS, Venkatasubramanian P (2011) Nuclear ribosomal DNA-ITS region based molecular markers to distinguish botanical entities traded as “Vidari.” J Herb Med 1:83–89.
8. Bandaranayake WM (2006) Quality control , screening , toxicity , and regulation of herbal drugs.In: Ahmad I, Aqil F, Owais M (eds) Modern phytomedicine. Turning medicinal plants into drugs. WILEY-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, pp 25–58
9. Bansal A, Chhabra V, Rawal RK, Sharma S (2014) Chemometrics: A new scenario in herbal drug standardization. J Pharm Anal 4:223–233. doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2013.12.001
10. Begum S, Ravikumar K, Ved D (2014) “ Asoka ” – an important medicinal plant , its market scenario and conservation measures in India. Curr Sci 107:6–8.
11. Blumenthal M (2011) Economically motivated adulteration of botanical raw materials, herbal extracts, and essential oils in the global marketplace. Planta Med 77:SL61.
12. Boiteux L (1999) Effects of plant tissue and DNA purification method on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-based genetic fingerprinting analysis in carrot. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 124:32–38.
13. Busconi M, Colli L, Sánchez RA, et al (2015) AFLP and MS-AFLP analysis of the variation within Saffron Crocus (Crocus sativus L.) Germplasm. PLoS One 10:e0123434. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123434
14. Caldas ED, Machado LL (2004) Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil. Food Chem Toxicol 42:599–603.
15. Chen S, Pang X, Song J, et al (2014) A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: From morphology to DNA. Biotechnol Adv 32:1237–1244.
16. Chen S, Yao H, Han J, et al (2010) Validation of the ITS2 region as a novel DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plant species. PLoS One 5:1–8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008613
17. Cheng X, Su X, Chen X, et al (2014) Biological ingredient analysis of traditional Chinese medicine preparation based on high-throughput sequencing: the story for Liuwei Dihuang Wan. Sci Rep 4:5147. doi: 10.1038/srep05147
18. Choo BK, Moon BC, Ji Y, et al (2009) Development of SCAR markers for the discrimination of three species of medicinal plants, Angelica decursiva (Peucedanum decursivum), Peucedanum praeruptorum and Anthricus sylvestris, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and random ampli. Biol Pharm Bull 32:24–30.
19. Crawford L a., Koscinski D, Keyghobadi N (2012) A call for more transparent reporting of error rates: The quality of AFLP data in ecological and evolutionary research. Mol Ecol 21:5911–5917. doi: 10.1111/mec.12069
20. Denholm J (2010) Complementary medicine and heavy metal toxicity in Australia. Webmed Cent Toxicol 1:1–6.
21. Dghaim R, Khatib S Al, Rasool H, Khan MA (2015) Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirates. J Environ Public Health. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/973878
22. Dhami N, Mishra AD (2015) Phytochemical variation: How to resolve the quality controversies of herbal medicinal products? J Herb Med 5:118–127. doi: 10.1016/j.hermed.2015.04.002
23. Ekor M (2014) The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Neurol 4 JAN:1–10. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00177
24. Galimberti A, De Mattia F, Losa A, et al (2013) DNA barcoding as a new tool for food traceability. Food Res Int 50:55–63. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2012.09.036
25. Ganie SH, Upadhyay P, Das S, Prasad Sharma M (2015) Authentication of medicinal plants by DNA markers. Plant Gene 4:83–99. doi: 10.1016/j.plgene.2015.10.002
26. Gao W, Yang H, Qi L-W, et al (2012) Unbiased metabolite profiling by liquid chromatography– quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis for herbal authentication: Classification of seven Lonicera species flower buds. J Chromatogr A 1245:109–116. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.05.027
27. Godwin D, Aitken E, Smith L (1997) Application of inter simple sequence (ISSR) markers to plant genetics. Electrophoresis 18:1524–1528.
28. Govindaraghavan S, Hennell JR, Sucher NJ (2012) From classical taxonomy to genome and metabolome: Towards comprehensive quality standards for medicinal herb raw materials and extracts. Fitoterapia 83:979–988.
