Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: highlights about biochemical agents that subscribe its physiopathological mechanism during gestational trimesters

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: highlights about biochemical agents that subscribe its physiopathological mechanism during gestational trimesters

João Ricardhis Saturnino de Oliveira1 *, Aedson Pereira da Silva2, Bianka Santana dos Santos1,3, Priscila Pereira Passos4, Anselmo Queiroz Alves5, Francisco Henrique da Silva6 , Fálba Bernadete Ramos dos Anjos6, Vera Cristina Oliveira de Carvalho1, Matheus Alves Siqueira de Assunção6, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima1

1Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; 2International Faculty of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil; 3Life Sciences Center, Campus Agreste, Federal University of Pernambuco, Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil; 4University Center Maurício de Nassau, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; 5Hematology and Hemotherapy Hospital of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil; 6Department of Histology and Embryology, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

International Research Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a common complication in which hyperglycemia goes by physiological state, beneficial to the embryo, to metabolic condition that causes damage to both mother and child. Placental hormones, insulin resistance, visceral fat tissue, dyslipidemia, and other biochemical agentes, subscribe the physiopathological mechanisms that lead to GDM. Nowadays, there are mRNAs, proteins, and even vitamins being associated with GDM risk and its pathophysiology. These new pathways usher a new horizon to discover and describe other important parts of metabolism that play a key role to GDM. With a larger picture of pregnant women metabolism prior and after GDM, better predictors and efficient treatment can be managed.

Keywords: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, biochemical agents , physiopathological mechanism , gestational trimesters

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
João Ricardhis Saturnino de Oliveira, Aedson Pereira da Silva, Bianka Santana dos Santos, Priscila Pereira Passos, Anselmo Queiroz Alves, Francisco Henrique da Silva, Fálba Bernadete Ramos dos Anjos, Vera Cristina Oliveira de Carvalho, Matheus Alves Siqueira de Assunção, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima.Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: highlights about biochemical agents that subscribe its physiopathological mechanism during gestational trimesters .International Research Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2020, 3:34. DOI: 10.28933/irjog-2020-06-2005


