Public Health

  • Health seeking behaviour for Buruli Ulcer disease in the Obom sub-district of the Ga south Municipality of Ghana

    The current biomedical Buruli ulcer case management strategies emphasise the importance of early reporting and appropriate medical treatment of nodules before they ulcerate and give rise to deformities and disabilities. However, there are a wide range of factors that influence health seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer case management. The purpose of the study was to determine health seeking behaviour for Buruli ulcer by affected persons and their families. This was a descriptive study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection. Thirty (30) in-depth interviews were conducted for Buruli ulcer patients and their corresponding caregivers on barriers and facilitators to health seeking. Three (3) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted among elderly community members. Survey questionnaire interviews were conducted with 300 community respondents in Ga, Akan and Ewe languages in the study area. Systematic sampling was used to select 300 respondents for the survey. The study revealed that most respondents (41.0%) would resort to self-medication as their first treatment option when infected with Buruli ulcer. However, the health seeking of self-medication before seeking biomedical treatment was alarming since it leads to delays in reporting. This is a serious public health concern since delay in reporting could lead to category three lesions.

  • Assessment of Injection Safety Practices among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Safety of injections been administered on daily basis is becoming of significant Public Health importance considering the increasing prevalence of complications and the negative impact this could have on the overall good intention of the Healthcare providers. It is on the basis of this that we assessed the level of awareness and compliance with injection safety practices among Healthcare workers in Ekiti State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique to recruit 582 HCWs across the State. In Stage One, 2 LGAs were selected from each of the 3 senatorial districts by simple random sampling technique through balloting and in stage two, a list of all the Health Facilities (Public and Private) in the selected LGAs was compiled and all were included in the study. In Stage three, A cluster sampling method was used to select all the staff who are eligible to administer injections in the selected HFs at the time of survey. A semi-structured questionnaire and an observational checklist was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. A total of 582 HCWs were interviewed and 151 HFs were directly observed for compliance with Injection safety procedures. The mean age of the respondents was 38.2 ± 9.6 years. Females constituted about 86.8% while 83.5% were married. Majority of the respondents were CHEW, Nurses, Doctors and Health Attendants. Awareness of injection safety was generally high as about 93.6% of respondents were aware. However, only about 62.9% of them has ever had any form of training on Injection safety. Only about 3% of the respondents have not reused syringes, while only about 41% has ever used an AD syringe, among whom about 32% always use AD syringes. Safety boxes were available and used in about 93% of the HFs, however, the final method…

  • Stress and Complicacy Among Relationships: A Major Health Concern

    On Valentine’s Day, the sight of couples holding hands and hugging each-other might unleash a wave of jealousy in those who are single. However, there might not be much to be jealous about. Also, marital quality clearly colors one’s overall sense of well-being, and marital distress elevates health risks, says a leading clinical psychology journal. However, the simple presence of a spouse is not necessarily protective; a troubled marriage is itself a prime source of stress, and simultaneously limits the partner’s ability to seek support in other relationships. The worst distance between two persons in a relationship misunderstanding. Indeed, the relationship between life satisfaction and marital quality is stronger than life satisfaction’s ties to either one’s job or one’s health.

  • Drug Induced-Stevens Johnson Syndrome

    Background: Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is one of the severe forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Despite it is rare, SJS is highly weakening and life-threatening illness commonly occurs as a result of medications, which is characterized by fever and mucocutaneous lesions leading to necrosis and sloughing of the epidermis. Objectives: This case report professionally provide feedback on clinical practice guidelines, offer a framework for early signals of effectiveness, adverse events; and to share the case for medical, scientific or educational purposes. Methods: This is an observational type of case report which we observed in Arba Minch University Students’ Clinic during outpatient diagnosis. Discussion: Despite ciprofloxacin induced SJS had reported in different areas by different scholars with different duration on antibiotics, clinical manifestations, duration of recovery and complications; but itis the first report in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This case concludes that severe hypersensitivity reactions like SJS can be caused by ciprofloxacin use which can be potentially life threatening. Therefore, identifying medications causing SJS is of paramount importance to withdraw it immediately and for additional treatment.

  • Alcohol Use Disorder among University Students in Cameroon and Its Related Harms

    Purpose: Underage drinking, particularly heavy episodic bouts of underage drinking and the related consequences is a major social issue plaguing college campuses worldwide. Uncontrolled drinking behavior among college and university students has resulted in the occurrence of fatalities, assaults, unintentional serious injuries road accidents, crime, unprotected sexual activity, and poor school performance. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol dependence among Cameroonian university students and to identify the related factors. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 600 randomly selected university students in Cameroon. Setting: The survey assessed students’ level of drinking using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, a screening test for harmful drinking. Data were collected online and students were asked to respond to the survey via email. Results: Six hundred students participated in the survey. Among them, 261,(43.6%) were women and 337 (56%) were men and the majority (52.7%) lived with their parents. The results demonstrated a statistically positive correlation between reason to drink, drinking demands situations, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, proving the alternative hypothesis to be true in its form. There was also a strong statistically significant direct relationship between drinking demand and perceived drinking benefits.