29. Gowda BK, Chandrika KT, Prasanna VCK (2010) AFLP authentication of Embelia Ribes Burm .F and Embelia Tsjeriam-Cottam a. Dc. Int J Sci Nat 1:58–60.
30. Group CPBOL, Li D-Z, Gao L-M, et al (2011) Comparative analysis of a large dataset indicates that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) should be incorporated into the core barcode for seed plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108 :19641–19646. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1104551108
31. Group CPW, Hollingsworth PM, Forrest LL, et al (2009) A DNA barcode for land plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106 :12794–12797.
32. Gu S, Ding XY, Wang Y, et al (2007) Isolation and characterization of microsaellite markers in Dendrobium officinale, an endangered herb endemic to China. Mol Ecol Notes 7:1166–1168. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01817.x
33. Guo J, Ren Y, Chen L, et al (2010) Authentication of armandii (“Chuanmutong” ) and differentiation of its common adulterants using RAPD and SCAR markers. 4:697–701.
34. Gupta P, Goel R, Pathak S, et al (2013) De Novo Assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of Withania somnifera leaf and root transcriptomes to identify putative genes involved in the with anolides biosynthesis. PLoSOne 8:10.1371/journal.pone.0062714. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062714
35. Gupta P, Sharma U, Gupta P, et al (2013) Evolvosides C-E, flavonol-4-O-triglycosides from Evolvulus alsinoides and their anti-stress activity. Bioorganic Med Chem 21:1116–1122.
36. Gurib-Fakim A (2006) Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Mol Aspects Med 27:1–93.
37. Ha WY, Shaw PC, Liu J, et al (2002) Authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and directed amplification of minisatellite region DNA (DAMD). J Agric Food Chem 50:1871–1875.
38. Hebert PDN, Gregory TR (2005) The promise of DNA barcoding for taxonomy. Syst Biol 54:852–859.
39. Hollingsworth PM (2011) Refining the DNA barcode for land plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:19451–19452.
40. Hollingsworth PM, Graham SW, Little DP (2011) Choosing and using a plant DNA barcode. PLoSOne.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019254
42. Hussain M A, Bedi YS (2012) Authentication of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth . using DNA fingerprint. Int J of AgriScience 2:511–521.
43. Ivanova NV, Kuzmina ML, Braukmann TWA, et al (2016) Authentication of herbal supplements using next-generation sequencing. PLoS One 11:e0156426. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156426
44. Jones AW (2011) Early drug discovery and the rise of pharmaceutical chemistry. Drug Test Anal 3:337–344. doi: 10.1002/dta.301
45. Jones CJ, Edwards KJ, Castaglione S, et al (1997) Reproducibility testing of RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers in plants by a network of European laboratories. Mol Breed 3:381–390.
46. Joshi K, Chavan P, Warude D, Patwardhan B (2004) Molecular markers in herbal drug technology. Curr Sci 87:159–165.
47. Justin-Temu M, Lyamuya E, Makwaya C (2009) Sources of microbial contamination of local herbal medicines sold on the open market in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. East Cent African J Phrmaceutical Sci 12:19–22.
48. Kala CP, Dhyani PP, Sajwan BS (2006) Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:32. doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-32
49. Khabiya R (2012) Identification of some Phyllanthus species of Gujarat state using integrative taxonomy. Dissertation, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabd
50. Khan S, Mirza KJ, Al-Qurainy F, Abdin MZ (2011) Authentication of the medicinal plant Senna angustifolia by RAPD profiling. Saudi J Biol Sci 18:287–292.
51. Khatoon S, Mehrotra S (2009) Bark Drugs. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR
52. Kress WJ, Erickson DL (2008) DNA barcodes: genes, genomics, and bioinformatics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2761–2762.
53. Kress WJ, Wurdack KJ, Elizabeth Z, et al (2005) Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:8369–74.
54. Kumar D (2007) Pharmacognosy can help minimize accidental misuse of herbal medicine. Curr Sci 93:1356–1358.
55. Kwon H-K, Ahn C-H, Choi Y-E (2009) Molecular authentication of Panax notoginseng by specific AFLP-derived SCAR marker. J Med Plants Res 3:957–966.
