Adulteration methods and current trends in authentic identification of botanical materials used for the pharmaceuticals
Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and chemical profiling techniques have their own limitations for authentication of plant species. DNA-based markers give the new directions to pharmacognosy. It is important to distinguish accurately the authentic plant sources for herbal drugs because adulteration and substitutions diminish their efficacy and reduce the trust of users as well as it is necessary to convert botanical materials into scientifically valid herbal drugs. Proper integration of molecular techniques as analytical tools with conventional knowledge will lead to the development of a comprehensive system of identification of medicinal plants that can be conveniently applied at the research and industry level for quality control of botanicals. The review derives the advantages of DNA-based method for the purpose of correct identification of herbal material and discrimination of originals from the plant-derived adulterants.
Anti-inflammatory effect of Phattapitta Recipe in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide
Pattapitta Recipe has been used for the treatment of cirrhosis in the Thai Traditional Medicine Clinic of Prapokklao Hospital. The liver functions of cirrhotic patients treated with Pattapitta Recipe were improved and recovered to normal function within 5 months. Furthermore, Pattapitta Recipe has been used for the treatment of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatitis-B, hepatitis-C, and cirrhosis due to unidentified causes. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory activities. This study is mainly focused on the cell viability test of Phattapitta Recipe on macrophages cell line RAW 264.7 and investigation of an anti-inflammatory action of Phattapitta Recipe on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages cell line, RAW 264.7. The results showed that Phattapitta Recipe had no cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Phattapitta Recipe 250 ug/mL possessed anti-inflammatory effects by significantly decreased mRNA levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor –α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophages cell line RAW 264.7. Moreover, Phattapitta Recipe also significantly inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-6 at the protein level. Although Phattapitta Recipe treated cells showed a decreased trend of nitric oxide levels, it was not statistically significant reduction. The results from this study will be beneficial for the development of Phattapitta Recipe as a potential treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases.
A survey of South African plant species used for the treatment of “u wela” in Venda culture, Limpopo Province
Medicinal plants are widely recognized as the key component for critical human health, social and economic support. The current study was conducted to identify medicinal plants used by local people and traditional healers to treat “u wela” in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa. A questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local names of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation administered by the traditional healers. Plant species were collected based on indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers through the use of a questionnaire and personal interviews, and some were identified using literature and herbarium at the University of Limpopo. The study revealed that thirty-seven medicinal plants are used for treatment of “u wela” in the study area. The frequency index was calculated and the highest frequency was observed in Elaeodendron transvaalensis Jacq (47%) and the least were found in Albizia versicolor Welw. Ex Oliv (6%). Some medicinal uses of identified plants which have not been recorded in the consulted literature were documented. Noticeably, many of these plants were grown in the wild. Traditional healers use different plant part(s) for the treatment of various ailments. Roots (40%) were highly used followed by 20%, bark (13%) and leaves. The plant forms used were trees, (38%), shrubs, (3%), climbers, herbs and succulents (4.7%) belonged to the herbs and succulents. The results stipulated that a high population of people in the community still relied on traditional medicine for their primary health care.
Analgesics are the substances which are used in pain, without losing consciousness. The word analgesic derives from Greek an- (“without”) and algos (“pain”). Analgesic drugs act in various form on the central nervous systems and peripheral nervous system. Various sources of analgesic drugs synthetic analgesic and natural analgesic, natural analgesics like opoid analgesics, Aloevera Barbedensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber Officinale, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum camphora, Matricaria pubescens etc. This review gives information about different analgesic obtained from natural sources.
The knowledge base of pharmacy medicine is changing. Even five decades ago rural people used to visit kobiraj doctors for traditional medication mostly obtained from the roots and leaves of the remote plants (As seen in old dramas and movies). During 70’s to 8o’, a modern allopathy system taken over most of it and plant medicines were completely became obsolete. Even talking about those medicines means people are looking at you saying “what old age are you living?”. Interestingly the same concept is back in the name of modern herbal medicine, anybody will be surprised to know that the sales volume of herbal medicines jumped to Tk 1,000 crore in 2010 against Tk 1 crore in 1980 in Bangladesh. In the language of the philosophers it is “the Circle of Life”. Of course, there’s no denying the effectiveness of modern medicine. The drugs used in modern medicine are powerful but quite often, the risks with these drugs are also high. Purpose of the study: An illustrated review of traditional plants, their nature and use, both pharmacological and pharmaceutical. Findings: Traditional plants are used from ancient time for various human well-being, both as life-saving and lifestyle drugs. A careful use of these plants can bring dramatic changes in the history of medicine, on the contrary abuse/misuse is just waste of money and also creates potential health hazards. The emerging use of plant derived medicines should have a proper quality control and system control of sales, distribution and use through strict vigilance.Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review, consulting books, technical newsletters, newspapers, journals, and many other sources are done with this review. Health professionals like qualified doctors, hospital staff, nurses are interviewed. A few folk healers’ shops are also visited to see the real situation includes their sales policy, misleading claims…
A woman, named Eve, has been possessed by Evil. She is continuously tortured by host of visions and cursed by demonic voices. She has a miscarriage and commits suicide several times. The therapist builds up a Jungian type of hypnotherapy and hypnoanalysis based upon Eve’s fairy tale experiences come from her childhood. The patient’s absolute good and evil self- and object representations develop in a mutual relationship each other in the form of miscellaneous symbols. Finally, a prolonged struggle of good and bad symbols arrives at a neutral point of rest. Since the therapist is not afraid of Eve’s experiences he wants to take part in them, which leads to a mutual experience of tandem hypnosis shared by both the patient and the therapist. Facing together with Evil the therapist becomes as a devil in a symbolic way while the devil is made gentle as an uncle of Eve’s life. Finally, the patient’s psychosis is healed.