1. Fernandes CN, Bezerra MMM. O diabetes mellitus gestacional: causa e tratamento. Revista Multidisciplinar e de Psicologia. 2020; 14(48):127-139.
2. American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabtetes: standards of medi-cal care in diabetes – 2020. Diabetes Care. 2020; 43(Suppl. 1):S14-S31.
3. Cheng YW, Caughey. Gestational diabetes: di-agnosis and management. Journal of Perinatol-ogy. 2018; 28:657-664.
4. Chávez EJA, Asinc VAL, Cervantes ERA, Martrus JER. Pacintes com diabetes gestacional. Revista Científica Mundo de la Investigación y El Conocimiento. 2020; 4:483-498.
5. McIntyre HD, Catalano P, Zhang C, Desoye G, Mathiesen E, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Primer. 2019;1:1-19.
6. Gouveia C, Granja M, Sá AB, Gomes LF, Simões JG, et al. Novas orientações da direção-geral de saúde para a diabetes gestacional: uma apreciação crítica. Rev Port Med Geral Fam, 2012; 28:304-12.
7. Araújo IM, Araújo SF, Aoyama EA, Lima RN. Cuidados de enfermagem à pacientes com diabetes mellitus gestacional. ReBIS. 2020; 2(1):43-8.
8. Julia A, Souza D, Rocha E, Morelli F, Lyrio L, Jardim M, Padrão G. Diabetes mellitus gestacional e complicações fetais e neonatais. Revista Cadernos de Medicina. 2020; 2(3):40-7.
9. Agha-Jaffar R, Oliver N, Johnston D, Robinson S. Gestational diabetes mellitus: does an affec-tive prevention strategy exist? Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2016; 12:533-546.
10. Santos LL, Santos JL, Barbosa LT, Silva IN, Sousa-Rodrigues, et al. Effectiveness of insulin analogs compared with human insulins in preg-nant women with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ver Bras Ginecol Ob-stet. 2019; 41:104-115.
11. Dickson LM, Buchmann EJ, Rensburg CJV, Nor-ris SA. Accuracy of Five plasma calibrated glu-cometers to screen for and diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus in a low resourse clinic setting. Journal of Clinical e Translational Endocrinolagy. 2019; 16:(100174).
12. Yan B, Yu Y, Chen Y, Su W, Huang Y, et al. As-sessment of the optimal cutoff value of fasting plasma glucose to establish diagnosis of gesta-tional diabetes mellitus in chinese women. Scien-tific Reports. 2019; 9:(15998)1-7.
13. O’Malley EG, Reynolds CME, Kelly RO, McMah-on L, Tumer MJ. The diagnosis of gestational di-abetes mellitus (GDM) using a 75g oral glucose tolerance test: a prospective observational study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practic. 2020; 1:1-25.
14. Santos-Weiss ICR, Réa RR, Picheth CMTF, Rego FGM, Pedrosa FO, et al. The plasma logarithm of triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio is a predic-tor of low risk gestational diabtetes in eraly pregnancy. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2012; 4:(12932)1-4.
15. Corcoran SM, Achamallah N, Loughlin JO, Staf-ford P, Dicker P, et al. First trimester serum bi-omarkers to predict gestational diabetes in a high-risk cohort: striving for clinically useful thresholds. European Journal of Obstetrics e Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2018; 222:7-12.
16. Kumru P, Arisoy R, Erdogdu E, Demirci O, Kalvrut M, et al. Prediction of gestational diabe-tes mellitus at first trimester in low-risk pregnan-cies. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gyne-cology. 2016; 55:815-820.
17. Del Val TL, Lázaro Val, Lacalle CG, Moreno BT, Carbajal GC, et al. Fasting glucose in the first trimester: na anitial approach to diagnosis of gestational diabtetes. Endocrianl Diabetes Nutr. 2019; 6:(1)11-18.
18. Shan Z, Xu C, Wang W, Li W. Enhanced PDGF signaling in gestational diabetes mellitus is in-volved in pancreatic b-cell dysfunction, Bio-chemical and Biophysical Research Communica-tions. 2019; 516(2):402-407.
19. Alves JG, Souza ASR, Figueiroa JN, Araújo CAL, Guimarães A, et al. Visceral adipose tissue depth in early pregnancy and gestatinal diabetes mellitus – a cohort study. Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(2032):1-4.
20. Fruscalzo A, Cividino A, Rossetti E, Maurigh A, Londero AP, et al. First trimester papp-a serum levels and long-term metabolic outcome of mothers and their offspring. Scientific Reports. 2020; 10:5131.
21. Liao J, Chen X, Xu S, Li Y, Zhang B, et al. Effect residential exposure to green space on maternal blood glucose levels, impaired glucose toler-ance, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Envi-ronmental Research. 2019; 176:(108526)1-8.
22. Santos PA, Madi JM, Silva ER, Vergani DOP, Araújo BF, et al. Gestational diabetes in the population served by brasilian public health care. Prevalence and risk factors. Ver Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2020; 42:(1)12-18.
23. Dickson LM, Buchmann EJ, Rensburg CJV, Nor-ris SA. The impact of differences in plasma glu-cose between glucose oxidase and hexokinase methods on estimated gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence. Scientific Reports. 2019; 1:1-7.
24. Molina RT, Vergara TA, Lozano BD, Ricaurte C, Charris HM, et al. Diabetes gestacional: implementación de uma guia para su detección en la atención primaria de salud. Ver Med Chile. 2019; 147:190-198.
25. Takahashi M, Miyatsuka T, Suzuki L, Osonoi S, Himuro M, et al. Biphasic changes in b-cel mas-sa round parturition are accompanied by in-creased serotonin production. Scientific Re-ports. 2020; 10:(4962)1-13.
26. Buchanan TA, Xiang AH, Page A. Gestational di-abetes mellitus: risks and management during and after pregnancy. Nature Reviews Endocrino-lo gy. 2012; 8:639-649.
27. Manoharan B, Bobby Z, Dorairajan G, Jacob SE, Gladwin V, et al. Increased placental expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and antioxidant enzymes in gestational diabetes: pro-tective mechanisms against the placental oxida-tive stress?. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecoly and Reproductive Biology. 2019; 238:78-85.
28. Arias M, Monteiro LJ, Acuña-Gallardo S, Varas-Godoy M, Rice GE, et al. Vesículas como predictores tempranos de diabetes gestacional. Rev Med Chile. 2019; 147:1503-1509.
29. Li H, Shen L, Song L, Liu B, Zheng X, et al. Early age aat menarche and gestational diabetes melli-tus risk: results from the healthy cohort study. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2017; 1:1-5.
30. Moosazadeh M, Asemi Z, Lankarani KB, Tabrizi R, Maharlouei N, et al. Family history of diabetes and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Di-abetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research Reviews. 2016; 1:1-6.
31. Rodrigues IM, Abreu B, Figueiredo A, Amaral N, Pereira N, et al. Ethnicity/racial impact in gesta-tional diabetes mellitus. Acta Obstet Ginecol Port. 2019; 13:(2)72-80.
32. Pfeiffer S, Sánchez-Lechuga B, Donovan P, Ha-lang L, Prehn JHM, Campos-Caro A, et al. Circu-lating mir-330-3p in late pregnancy is associated with pregnancy outcomes among lean women with GDM. Scientific Reports. 2020; 10:908.
33. Orhan O, Atalay MA, Orhan F, Karkucak M, Demir BC, et al. Glutathione s-transferase m1 and t1 gene polymorphisms are not associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes melli-tus development. West Indian Med J. 2014; 63:(4)300.
34. Wen J, Hong Q, Zhu L, Xu P, Fu Z, et al. Asso-ciation of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in second and third trimester with risk of gestational diabetes and other pregnancy outcomes. International Journal of Obesity. 2017; 41:489-496.
35. Jamilian M, Amirani E, Asemi Z. The effects of vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation on glucose homeostasis, inflamation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 2018; 1:1-8.
36. Wang C, Guelfi KJ, Yang HX. Exercise and its role in gestational diabetes mellitus. Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine. 2016; 2:208-214.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details).

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.