International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine

“Spitting as traditional medicine” – why alpha-emitting nanoparticul- ates make spitting an unfortunate but significant contribution to health

Review Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine “Spitting as traditional medicine” - why alpha-emitting nanoparticulates make spitting an unfortunate but significant contribution to health Florent Pirot Independent Researcher Spitting is a human reflex as old as civilization, related, mainly, as is shown, to the evacuation of internal contamination with alpha-emitting nanoparticulates, a contamination with many causes, from car fumes and industrial smokes, coal ashes and cement, radon, phosphated fertilizers, to depleted uranium weapons and natural dust and tap water in areas of high natural radioactivity, as well as cigarettes, for the main sources. Strong levels of coal ash pollution together with high natural radioactivity explain for instance the spitting “custom” in Chinese streets, together with long distances between workplace and home, widespread cigarette use, and lack of public toilets. Alphaemitting nanoparticulates become a part of the digestion cycle in meat-eaters, but not without collateral damage. Keywords: Spitting; alpha-emitting nanoparticulates; Irritable bowel syndrome; meat eating; digestive diseases; miction control; sphincter control; bowel control ...

Sedative, hypothermic, anxiolytic effects and rapid radical scavenging property of aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (Lamiaceae) in mice

Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Sedative, hypothermic, anxiolytic effects and rapid radical scavenging property of aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (Lamiaceae) in mice Joshua Oloruntobi IMORU1*, Ayodeji Oluwabunmi ORIOLA2, Idris Ajayi OYEMITAN1 and Moses Atanda AKANMU1 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. 2Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria Vitex doniana is used ethnomedicinally for the management of madness, insanity, and epilepsy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the sedative, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects of crude aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana (AVD) in mice, as well as its rapid radical scavenging property. Doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg AVD were adopted for the pharmacological testing in mice of both sexes (n=6). The behavioural effects of the extract in the open field apparatus were determined. AVD was evaluated for its anxiolytic effect, using elevated T- maze, staircase, and hole-board models. While the sedative and hypothermic effects of the extract in mice were determined by assessments of ketamine-induced sleeping time and rectal temperature respectively. AVD was subjected to rapid radical scavenging test using thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography. The results showed AVD to have an inhibitory effect on CNS in the open field test. AVD demonstrated anxiolytic effect at 250 mg/kg, and sedative effect at 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The sedative effect of AVD at 500 and 1000 mg/kg was further revealed in ketamine-induced sleeping time and rectal temperature. AVD also showed strong free radical scavenging property attributed to the presence of fatty acid esters, terpenes, phenolics, and phenolic glycosides. AVD is acutely non-toxic and it possesses significant sedative, hypothermic and anxiolytic effects, which could in part be due to the presence of rapid free radical scavenging compounds, thus, providing pharmacological ...

Phytochemicals extracted from Cola nitida leaf possess antimalarial effects and improve derangements in haematological indices of Plasmodium berghei- infected mice.

Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Phytochemicals extracted from Cola nitida leaf possess antimalarial effects and improve derangements in haematological indices of Plasmodium berghei- infected mice. Zailani, A. H., Iliyas, M. B., Benjamin, L., Ibrahim, B. A., Ubah, B., *Lamiya, A. Department of Biochemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria Classical antimalarial drugs such as quinine and artemisinin are both plant derived suggesting that plants are a promising source of bioactive components that can help in combating the scourge of malaria. Cola nitida leaf has been reported to possess antimalarial activity and also contain pharmacologically active phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolics. The effects of these phytochemicals in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei was evaluated in this study. For each phytochemical, 7 groups (A-G) of eight mice each were used. Groups A and B served as normal and infected controls respectively. Group C was treated with 20 mg/Kg body weight of chloroquine and served as the treated control. Groups D, E and F were administered 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight of the different phytochemicals while group F was treated with 50 mg/Kg body weight of the phytochemicals only without parasite inoculation thus serving as extract control. Treatment commenced 72 hrs after inoculation and was done once orally for four consecutive days after which parasitaemia was evaluated. All the phytochemicals were found to exhibit antimalarial activity in a dose dependent manner. The mean survival time of all the experimental groups were also prolonged in a dose dependent manner compared to that of untreated control. Similarly, all the phytochemicals improved the altered haematological indices towards normal. These phytochemicals of Cola nitida exhibited significant antimalarial activities and thus can be further studied in the search for novel antimalarial drugs. Keywords: Antimalarial; phytochemical; in ...

Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Ogurugu Community Southeast Nigeria for the Treatment of Malaria

Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Ogurugu Community Southeast Nigeria for the Treatment of Malaria Cletus .A. Ukwubile*, Otalu Otalu, Umar Abdulrahim, Alexander .E. Angyu, Y.K. Aliyu5, Salihu Njidda, Mathias. S. Bingari Malaria is described as a disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium. The parasites are transmitted to humans through the bites of an infected vector the female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are about 100 million estimated cases of malaria resulting in more than 300,000 deaths annually in Nigeria. This figure is high when compared to deaths from infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Maternal mortality from malaria fever alone is estimated at 11%. Despite preventive measures to avoid mosquito bites by use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), and chemotherapy such as the use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), very little results were achieved, as the parasite seems to have developed resistance to these measures. This study was aimed at surveying medicinal plants used in folk medicine by the Ogurugu community Southeast Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. Traditional medicine practitioners, native herbalists, traditional healers, and product marketers were interviewed orally and the use of 200 structured questionnaires on the plants used to treat malaria as well as medicinal plants used for the treatment. Morphological parts of fifty-four (54) plant species from thirty-two (33) families were collected in the survey. Only 30 % of the plants surveyed were reported to have antimalarial activities against Plasmodium berghei. Family Asteraceae have the highest number of species diversity with 11.54 % (6), followed by Family Annonaceae with 9.62% (5) and Family Euphorbiaceae with 5.77% (3), whereas Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Humiriaceae and Sterculiaceae Families have each 3.85 % (2) species diversity. Other Families have 1.92 % (1) species distribution. A decoction ...


Dr. Papiya Bigoniya Professor, Radharaman College of pharmacy, Radharaman Group of Institutes, India.


Dr. Zhaoxiang Bian
Associate Vice-President, Chair Professor of School of Chinese Medicine, Director of Clinical Division and Associate Director of Institute of Creativity, Hong Kong Baptist University.

Dr. Woo-Sang Jung
Professor of Cardiology and Neurology (Stroke Center), College of Korean Medicine, Director of Korean Medical Emergency Room, Hospital of Korean Medicine, Kyung-Hee University.

Dr. M J Nanjan
Professor, Physical Chemistry (Retd.) of University of Madras, Chennai, India.

Dr. Daniel Man-yuen SZE
Deputy Program Coordinator for Master of Laboratory Medicine, School of Health & Biomedical Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute (HIRi), RMIT University, Australia.

Dr. Shamim Ahmad
Professor of Microbiology, Officer In-Charge (Head) & Teacher In-Charge (Administrations), Microbiology Section, Institute of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine , Aligarh Muslim University, India.

Dr. Qingwen Zhang
Associate Professor, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences (ICMS), University of Macau.

Dr. Ansiur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
Former Head, Deptt. of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Presently an Emeritus Professor, University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, at  University of Kalyani.

Dr. Bajpayee Kaptain Kishor
Assistant Professor &HOD in the Botany Department, DR.RML P.G. COLLEGE (C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY), HARDOI 241001 INDIA.

Dr. Hua-chuan Zheng
Professor, Cancer Research Center; Laboratory Animal Center; The Key Laboratory of Brain and Spinal Injury of Liaoning Province, Laboratory Animal Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Dr. Emre Yalcinkaya
ESC Training Fellow in Electrophysiology, Clinic of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Dr Zhi-Ling YU
Associate Professor, Teaching and Research Division, Fellow, Center for Cancer and Inflammation Research, Director, Master of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Chinese Medicine, Director, Consun Chinese Medicines Research Centre for Renal Diseases, Associate Director, Technology Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong

Dr. Mario Bernardo-Filho
Professor Titular, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Dr Shivani Sanjeev Gavande
Associate professor, Kayachikitsa at Dr. J.J.Magdum Ayurved medical college, Jaysingpur

Dr. Hiroyasu Satoh
Professor, Health Life Science, Shitennoji University, Habikino, Osaka 583-8501, Japan.

Dr. Paolo Roberti di Sarsina
Chairperson, Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the Observatory and Methods for Health, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.

Dr. Yibin Feng
Professor & Associate Director (Education), School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Dr. Afrozul Haq
Professor & Principal Scientist, R & D Division, VPS Healthcare, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Dr Manuel Fernandes Ferreira

Full Professor, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto Rua do Campo Alegre, S/N Edifício FC4.Portugal.

Dr Jennifer Hunter
Senior Research Fellow, National Institute of Complementary Medicine, Western Sydney University, Australia.

Dr. Jiahong Lu
Assistant Professor, Institute of Chinese Medical Science, The University of Macau.

Dr. William Cho
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong.

Dr. Wenzhe Ma
Assistant Professor, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau.

Dr Swapnil Sabgonda Patil
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Rognidan Avum Vikrutividnyan

Dr. Hongjie Zhang
Associate Professor, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.

Dr. Nitin Mantri
Senior Lecturer in Biotechnology, Health Innovations Research Institute, School of Science, RMIT University, Victoria,  Australia.

Dr Dudhamal Tukaram Sambhaji
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Shalya Tantra, IPGT&RA,Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

Dr Thomas Harris
Complex Health Management, 85 Jubilee Av. Forest Lake. Q 4078. Australia.

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1. M. B. FALANA, M. O. BANKOLE and A. M. OMEMU. In Vivo effects of dosage of leaf, bark and root extracts of V. paradoxa on diarhoea-induced albino rats.International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2018, 3:8. DOI: 10.28933/ijtcm-2018-07-0401 
2. Hemanth Kumar Manikyam, C.Ramesh, Krishna Mohan Poluri, Harinath Reddy Kasireddy, Charitha Devi Mekala.Bio-enhancement effect of Bos primigenius indicus urine isolates on Curcumin anticancer activity using different human cell line models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat and K562 .International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2017, 2:2. DOI: 10.28933/ijtcm-2017-11-2001 

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International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine