International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews

The Use of a Rapid Fluid Infusion System in Children

Research Article of International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews The Use of a Rapid Fluid Infusion System in Children Sai Surapa Raju, MD1; Judy Fuller, RN2; Stacy L. Gaither, MSN, RN1; Hui-Chien Kuo, MS3; Inmaculada Aban, PhD3; Nancy M. Tofil, MD, MEd1 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pediatrics 2Children’s Hospital of Alabama, Emergency Department 3University of Alabama at Birmingham, Pediatric Research Office Fluid resuscitation is the cornerstone of treatment for pediatric shock caused by conditions such as sepsis, dehydration, trauma, and anaphylaxis. Children presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) in shock have a high risk of mortality, and each hour of delay in shock reversal doubles the odds of death1,2. Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) guidelines emphasize the importance of providing rapid fluid resuscitation to prevent the progression to hypotensive or refractory shock3. PALS and other septic shock guidelines recommend that patients receive a 20 mL/kg bolus of crystalloid immediately upon recognition of hypovolemic or distributive shock, with 20 mL/kg to be delivered within 5 minutes and up to 60 mL/kg within the first 15-60 minutes3-6. Studies based on these guidelines show that earlier fluid delivery directed at reversal of shock reversal leads to decreased morbidity7-9, mortality2,7,9-12, and hospital length of stay (LOS)9,11-13.  Unfortunately, timely fluid delivery is often not achieved due to the technical challenges of obtaining adequate vascular access and delivering fluid boluses quickly in patients with shock or hypotension11,14-16. Current methods of fluid bolus delivery in the pediatric emergency care setting include infusion pumps, gravity drip, pressure bags, rapid infusers, and the push-pull syringe technique17,18. Each of these methods are limited by speed, ease of use, or safety concerns. Infusion pumps provide a maximum rate of 999 mL per hour, which for a 25kg child would provide a 60 mL/kg bolus in 90 minutes ...

Maternal obesity and first trimester iodine levels are associated with the risk of congenital malformations in Assam, Northeast India

Research Article of International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews Maternal obesity and first trimester iodine levels are associated with the risk of congenital malformations in Assam, Northeast India Mauchumi Baruah1, Hemonta Kr. Dutta 2*,   Debasish Borbora3.  1Department of Physiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh 786002, Assam, India. 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh 786002, Assam, India. 3Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India. Purpose of the study: To assess body mass index (BMI) and trimester specific iodine status among pregnant women of Assam and study their association with congenital malformations (CM). Methods: Anthropometric, obstetric and socioeconomic data was obtained from pregnant women and apparently healthy women attending Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh. Urinary iodine (UI) level was estimated in each trimester. BMI was classified based on Asian criteria suggested by WHO and the iodine intake was classified using WHO reference medians. Student’s t-test and univariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors. Results: 156 pregnant women (age 18-35 years) and 160 controls were enrolled in the study. 55.8% pregnant women were underweight and 3.8% were overweight. Malformations were observed in 16 babies. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) of pregnant women in their 1st trimester was 170 µg/l (IQR 100 µg/l) which increased to 275 µg/l (IQR 166 µg/l) during the 2nd trimester and decreased to 265 µg/l (IQR 160 µg/l) at the 3rd trimester. In the univariate analysis, maternal BMI > 23 kg/m2 (OR 3.67, 95% CI 0.20-67.65) and MUIC <150 µg/l during the 1st trimester (OR 3.59, 95% CI: 1.20-10.79) were associated with an increased risk of CM. Within the cohort, maternal BMI <18.5 (OR 2.68, CI: 1.25-5.74), age <20 years (OR 1.39, CI: 0.22-8.70), iodine unawareness (OR 1.68, CI: 0.72-3.95) and illiteracy (OR 1.12, CI: ...

Nutritional Disorders: Infant Protein-Energy Malnutrition

Review Article of International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews Nutritional Disorders: Infant Protein-Energy Malnutrition Marcela Karolina dos Santos Silva¹*, Katharine Angélica Aguiar Wanderley² 1Centro Universitário Brasileiro- UNIBRA 2Departamento de Antibióticos da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco- UFPE Malnutrition is characterized as a deficiency of food and nutrients, mainly affecting children of preschool age (up to 5 years). Responsible for 30% of the world’s child deaths, malnutrition can compromise the child’s physical and mental development. The objective of this study was to present, through a literature review, information on energy-protective malnutrition; to expose the effects of malnutrition on the development and growth of the child and the immune system. Consequently, to discuss ways of diagnosis and treatment in order to reduce the high rates of child morbidity caused by malnutrition. Keywords: Protein malnutrition, PEM, child, energy-calorie malnutrition ...


Review Article of International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews EVALUATION OF MEDIMENTAL INTOXICATIONS IN CHILDREN Ortência Kelly Jacinto Rodrigues1 *, Adna Maria Tavares1, Waleska Ramos Souza1, Cinthya Maria Pereira de Souza2  1Discente do curso de Farmácia UNIFACISA; 2Docente do curso de Farmácia UNIFACISA. Introduction: Drug poisonings arise due to complex mechanisms and the high rate of these events in our country is multifactorial, among them a wide variety of formulations, the proliferation of drugstores, prescription errors and pharmaceutical dispensing, allied to a weakness in the ability to supervise. Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of drug poisoning in children, identifying the main classes and factors involved. Methodology: This was a descriptive study, such as literature review. The following search descriptors “intoxication”, “medicines” and “children” were searched, integrated in the SCIELO and MEDLINE databases. Results: Cases of drug poisoning in children aged 0 to 9 years represent 33% of the total cases. Although the main cause is attempted suicide in the child population, the highest incidence was due to accidents, or after a medical prescription, with errors in administration. The main drugs involved were nasal decongestants, bronchodilators, analgesics and anti-inflammatories. Conclusion: The occurrence of drug intoxications is frequently recorded in health systems, and the percentages are higher in children, so it is of utmost importance that the teaching about the use of medicines is carried out from the earliest years of life. Keywords: Intoxication, Medicines, Child ...

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International Journal of Pediatric Research and Reviews (ISSN:2637-4978; DOI: 10.28933/IJOPRR) is a peer reviewed open access journal publishing research manuscripts, review articles, editorials, letters to the editor in Pediatric Research and Reviews (Indexing details).

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International journal of Pediatric research and reviews