  • Health Hazards with Adulterated Spices: Save the “Onion Tears”

    Spices are among the top five most commonly adulterated food types because they are expensive commodities that are processed prior to sale, used most frequently and consumed by mass population. There is a strong incentive to pollute. In Bangladesh, different types of grounded spices powders are available like onion, ginger, coriander, chilli, turmeric, cumin, etc. These powdered spices are commercially processed and packaged by some leading food industries, while some local non-branded industries also exist. Nowadays, people are busy with their carriers, the demand of branded spices powder is increasing gradually. Generally, most of the people tend to buy loose spices from the local grocery store if branded and packaged spices are not available. This increases the risk of consuming adulterated spices. Unlike this particular adulterant which is not unhealthy (but illegal), most of the adulterants are unhealthy and can cause serious and fatal damage to our system if consumed regularly. The escalating market of this product implies that in Bangladesh this tradition is increasingly attaining momentum. Spices are consumed in various forms such as whole spices, ground spices, oleoresins, extracts etc. Spices play an important role in enhancing the flavor and taste of processed foods. They are also used in medicine because of their carminative stimulating and digestive properties. Ground spices maybe adulterated with artificial colors, starch, chalk powder, etc. to increase their weight and enhance appearance. High value ground spices are frequently adulterated for economic gains. Adulteration is difficult to identify by visual and sensory inputs alone. Although there are few renowned food industries, peoples are always suspicious about these products. But there are still not enough investigations for the quality check of all these branded powdered products.

  • IMPACT OF DRIVER DISTRACTION AND ITS EFFECT

    Deaths and injury from road accidents on the highways of Ghana seem to be on the rise. Along these highways are advertising billboards with attractive, but often very seductive images of females. These images, according to advertisers, are meant to catch the maximum attention within the shortest possible time. Drivers use a large proportion of their visual sensory input, hence visually conspicuous items, such as billboards, are likely to interfere with visual processing tasks. Though few researches have been conducted on billboards and the occurrence of road accidents, as well as driver distractions, none actually focused on the visual elements as far as image mental distractions are concerned. From the positivist paradigm, the study investigated the roles visual elements on billboards play in the occurrence of road accidents. It focused on how these images add to the numerous road accidents. Standard designed survey questionnaires were administered to 200 drivers who ply the Kumasi- Accra highway route on regular basis. The data was analysed with SPSS using descriptive and Crosstab analysis methods. The study revealed that the distractions from these images were factors for these road accidents that lead to injury and death. The study also shows a connection between advertising billboard images and road accidents and how these advertising billboard images have a negative influence on driver-performance. It is therefore being recommended that stakeholders begin to focus on the kinds of billboards being mounted along the highways.

  • Patient Satisfaction: Bangladesh Perspective

    Patient’s satisfaction is a useful measure to provide an indicator of quality in healthcare services. Concern over the quality of healthcare services in Bangladesh has led to loss of faith in healthcare providers, low utilization of public health facilities, and increasing outflow of Bangladeshi patients to hospitals in abroad. The main barriers to accessing health services are inadequate services and poor quality of existing facilities, shortage of medicine supplies, busyness of doctors due to high patient load, long travel distance to facilities, and long waiting times once facilities were reached, very short consultation time, lack of empathy of the health professionals, their generally callous and casual attitude, aggressive pursuit of monetary gains, poor levels of competence and, occasionally, disregard for the suffering that patients endure without being able to voice their concerns—all of these service failures are reported frequently in the print media. Such failures can play a powerful role in shaping patients’ negative attitudes and dissatisfaction with healthcare service providers and healthcare itself.

  • Impact of a school-based intervention to address iodine deficiency disorder in adolescent girls in Gilgit, Pakistan

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in the high mountain population of Gilgit Baltistan province of Pakistan. In this study we evaluated the impact of iodine supplementation coupled with iodine nutrition education on IDD in adolescent girls. We conducted a pre- and post intervention study in a stratified random sample of 152 girls aged 10 to 19 years from four schools of Gilgit town in 2011. IDD was defined as having a goiter, and urinary iodine deficiency (

  • Clean Water Standards, Environmental Hygiene Sanitation, and Vector Control in Prevention of Disease Transmission in Disaster in Lombok, Indonesia: A Systematic Review of Literature

    Natural disasters are events that cannot be avoided and desired by everyone. Water and hygiene are important determinants of survival at the beginning of post-disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is needed to prevent deaths from dehydration, therefore in the event of a disaster there is a need for standards to reduce the risk of water-related diseases, sanitation hygiene and vector control. This study aims to explain the concept of water standards, sanitation cleanliness and vector control as humanitarian steps in the event of a disaster. This study shows that the application of these concepts is useful for reducing disease transmission from environmental factors and disease vector exposure. The method in this study uses the epidemiological triangle model approach. Using this method, we set basic standards in humanitarian action at the disaster in Lombok to control the risk of environmental-based diseases. Details of this method are shown in the following which includes the Environment, Agent, and Host. Adjudication is mainly achieved through promoting good hygiene practices, providing safe water, reducing environmental health risks, and controlling infectious disease vectors. This condition will allow people to live healthy with dignity, comfort, and security.