56. Lahlou M (2013) The success of natural products in drug discovery. Pharmacol Pharm 04:17–31.
57. Lai YH, Ni YN, Kokot S (2010) Authentication of Cassia seeds on the basis of two-wavelength HPLC fingerprinting with the use of chemometrics. Chinese Chem Lett 21:213–216.
58. Lam K, Chan G, Xin G-Z, et al (2015) Comparison of ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-Derived molecular markers. Molecules 20:22454–22462.
59. Li D, Liu J, Chen Z, et al (2011a) Plant DNA barcoding in China. J Syst Evol 49:165–168.
60. Li S, Han Q, Qiao C, et al (2008) Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview. Chin Med 3:7. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-3-7
61. Li X, Yang Y, Henry RJ, et al (2014) Plant DNA barcoding: From gene to genome. Biol Rev. doi: 10.1111/brv.12104
62. Marieschi M, Torelli A, Poli F, et al (2010) Quality control of commercial Mediterranean oregano: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of the adulterants Cistus incanus L., Rubus caesius L. and Rhus coriaria L. Food Control 21:998–1003.
63. Mills’ S, Bone K (2005) The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Louis, Missouri Mishra P, Kumar A, Nagireddy A, et al (2015) DNA barcoding: an efficient tool to overcome authentication challenges in the herbal market. Plant Biotechnol J. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12419
64. Misra a., Shasany a. K, Shukla a. K, et al (2010) AFLP markers for identification of Swertia species (Gentianaceae). Genet Mol Res 9:1535–1544. doi: 10.4238/vol9-3gmr785
65. Misra A, Shasany AK, Shukla AK, et al (2007) AFLP-based detection of adulterants in crude drug preparations of the “Safed Musli” Complex. Nat Prod Commun 2:93–97.
66. Mukherjee PK, Bahadur S, Chaudhary SK, et al (2015) Qulaity related safety issues-Evidence based validation of herbal medicine farm to Pharma. In: Mukherjee PK (ed) Evidence-Based Validation of Herbal Medicine, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–28
67. Newmaster SG, Fazekas AJ, Ragupathy S (2006) DNA barcoding in land plants: evaluation of rbcL in a multigene tiered approach. Can J Bot 84:335–341. doi: 10.1139/b06-047
68. Palhares RM, Gonçalves Drummond M, dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil B, et al (2015) Medicinal plants recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA barcode identification associated with chemical analyses guarantees their quality. PLoS One 10:e0127866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127866
69. Panda AK, Debnath SK (2015) Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine (“Mahashankha Vati ”). Int J Ayurveda Pharma Res 1:183–186. doi: 10.4103/0974
70. Pang X, Liu C, Shi L, et al (2012) Utility of the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer region and its combinations as plant DNA barcodes: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One 7:1–9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048833
71. Peng X, Wu X, Ji Q, et al (2016) Molecular authentication of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum from its adulterant species using ISSR, CAPS, and ITS2 barcode. Mol Biol Rep 43:785-794.
72. Poczai P, Varga I, Laos M, et al (2013) Advances in plant gene-targeted and functional markers: a review. Plant Methods 9:6. doi: 10.1186/1746-4811-9-6
73. Pop R, Csernatoni F, Ranga F, et al (2013) HPLC-UV analysis coupled with chemometry to identify phenolic biomarkers from medicinal plants, used as ingredients in two food supplement formulas. Bull UASVM food Sci Technol 70:99–107.
74. Reddy MP, Sarla N, Siddiq E a (2002) Inter simple sequence repeat ( ISSR ) polymorphism and its application in plant breeding. Euphytica 128:9–17.
75. Rubinoff D, Cameron S, Will K (2006) Are plant DNA barcodes a search for the Holy Grail? Trends Ecol Evol 21:1–2.
76. Sahoo N, Manchikanti P (2013) Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective. J Altern Complement Med 19:957–963.
77. Sahoo N, Manchikanti P, Dey S (2010) Herbal drugs: Standards and regulation. Fitoterapia 81:462–471. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.02.001
78. Saper RB, Phillips RS, Sehgal A, et al (2009) Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in US- and Indian- manufactured ayurvedic medicines sold via the internet. JAMA 300:915–923
79. Sarwat M, Das S, Srivastava PS (2008) Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris, a medicinal herb. Plant Cell Rep 27:519– 528. doi: 10.1007/s00299-007-0478-5
80. Selvaraj D, Shanmughanandhan D, Sarma RK, et al (2012) DNA barcode ITS effectively distinguishes the medicinal plant Boerhavia diffusa from its adulterants. Genomics, Proteomics Bioinforma 10:364–367.
