International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy

Reexamining opioid addiction as a co-occurring disorder: A clinical perspective on the “Chronic Pain Paradox”

Review Article of International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy Reexamining opioid addiction as a co-occurring disorder: A clinical perspective on the “Chronic Pain Paradox” Dalia Chowdhury Ph.D., CRC, Stephen Fauss MS Department of Rehabilitation and Health Services University of North Texas The use of opioids as an anodyne for chronic pain was not prevalent before the 1980s1. Students in medical schools had learnt to avoid prescribing opioids, considered highly addictive for treatment of non-malignant chronic pain1. Yet, from the early 1990s, prescription opioids emerged as a widely accepted method of treating chronic pain and palliative care2. Previously, chronic pain was treated in multidisciplinary clinics with coordinated care which included physical exams, medication management, biopsychosocial evaluation, cognitive behavioral treatment, physical therapy, and occupational therapy2. Starting in the early 1990’s, under dubious antecedence, opioid analgesics were promoted as the proprietary remedy for chronic pain and received endorsement and support from care providers across the United States3. Non-cancerous chronic pain, as a phenomenon, was thus elevated to an ailment or a medical condition by its own right from its erstwhile status as a corollary to another medical condition.  This led to an increase in opioid analgesic prescriptions, followed by a wide-ranging abuse by patients, converting opioid use disorder (OUD) to a problem of epidemic proportions4. Apart from the legal course of action initiated against Perdue Pharma, in 2020, the maker and distributor of Oxycontin that resulted in a $3.8 billion lawsuit settlement, in which Perdue Pharma pleaded guilty; since the recognition of this problem, new measures have been adopted to counter the opioid epidemic by clinicians. There has been a significant shift towards circumvention by physicians prescribing opioids for non-cancerous chronic pain.  In a few instances, providers have resorted to putting a temporary moratorium on prescribing opioids to all non-cancerous chronic pain ...

Social work and strengthening of NGOs in development cooperation to treat drug addiction

Review Article of International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy Social work and strengthening of NGOs in development cooperation to treat drug addiction Ingo Ilja Michels1*, Heino Stöver2, Nurgul Musaeva3, Dinara Yessimova4, Jiang Du5, Azizbek Boltaev6, Subkhon Ashuro, and Umeda Munavvarova7,8 1Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Drug Research (Frankfurt, Germany), Interna- tional Scientific Coordinator for the SOLID project. 2Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Drug Research (Frankfurt, Germany), Professor for Social Work and Health, Project Leader of the SOLID project. 3Bishkek State University, Department of Social Work and Practical Psychology (Bish- kek, Kyrgyzstan), Scientific Coordinator for the SOLID project. 4Eurasian National University Gumilyov, Department of Sociology (Astana / Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan), Scientific Coordinator for the SOLID proj- ect. 5Shanghai Mental Health Centre, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (Shanghai, PR China), Scientific Coordinator for the SOLID project. 6Bukhara State Medical Institute (Bukhara, Uzbeki- stan), Scientific Coordinator for the SOLID project. 7/8Caritas Tajikistan, Doctor of Economics (former Vice Minister of Labour and Social Protection), Dushanbe & Caritas Tajikistan, (PhD for Social Work, former Associate Professor at Tajik National Medical University), (Dushanbe, Tajikistan). Social work is one of the youngest scientific disciplines, it has developed itself as a discipline to address individuals, families and communities in social crisis (poverty, low level of education, un- employment, diseases, social isolation). In the last decade also problems with alcohol and drug dependencies increasingly became the subject of social work support(systems). Due to coming global- isation, where living space has become wider than the community itself, social work was forced to operate within wider horizons and to go beyond communities boundaries. Social work nowadays has been becoming a more global scientific discipline seeking answers to global questions. Social work is therefore linked to all seventeen global goals of sustainable development (SDGs). As the prevention ...

The Effect of Plain Cigarette Packaging on Implicit Attitudes

Research Article of International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy The Effect of Plain Cigarette Packaging on Implicit Attitudes  Saadet Merih Cengel1*, Onur Noyan1, Nesrin Dilbaz1  1Uskudar University.  Rationale: The significance of this research stems from the impact implicit attitudes have on smoking behavior, where positive implicit attitudes can result in a greater likelihood of smoking behavior. Even though it has previously been argued that implicit attitudes can drive addictive behavior there is a lack of research on whether cigarette packaging has an influence on implicit attitudes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of plain cigarette packaging and designed/logo cigarette packaging on implicit attitudes. Methods: Implicit attitudes towards cigarette packaging were assessed by means of the Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT). A questionnaire was conducted to assess sociodemographic and smoking behavior. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess level of dependence. The sample consisted of 264 participants. Results: BIAT indicate a significant association between designed/logo cigarette packaging and positive implicit attitudes (Mean d-score > .15). Cigarette packaging design’s influence on implicit attitudes is positive (Mean d-score = .22), where there is a slight association between designed/logo packaging and positive implicit attitudes. Conclusions: When compared with plain packaging, designed/logo cigarette packaging leads to positive implicit attitudes. These findings support the effectiveness of plain packaging regulations where the removal of color, design and logo from cigarette packaging will decrease positive implicit attitudes formed by cigarette packaging. Keywords: implicit attitudes, plain packaging, cigarette packaging, addiction ...

Prevalence and Perceptions of Cigarettes, Vaping, and Waterpipe Among Veterans

Research Article of International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy Prevalence and Perceptions of Cigarettes, Vaping, and Waterpipe Among Veterans Dana El Hajj, PhD, RN*, Patricia Valverde, PhD, Catherine Battaglia, PhD, RN, Allan V. Prochazka, M.D., M.Sc., Paul. F Cook, PhD University of North Carolina in Wilmington, Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center Aurora, CO Introduction: Vaping has become an epidemic with serious health concerns. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a national alert on vaping hazards and its associations with a mysterious lung disease. The prevalence of alternative tobacco products such as waterpipe and vaping have been on the rise, with health hazards similar to those of cigarettes. However, the public is less aware of those hazards. Because the literature on alternative tobacco use among Veterans is limited, the purpose of this study is to examine veterans’ use, perceptions, and knowledge of the hazards linked to alternative tobacco products. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 200 veterans seeking medical care at the Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, primary care clinics completed a survey on tobacco use. Results: Cigarettes remain the most prevalent form of tobacco used by veterans. The prevalence of “ever use” of waterpipe and/or vaping was 21% among participants, and almost all of those participants also reported cigarette use, 20.5%. About 42% of participants were unaware of harm levels from waterpipe. Discussion: Veterans are unaware of the risks associated with vaping and other alternative tobacco products and show similar use rates as the general population. Because educational campaigns have proven to be successful in decreasing smoking, the next step is to conduct educational campaigns on the hazards of alternative tobacco products among the veteran population to address myths and misperceptions regarding those products. Keywords: Cigarettes, vape, veterans, waterpipe, alternative tobacco ...

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International Journal of Addiction Research and Therapy