International Research Journal of Public Health

Public Health aspects of Cesarean section including overuse and underuse of the procedure

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Public Health aspects of Cesarean section including overuse and underuse of the procedure Kranti Suresh Vora1,2, Susanna Abraham Cottagiri1, Shahin Saiyed1 and Parth Tailor1 1Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, 2University of Canberra, Australia Caesarean section (CS) is lifesaving medical procedure that is able to avert both maternal and neonatal mortality. However, across the globe an estimated 3.2 million necessary CSs do not happen in low income countries and an estimate of 6.2 million unnecessary CSs happen in middle and high income countries. The overuse and underuse of this procedure driven by both the supply-side (such as resources within the health system, healthcare policy and strategies, health financing systems and perceptions of the healthcare professional) and demand-side (such as socio-economic status, population preference and perceptions and trust in health system) determinants. There are stark inequities in CS rates between and within regions and countries. Many regions across the globe (Eastern Asia, Northern Europe, Central America, Southern America, Northern America and Oceania) have over double recommended optimal rates, whereas several African regions (Eastern, Middle and Western) have dangerously low rates. Both of these have detrimental impacts on maternal and neonatal outcomes. There is a need now for health policy and decision makers at both national and facility level to try and optimize the CS rates through facilitating strategies that promote positive human relations and encourage standardized evidence based care. Keywords: Cesarean section, overuse, underuse, demand-side characteristics and supply-side characteristics ...

Should We Build Our School Here? Children’s Level of Fitness, School Site-Typology and the Built Environment

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Should We Build Our School Here? Children’s Level of Fitness, School Site-Typology and the Built Environment Milena Bernardinello, PhD1 and Aaron L. Carrel, MD2 1University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Planning and Landscape Architecture. 2University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Department of Pediatrics, Madison Background: No prior studies have assessed the relationship of school-sites with children’s fitness, nor evaluated how it is influenced by types of built environments surrounding school-sites. Purpose: To create a typology of school-sites and assess their associations, with school-level cardiorespiratory fitness (PACER score), as well as 34 environmental measures, reflecting food retailers and parks. Methods: PACER scores (#laps) were obtained on 20,900 children, 5-18 years-old, attending 103 rural and urban public schools in Wisconsin 2009-2010. Scores were aggregated at the school-level (mean 25.2±10.5). School-site typology reflects walkability context and parcel size. Schools were classified as: Neighborhood-School, Neighborhood-Campus, Neighborhood-Suburban, or Campus-School. Geospatial and linear regression were performed , overall and by sex and age strata, using a 1600-meter circular buffer around each school. Associations with school-level-PACER score were assessed for school types; density of unhealthy and healthier food retailers; and types of parks. Results: Campus-Schools predict a school average-PACER 7 laps significantly higher than Neighborhood-schools. ‘Neighborhood-Campus’ showed the lowest PACER for males and 11-13 years-old (10 and 12 laps lower). Negatively correlated with average-PACER were, unhealthy convenience stores for both sex, large parks for females. More fast-casual restaurants predict higher average-PACER. Schools with more students predict higher average-PACER for males and 6-10 years-old. Conclusion: Among Wisconsin schools, school-site and its context are associated with children’s physical fitness, suggesting that school-siting should include a health benefit analyses in the process. This study demonstrates the utility of school-level PACER scores and suggests further study of the mechanisms by ...

Assessment The Role Of Motivation On Technicians And Teaching Assistants Performance In College Of Medical Technology In Derna City, Libya

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health Assessment The Role Of Motivation On Technicians And Teaching Assistants Performance In College Of Medical Technology In Derna City, Libya Saria M. Arhaim1 Issa A.H Salim2, Azelden A.O Gtani3 Mohiaddin A. Sassi,1 Raga A. Elzahaf,1,4 1 Public Health Department, College of Medical Technology, Derna, Libya, 2 Higher institute of comprehensive occupation, Derna, 3 Saqr Alshark.Co Learning and Training, 4 MENA Research Group Background: Motivation is crucial for organizations to function; without motivation the organization would be less efficient. Objective: To assess the role of motivation on technicians and teaching assistants performance in College of Medical Technology in Derna, city. Methodology: A cross- sectional design was used to conduct the study. The target population of the study was technicians and teaching assistants working in College of Medical Technology. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by percentage, mean, range, rank, frequency and standard deviation. Results: Among 39 study sample 11 were male and 28 were female. Most of them were within age group of 21- 30 years (87.18%). The study reveals that, "training" was ranked first as the most important motivational factor, followed by second rank was shared between "salary and job security". Few of the study sample received incentives in form of financial incentive, clothing allowance, phone and petrol cards. And said the incentive has a positive impact on job performance. All participants said would do better job if they were motivated. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that motivational factors such as "training, salary, and job security" are major motivational factors, which can lead to better services delivery in the college as it brings positive results on the technicians and teaching assistant's performance. The study also revealed that incentives available to technicians and teaching assistants in the college ...