81. Shah BN, Seth A (2010) Drug Adulteration. In: Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1st edn. Elsevier, New Delhi, India, pp 107–114
82. Sharma P, Sharma S, Yadav S, et al (2014) Plant derived bioactive molecules: culture vessels to bioreactors. In: Paek K-Y, Murthy NH, Zhong J-J (eds) Production of biomass and bioactive compounds using bioreactor technology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 47–60
83. Shaw P-C, Wong K-L, Chan AW-K, et al (2009) Patent applications for using DNA technologies to authenticate medicinal herbal material. Chin Med 4:21. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-4-21
84. Sheeja TE, Anju PR, Shalini RS, et al (2013) RAPD, SCAR and conserved 18S rDNA markers for a red-listed and endemic medicinal plant species, Knema andamanica (Myristicaceae). Physiol Mol Biol Plants 19:245–250. doi: 10.1007/s12298-013-0166-6
85. Simmler C, Anderson JR, Gauthier L, et al (2015) Metabolite Profiling and Classification of DNA-authenticated Licorice Botanicals. J Nat Prod 78:2007–2022.
86. Sissi, Wachtel-Galor, Benzie IFF (2011) Herbal Medicine-An introduction to its history, usage, regulation, current trends, and Research needs. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S (eds) Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects, 2nd edn. CRC Press, BocaRaton, FL, pp 1–10
87. Smillie TJ, Khan I a (2010) A comprehensive approach to identifying and authenticating botanical products. Clin Pharmacol Ther 87:175–186.
88. Steinmann D, Ganzera M (2011) Recent advances on HPLC/MS in medicinal plant analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 55:744–757. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2010.11.015
89. Sucher NJ, Carles MC (2008) Genome-based approaches to the authentication of medicinal plants. Planta Med 74:603–23. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1074517
90. Sui C, Wei J, Chen S, et al (2009) Development of genomic SSR and potential EST-SSR markers in Bupleurum chinense DC. African J Biotechnol 8:6233–6240.
91. Techen N, Crockett SL, Khan IA, Scheffler BE (2004) Authentication of medicinal plants using molecular biology techniques to compliment conventional methods. Curr Med Chem 11:1391–1401.
92. Techen N, Parveen I, Pan Z, Khan I A. (2014) DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification. Curr Opin Biotechnol 25:103–110.
93. Theerakulpisut P, Kanawapee N, Maensiri D, et al (2008) Development of species-specific SCAR markers for identification of three medicinal species of Phyllanthus. J Syst Evol 46:614–621.
94. Thul ST, Srivastava AK, Singh SC, Shanker K (2011) Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting. Mol Biotechnol 49:77–81.
95. Tripathi AM, Tyagi A, Kumar A, et al (2013) The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Region and trnhH- psbA are suitable candidate loci for dna barcoding of tropical tree species of India. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057934
96. Uddin H, Khalid RS, Khan UA, Abbas SA (2013) Determination of arsenic content of available traditional medicines in malaysia using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Trop J Pharm Res 12:1053–1056.
97. Veeresham C (2012) Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 3:200–201. doi: 10.4103/2231-4040.104709
98. Venkatasubramanian P, Devaiah K, Balasubramani SP (2011) Development of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA based SCAR marker for identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae). Evidence-based Complement Altern Med 2011:1–7. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neq023
99. Weising K, Nybom H, Kristen W, Kahl G (2005) DNA Fingerprinting in Plants-Principles, Methods and Application. CRC Press, FL
100. Yao H, Song J, Liu C, et al (2010) Use of ITS2 region as the universal DNA barcode for plants and animals. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013102
101. Zhang Z, Lu L, Liu Yu, Qing L (2015) Comparing and authenticating on anatomical aspects of Abrus cantoniensis and Abrus mollis by microscopy. Pharmacognosy Res 7:148–155.