Public Health

  • IMPACT OF DRIVER DISTRACTION AND ITS EFFECT

    Deaths and injury from road accidents on the highways of Ghana seem to be on the rise. Along these highways are advertising billboards with attractive, but often very seductive images of females. These images, according to advertisers, are meant to catch the maximum attention within the shortest possible time. Drivers use a large proportion of their visual sensory input, hence visually conspicuous items, such as billboards, are likely to interfere with visual processing tasks. Though few researches have been conducted on billboards and the occurrence of road accidents, as well as driver distractions, none actually focused on the visual elements as far as image mental distractions are concerned. From the positivist paradigm, the study investigated the roles visual elements on billboards play in the occurrence of road accidents. It focused on how these images add to the numerous road accidents. Standard designed survey questionnaires were administered to 200 drivers who ply the Kumasi- Accra highway route on regular basis. The data was analysed with SPSS using descriptive and Crosstab analysis methods. The study revealed that the distractions from these images were factors for these road accidents that lead to injury and death. The study also shows a connection between advertising billboard images and road accidents and how these advertising billboard images have a negative influence on driver-performance. It is therefore being recommended that stakeholders begin to focus on the kinds of billboards being mounted along the highways.

  • Patient Satisfaction: Bangladesh Perspective

    Patient’s satisfaction is a useful measure to provide an indicator of quality in healthcare services. Concern over the quality of healthcare services in Bangladesh has led to loss of faith in healthcare providers, low utilization of public health facilities, and increasing outflow of Bangladeshi patients to hospitals in abroad. The main barriers to accessing health services are inadequate services and poor quality of existing facilities, shortage of medicine supplies, busyness of doctors due to high patient load, long travel distance to facilities, and long waiting times once facilities were reached, very short consultation time, lack of empathy of the health professionals, their generally callous and casual attitude, aggressive pursuit of monetary gains, poor levels of competence and, occasionally, disregard for the suffering that patients endure without being able to voice their concerns—all of these service failures are reported frequently in the print media. Such failures can play a powerful role in shaping patients’ negative attitudes and dissatisfaction with healthcare service providers and healthcare itself.

  • Impact of a school-based intervention to address iodine deficiency disorder in adolescent girls in Gilgit, Pakistan

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in the high mountain population of Gilgit Baltistan province of Pakistan. In this study we evaluated the impact of iodine supplementation coupled with iodine nutrition education on IDD in adolescent girls. We conducted a pre- and post intervention study in a stratified random sample of 152 girls aged 10 to 19 years from four schools of Gilgit town in 2011. IDD was defined as having a goiter, and urinary iodine deficiency (

  • Clean Water Standards, Environmental Hygiene Sanitation, and Vector Control in Prevention of Disease Transmission in Disaster in Lombok, Indonesia: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Natural disasters are events that cannot be avoided and desired by everyone. Water and hygiene are important determinants of survival at the beginning of post-disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is needed to prevent deaths from dehydration, therefore in the event of a disaster there is a need for standards to reduce the risk of water-related diseases, sanitation hygiene and vector control. This study aims to explain the concept of water standards, sanitation cleanliness and vector control as humanitarian steps in the event of a disaster. This study shows that the application of these concepts is useful for reducing disease transmission from environmental factors and disease vector exposure. The method in this study uses the epidemiological triangle model approach. Using this method, we set basic standards in humanitarian action at the disaster in Lombok to control the risk of environmental-based diseases. Details of this method are shown in the following which includes the Environment, Agent, and Host. Adjudication is mainly achieved through promoting good hygiene practices, providing safe water, reducing environmental health risks, and controlling infectious disease vectors. This condition will allow people to live healthy with dignity, comfort, and security.

  • Estimation of Risk Factors for Cardio vascular Diseases in urban & semi-urban population: A prospective Observational Study

    Cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that 60–80% of patients with diabetes die of cardiovascular events. Hypertension and Diabetes are the major causes for the cardio vascular diseases across the world particularly in India. In present study, in our study population, we found that males are more prone to CVD. Hypertension and Alcohol intake are the leading causes of Cardiovascular Diseases .

  • Strategy to Reduce Incidence Disease of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Bukittinggi West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Background: Disease of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)) is contagion which because of virus dengue and contagious through of Aedes aegypti. This disease can attack everybody and death. In Bukittinggi represent non-area of endemic DHF, but almost every year the progress of occurrence DHF, District which at most case of DHF is Aur Birugo Tigo Baleh (ABTB), besides wide of the smallest area also there is the environmental factor which related case of DHF. In this context, the study aims to know Related of existence larva mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Implementation of 3M Plus with Improvement incidence disease Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Bukittinggi. Methods: It is an analytic survey with study design of case-control use test of chi- square. Research location in District of ABTB, its research responder are 78 with the technique of totally sampling. Result: The research show existence snap fingers at house snapping fingers at and suffering DHF 61,5%, do not snap fingers at and suffer DHF 38,5%. Value of House Index (HI) 43,6%, Container Index (CI) 17,9%. Implementation of 3M Plus unfavorable and suffer DHF 69,2%, while Implementation of 3M Plus good and suffer DHF 30,8%. Conclusions: From the result of research pvalue=0,003 (p

  • Depression Predictors among Older Persons in a Rural Community in South Africa

    Background: Depression is a very important part of global mental health concerns. Many of the studies on correlates of depression stopped short of finding the predictors. Predictive models will empower preventative efforts by healthcare providers and policy makers. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors predicting depressive symptoms among a population of older men and women in rural South Africa. Methods: Data were obtained from “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) in the INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site of Agincourt” in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Previously validated short-version Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 8) was used to assess for depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression model with stepwise selection, and receiver operating curve were used to examine the predictors of depression. Results: Of the 4027 participants included in this study, 743 (18.5%) met the criterion for depression (CES-D 8 score ≥3). Older age (OR 1.025, CI 1.016-1.034), diabetes (OR 1.467, CI 1.152-1.868), and alcohol consumption (OR 1.536, CI 1.261-1.872) predicted depression. Being male (OR 0.734, CI 0.588-0.915) and homemaker rather than not working (OR 0.513, CI 0.372-0.707) were protective. Compared to those who were married, depressive symptoms were significantly higher among the separated/divorced (OR 1.372, CI 1.027-1.834) and the widowed (OR 1.468, CI 1.172-1.839). Conclusions: It is possible to predict the development of depression in this community, and findings are generalizable to other communities and countries. Healthcare workers and policy makers should use the findings for preventative care and policies.

  • Public Health aspects of Cesarean section including overuse and underuse of the procedure

    Caesarean section (CS) is lifesaving medical procedure that is able to avert both maternal and neonatal mortality. However, across the globe an estimated 3.2 million necessary CSs do not happen in low income countries and an estimate of 6.2 million unnecessary CSs happen in middle and high income countries. The overuse and underuse of this procedure driven by both the supply-side (such as resources within the health system, healthcare policy and strategies, health financing systems and perceptions of the healthcare professional) and demand-side (such as socio-economic status, population preference and perceptions and trust in health system) determinants. There are stark inequities in CS rates between and within regions and countries. Many regions across the globe (Eastern Asia, Northern Europe, Central America, Southern America, Northern America and Oceania) have over double recommended optimal rates, whereas several African regions (Eastern, Middle and Western) have dangerously low rates. Both of these have detrimental impacts on maternal and neonatal outcomes. There is a need now for health policy and decision makers at both national and facility level to try and optimize the CS rates through facilitating strategies that promote positive human relations and encourage standardized evidence based care.

  • Should We Build Our School Here? Children’s Level of Fitness, School Site-Typology and the Built Environment

    Background: No prior studies have assessed the relationship of school-sites with children’s fitness, nor evaluated how it is influenced by types of built environments surrounding school-sites. Purpose: To create a typology of school-sites and assess their associations, with school-level cardiorespiratory fitness (PACER score), as well as 34 environmental measures, reflecting food retailers and parks. Methods: PACER scores (#laps) were obtained on 20,900 children, 5-18 years-old, attending 103 rural and urban public schools in Wisconsin 2009-2010. Scores were aggregated at the school-level (mean 25.2±10.5). School-site typology reflects walkability context and parcel size. Schools were classified as: Neighborhood-School, Neighborhood-Campus, Neighborhood-Suburban, or Campus-School. Geospatial and linear regression were performed , overall and by sex and age strata, using a 1600-meter circular buffer around each school. Associations with school-level-PACER score were assessed for school types; density of unhealthy and healthier food retailers; and types of parks. Results: Campus-Schools predict a school average-PACER 7 laps significantly higher than Neighborhood-schools. ‘Neighborhood-Campus’ showed the lowest PACER for males and 11-13 years-old (10 and 12 laps lower). Negatively correlated with average-PACER were, unhealthy convenience stores for both sex, large parks for females. More fast-casual restaurants predict higher average-PACER. Schools with more students predict higher average-PACER for males and 6-10 years-old. Conclusion: Among Wisconsin schools, school-site and its context are associated with children’s physical fitness, suggesting that school-siting should include a health benefit analyses in the process. This study demonstrates the utility of school-level PACER scores and suggests further study of the mechanisms by which children’s fitness is influenced by food retailers around school zones.

  • Assessment The Role Of Motivation On Technicians And Teaching Assistants Performance In College Of Medical Technology In Derna City, Libya

    Background: Motivation is crucial for organizations to function; without motivation the organization would be less efficient. Objective: To assess the role of motivation on technicians and teaching assistants performance in College of Medical Technology in Derna, city. Methodology: A cross- sectional design was used to conduct the study. The target population of the study was technicians and teaching assistants working in College of Medical Technology. Data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by percentage, mean, range, rank, frequency and standard deviation. Results: Among 39 study sample 11 were male and 28 were female. Most of them were within age group of 21- 30 years (87.18%). The study reveals that, “training” was ranked first as the most important motivational factor, followed by second rank was shared between “salary and job security”. Few of the study sample received incentives in form of financial incentive, clothing allowance, phone and petrol cards. And said the incentive has a positive impact on job performance. All participants said would do better job if they were motivated. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that motivational factors such as “training, salary, and job security” are major motivational factors, which can lead to better services delivery in the college as it brings positive results on the technicians and teaching assistant’s performance. The study also revealed that incentives available to technicians and teaching assistants in the college are inadequate.