A large proportion of the population of developing countries still uses traditional medicines, either as a result of the high cost of Western pharmaceuticals and health care, or because the traditional medicines are more acceptable from a cultural and spiritual perspective(1). The WHO estimates nearly 80% of the population still depends upon herbal medicines due to their easy availability, low cost and possible less side effects as compared to allopathic system of medicines(2). These also cover healthcare systems that include beliefs and practices relating to diseases and health, which are products of indigenous cultural development and are not explicitly derived from a conceptual framework of modern medicine. Ingredients used in the preparation of those remedies may even provide attractive templates for the development of new pharmaceutical products(3). All the people of Nepal have no access to allopathic medicine and health center because of illiteracy, poverty and unavailability. Thus, about 80% of the population in Nepal relies on traditional medicine(4). One such example is the use of formulation containing Shorea robusta resin, prepared by local practitioners themselves, for treating infected wounds and burns by some locals in Kathmandu valley. The ingredients used in traditional medicine, therefore, must be recognized and studied, not only as therapeutic agents with verifiable pharmacodynamic properties, but as agents of healing with beneficial effects, even when the precise mode of activity has not been properly understood(3).
Spartial Distribution of Phytochemical and Antifungal Evaluation of Six Medicinal Plants in South-West, Nigeria
The phytochemical and antifungal evaluations of the leaves of six plant species (Chromolaena odorata, Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum and Spondias mombin) in Nigeria were studied. The leaves of these plants were collected from the wild, air-dried and pulverized into fine powder for the phytochemical constituents and minimum Inhibitory concentrations. The powdered leaves were screened and results were properly recorded as observed. Based on MIC, water extract of sample A Euphorbia hirta (6,620mg/100g, sample B Spondias mombin (6,51mg/100g), Sample C Nicotiana tabacum (7,210mg/100g), sample D 97,010mg/100g), sample E Chromolaena odorata (5,420mg/100g), sample F (6,960mg/100g), sample G Momordica charantia, sample H Ficus asperifolia (65030mg/100), sample I (7,480mg/100g). For acetone extract of sample A (4,978mg/100g), Sample B (5,470mg/100g), sample C (4,450mg/100g,) sample G (4,560mg/100g), sample E (3,870mg/100g), sample F (4810mg/100g). sample G (4,560mg/100g, sample H (4,780mg/100g), sample 1 (4,700mg/100g), For hexane extract of sample A(3,640mg/100), sample B (4125mg/100g), sample C (3,37smg/100). sample D (3,335mg/100g), sample E (3,310mg/100g, sample F (3,648mg/100g), sample G (3,425mg/100g sample H (3,940mg/100g sample I (3,560mg/100g). For bacitracin extract of sample A (3,927mg/100g), sample B (3, 926mg/100g), sample C (3,775mg/100g), sample D (3,877mg/100g), sample E (3,7825mg/100g sample F (3,810mg/100g), sample G (3,606mg/100g), sample H (3,676mg/100g), sample I (3,810mg/100g). Phytochemical constituuents present includes tannin, phenol, saponins, alkaloids, phylate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides, trypsin inhibitor and flavonoids. It is therefore recommended that Euphorbia hirta, Ficus asperifolia, Momordica charantia, Nicotiana tabacum, Spondias mombin and Chromolaena odorata can be used as source for antibiotics substances for possible treatment of ailments like malaria, asthma, diabetes, fibroids, hypertension, epilepsy, fever and some mycotic infections.
Rehabilitation of fracture is the act of restoring an injured part to its former state through proper therapy and training,so as to improve the quality of life. After proper union of fracture, it is desirable that the joints regain normal functions and shape, which is why rehabilitation is an inevitable treatment principle in fracture management 1. Acharya Sushruta, the pioneer in surgery, holds novelty in devising rehabilitative techniques for fracture management. These principles when properly implemented can effectively heal the post fracture complications like pain, restricted mobility and joint stiffness 2. An attempt has been made to explore the concept of rehabilitation in Ayurveda in light of conventional modalities.
It is a case report of 48-year-old male patient of chronic non-healing Venous ulcer. Five ulcers were found on inspection on medial aspect of left foot. Symptoms started as slight discoloration, before 30 years. As days progressed even a small scratch leads to ulcer formation. He managed the condition by taking allopathic medicine and got a satisfactory result. But the discoloration persisted, and the ulcers reoccurred with severe burning sensation and itching. Again, he took homeopathic medication and got symptomatic relief. Due to the recurrence of ulcers, Ayurvedic treatment was started on In-Patient basis followed by both external and internal medications. Externally, patient was treated by Patradaana(a type of wound healing treatment using leaves) with Jathyadi kera tailam (oil Preparation) and internally by Syp. Cardorium plus (Herbal formulation), Sahacharadi Kashaya (Medicated Decoction) and Triphala guggulu (Tablet). Sterile Lotus leaves smeared with Jathyadi kera taila were used for covering the ulcer site and the bandage was retained for 12hrs. Later the ulcer sites were covered with a gauze to avoid exposing to the uncleanness, until the next bandage. The procedure is continued for 8days. Sahacharadi Kashaya (Medicated Decoction) and Triphala guggulu (Tablet) were advice for a period of 3weeks and Syrup. Cardorium plus (Herbal formulation) was continued for 2months. This was an attempt to bring the concepts mentioned in Ayurveda classics for Vrana treatment and got a satisfactory result after following this treatment protocol.