Sedative, hypothermic, anxiolytic effects and rapid radical scavenging property of aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (Lamiaceae) in mice
Vitex doniana is used ethnomedicinally for the management of madness, insanity, and epilepsy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the sedative, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects of crude aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (AVD) in mice, as well as its rapid radical scavenging property. Doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg AVD were adopted for the pharmacological testing in mice of both sexes (n=6). The behavioural effects of the extract in the open field apparatus were determined. AVD was evaluated for its anxiolytic effect, using elevated T- maze, staircase, and hole-board models. While the sedative and hypothermic effects of the extract in mice were determined by assessments of ketamine-induced sleeping time and rectal temperature respectively. AVD was subjected to rapid radical scavenging test using thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography. The results showed AVD to have an inhibitory effect on CNS in the open field test. AVD demonstrated anxiolytic effect at 250 mg/kg, and sedative effect at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The sedative effect of AVD at 500 and 1000 mg/kg was further revealed in ketamine-induced sleeping time and rectal temperature. AVD also showed strong free radical scavenging property attributed to the presence of fatty acid esters, terpenes, phenolics, and phenolic glycosides. AVD is acutely non-toxic and it possesses significant sedative, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects, which could in part be due to the presence of rapid free radical scavenging compounds, thus, providing pharmacological justification for its ethnomedicinal uses as a curative for madness and insanity.
Phytochemicals extracted from Cola nitida leaf possess antimalarial effects and improve derangements in haematological indices of Plasmodium berghei- infected mice.
Classical antimalarial drugs such as quinine and artemisinin are both plant derived suggesting that plants are a promising source of bioactive components that can help in combating the scourge of malaria. Cola nitida leaf has been reported to possess antimalarial activity and also contain pharmacologically active phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolics. The effects of these phytochemicals in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei was evaluated in this study. For each phytochemical, 7 groups (A-G) of eight mice each were used. Groups A and B served as normal and infected controls respectively. Group C was treated with 20 mg/Kg body weight of chloroquine and served as the treated control. Groups D, E and F were administered 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight of the different phytochemicals while group F was treated with 50 mg/Kg body weight of the phytochemicals only without parasite inoculation thus serving as extract control. Treatment commenced 72 hrs after inoculation and was done once orally for four consecutive days after which parasitaemia was evaluated. All the phytochemicals were found to exhibit antimalarial activity in a dose dependent manner. The mean survival time of all the experimental groups were also prolonged in a dose dependent manner compared to that of untreated control. Similarly, all the phytochemicals improved the altered haematological indices towards normal. These phytochemicals of Cola nitida exhibited significant antimalarial activities and thus can be further studied in the search for novel antimalarial drugs.
Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Ogurugu Community Southeast Nigeria for the Treatment of Malaria
Malaria is described as a disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are transmitted to humans through the bites of an infected vector the female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are about 100 million estimated cases of malaria resulting in more than 300,000 deaths annually in Nigeria. This figure is high when compared to deaths from infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Maternal mortality from malaria fever alone is estimated at 11%. Despite preventive measures to avoid mosquito bites by use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), and chemotherapy such as the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), very little results were achieved, as the parasite seems to have developed resistance to these measures. This study was aimed at surveying medicinal plants used in folk medicine by the Ogurugu community Southeast Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. Traditional medicine practitioners, native herbalists, traditional healers, and product marketers were interviewed orally and the use of 200 structured questionnaires on the plants used to treat malaria as well as medicinal plants used for the treatment. Morphological parts of fifty-four (54) plant species from thirty-two (33) families were collected in the survey. Only 30 % of the plants surveyed were reported to have antimalarial activities against Plasmodium berghei. Family Asteraceae have the highest number of species diversity with 11.54 % (6), followed by Family Annonaceae with 9.62% (5) and Family Euphorbiaceae with 5.77% (3), whereas Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Humiriaceae and Sterculiaceae Families have each 3.85 % (2) species diversity. Other Families have 1.92 % (1) species distribution. A decoction of the leaves was the popular way of using plant parts in malaria treatment. The study revealed that people in this community believe strongly on the efficacies of these medicinal plants than orthodox drugs in treating malaria, with no serious side effects. Despite these…
Proximate Analysis, Phtochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activity Of Different Strains of Auricularia auricula-judae (Ear Mushroom)
In this study, proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of two strains of ear mushroom Auricularia auricula (arbitrarily named strain 3 and 5) and their mix, cultivated in Bangladesh National Mushroom Development Institute, have been determined. Protein content per 100 gm of strain 5, 7 and mix had been found to be 298.69mg, 278.85mg and 286.19mg, respectively. Lipid content estimated were 2.43gm, 1.96 gm and 2.4gm, respectively, while that of ash were 4.42 gm, 6.11gm and 3.93gm, respectively. A. auricula strain 7 contained highest amounts of total phenol, total flavonoid, ascorbic acid and reducing sugar than the others. Among the three strains evaluated in the present study, A. auricula 7 contained highest nutritional and medicinal components. Thus, A. auricula 7 might be an ideal food supplement to the consumers.