A quasi experiment to implementing standard multimodal strategy to improve hand hygiene behavior in a healthcare facility in central Saudi Arabia

Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health A quasi experiment to implementing standard multimodal strategy to improve hand hygiene behavior in a healthcare facility in central Saudi Arabia Ashraf E. Saad,1 Al-Wasila T. Al-Natig,2 Mostafa M. Sadek,3,4 Raouf M. Afifi55,6 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Armed Forces Hospital at Wadi Al-Dawasir, KSA; 2Infection Prevention and Control Unit, Armed Forces Hospital at Wadi Al-Dawsir, KSA; 3Sadeklab Laboratories, Alexandria, Egypt, 4Microbiology and Public Health Department, Military Medical Academy, Formerly, Egypt. 5Community Health Research Institute, International Management-Health Services, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 6Health Research Institute, SA Consultancy and Training, Cairo, Egypt Hand hygiene (HH) compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal despite standard multimodal promotion, and evidence for the effectiveness of novel interventions is urgently needed. Aim: Improve HCWs’ HH compliance toward minimizing healthcare associated infection (HCAI) risk in Wadi Al Dawasir Hospital (WDH), central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methodology: A quasi experimental approach was adopted to achieve study aim. The HCWs’ behavior of HH during the duration between 2015 and 2016 was evaluated before and after a HH educational plan based on the World Health Organization (WHO) “Multimodal HH Improvement Strategy” (MMHHIS). The HCWs’ compliance in response to HH indications represented by the WHO’s “My 5-Moments for HH” and the type of HH action taken, whether hand washing (HW) or hand-rubbing (HR) were analyzed. Results: The number of opportunities observed of HH performance accounted 230 in 2015 (pre-education), and 237 in 2016 (post-education). The HCWs’ HH compliance rate in the pre-education phase did not vary by the 5-moment indications [χ2(df 4) = 0.01, p=0.98]. Conversely, the compliance rate after HH education was higher than non-compliance across all 5-moment indication opportunities (ranged between 57.0% up –to 88.9%) [χ2(df 1) =18.25, p<0.001]. Only the 3rd – and 4th 5-moment indications (“after body fluid ...

Dr. Mohammad Hadi Dehghani
Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Dr. Beatrice O. Ondondo 
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Llandaff Campus, Western Avenue, Cardiff, CF5 2YB

Ms. Yau Sui Yu
Assistant Professor (Nursing), The Open University of Hong Kong C0924, The Open University of Hong Kong, 30, Good Shepherd Street, Ho Man Tin, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Dr. Mario Bernardo-Filho
Professor Titular, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Dr Anirudh V. Mutalik
Assistant Professor and Incharge Rural Health Training Centre. KMCT Medical College,Calicut

Dr. Hamdy Ahmad Sliem
Professor, Internal Medicine, Faculty of medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Dr. Abdelrahman Y. Fouda
Vascular Biology Center, R.B. Caldwell lab, Augusta University

Dr. Kabita Mishra
Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy), D.D.P.R.-Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy , (Ministry of A.Y.U.S.H., Government of India)

Dr. Ionel BONDOC
Associate Professor, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Iasi (ROMANIA), Department of Public Health

Dr Col Narendra Singh
Professor Community Medicine, Central Govt Medical College & Hospital in Faridabad , India

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1. John P. Elliott, Andrew Elliott, Allison Cimler,Nardo Zaias, Sandra Escovar. Extraordinary Rapid Wound Healing Time in Diabetic Patients Treated with Microburst Insulin Infusion.International Research Journal of Public Health, 2018; 2:14. DOI:10.28933/irjph-2018-08-1001 
2. Blaurock-Busch E. and Nwokolo Chijioke C. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Blood, Hair and Urine of Nigerian Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2018; 2:13. DOI:10.28933/irjph-2018-07-2201

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International Research Journal of Public Health


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