Remediation for oligospermia in males using the extract of traditional herbs Withania somnifera and Emila sanchifolia
Due to life style changes, climatic changes, occupational problems and Food, air and water pollutants, the present generation of human beings are affected much of the different health issues, sterile marriage is a matter of great concern. The infertility rate is increasing at an alarming rate. In the infertility marriage, the male factor is more responsible for sterility. To improve male semen quality traditional plant remedy were tried for 3 treatment duration of each 40 days. Aqueous extracts of two medicinal plants Withania somnifera and Emila sanchifolia were given to chronic cases of infertile males with oligospermia. The results obtained for the plant extract treated and untreated groups showed a remarkable difference in the semen parameters .In the plant drug treated males, the total sperm count, motility, pH, and non -deformed sperms are above the optimum levels prescribed for normal fertility .The present study clearly indicates that the mixture of plant extracts exerted a good improvement in semen characteristics.
Standardization and HPTLC, Fingerprinting study of Poly Herbal Formulation-Habb-e-Falij, traditionally used in the treatment of Paralysis and Facial Paisy treatment
Standardization is used to describe all measures under taken during the manufacturing process and quality control of drug assuring its reproducible quality. Most of the traditional medicines are effective but still they lack in their standard parameters. Therefore, we need to develop standard techniques to standardize and validate herbal formulations. The drug Habb-e-Falij is therapeutically useful in the treatment of Falij or Laqwa (Paralysis and Facial Paisy) and as a Nervine stimulant. The drug Habb-e-Falij was prepared in three different batches as per the guidelines of National Formulary of Unani Medicine (Part-I), Present study is aimed to evaluate the pharmacopoeial standards using physico-chemical parameters; HPTLC fingerprints, quality control and assurance parameters, using WHO guideline to ascertain the quality of drug. The physico-chemical data showed that the drug contain moisture(1.42%), total ash (75.0%), acid in-soluble (68.02%), alcohol and water soluble extractive matter (9.52%) and (11.47%), pH(1% solution) (5.30),pH(10% solution)(5.78) and the TLC / HPTLC finger prints showed various spots at 254nm, 366nm and visible light (V-S reagent). The quality control study revealed the absence of microbial load, aflatoxins, heavy metals and pesticide residues, The evaluated standards will be very much useful for laying the phamacopoeial standards of Habb-e-Falij and also in providing the quality medicine to needful human beings.
Acute renal attack after treatment with Carapa Procera oil: two cases at the Ziguinchor Peace Hospital (Senegal West Africa) and review of the literature
We describe two cases of impaired secondary renal function to a Carapa Procera taking as part of traditional treatment in Ziguinchor, southern Senegal. The certain or suspected toxicity of Carapa Procera is little known in the literature. In the two reported observations, no cause but the traditional treatment was found to explain the clinical picture presented. The development was favorable in all cases after medical treatment and a few hemodialysis sessions. we insist on the difficult context of investigation of these accidents, on the medical ignorance of these practices in sub-Saharan Africa and in Senegal in particular, as well as on the necessary collaboration with local botanists knowledgeable in traditional medicine.
Food allergy is defined as a pruritic dermatitis which is indicated by allergic reactions to food components. Due to its excessive incidence of clinical signs it is necessary to determine the correct diagnosis, provide sufficient control and long term management to achieve comfortable way of life for an animal. In case of very intensive pruritus there are usually used in common medicine glucocorticoids, antihistamincs and inhibitors of Janus kinase but there are also other alternatives such as bioresonance, homeopathy, phytotherapy, acupuncture, etc. that have also very beneficial and curative effect in case of food allergy. Diagnostics and therapy by bioresonance are alternative methods used in modern medicine that was discovered as a combination of quantum physics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. We can use it for various types of acute and chronic diseases without any invasive intervention into the body. There have been positive results in the diagnosis and treatment of allergies in dogs, which are nowadays constantly increased, and that have been one of the most common causes of dermatological and gastrointestinal diseases.
The present study evaluated the effects of a branded Nigerian polyherbal formulation, Yoyo® bitters on the haematological and biochemical status of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-intoxicated rats. Thirty (30) healthy male Wistar rats used in this study were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 served as normal control and received 3 ml/kg body weight (b.w.). of distilled water only while group 2 served as experimental control and was intoxicated with H2O2 without treatment. Rats in groups 3-5 were H2O2-intoxicated and treated with 1, 2 and 3 ml/kg b.w. of Yoyo® bitters respectively while rats in group 6 were H2O2-intoxicated and treated 100 mg/kg. b.w. of silymarin. H2O2 was administered intraperitoneal on day 0 while drugs were orally administered from days 0 to 14. The rats were sacrificed on day 15 and blood samples collected were subjected to haematological and biochemical analyses. Intoxication with H2O2 significantly (p < 0.05) induced haematotoxicity, oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity when compared with control. Treatment of intoxicated rats with the formulation restored the haematological and biochemical status to normal, suggesting that Yoyo® bitters has erythropoietic and hepatocurative effects. However, future studies are required to confirm these effects in different in vivo models.
Nature has always been a giver, bearing rich heritage of natural products which arebeing utilized by mankind since their existence. Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomicaL.) is a potential herb used for the treatment of various neuronal illness, muscloskeletol and joint disorders. This comes under category IV of drugs as per Unani literature which needs to be detoxified prior to clinical use.The healing properties of Azaraqi (Strychnos nux-vomicaL.) are substantially those of the alkaloids strychnine and brucine, which are considered toxic.The perception of lesser side effects of herbal formulation among the people especially in developing countries raised the market of treatment by natural products. However, there is need to put forward the scientific evidence of these formulation regarding toxicity as well as efficacy as then only evidence based medicine would only be able to make position in globalized world as an alternative of conventional treatment available. This review article will discuss the potential pharmacological actions; toxicity developed due to Azaraqiresulted out in different preclinical and clinical studies. The authors will try to make a suggestion for future based on finding of these studies.