Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • HPV-Negative Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a 21-year-old Patient

    Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma usually occurs among women in their 60s or 70s. There are a limited number of reports of vulvar cancer cases younger than 30 years. These patients have usually risk factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In this report, the authors present a rare case of invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in a 21-year-old patient without HPV infection. Surgical treatment was performed, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy.

  • Relation between pregnant women and the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): Screening and diagnosis of GDM

    The existence of a complex health system is capable of providing the necessary care for the mother and mother, but the levels of complexity of this treatment vary according to the need and severity of the situation in which the pregnant woman is ebcibtra. From this perspective, this chapter will address the relationship between pregnant women and the Brazilian Unified Health System, as well as the care and diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: highlights about biochemical agents that subscribe its physiopathological mechanism during gestational trimesters

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a common complication in which hyperglycemia goes by physiological state, beneficial to the embryo, to metabolic condition that causes damage to both mother and child. Placental hormones, insulin resistance, visceral fat tissue, dyslipidemia, and other biochemical agentes, subscribe the physiopathological mechanisms that lead to GDM. Nowadays, there are mRNAs, proteins, and even vitamins being associated with GDM risk and its pathophysiology. These new pathways usher a new horizon to discover and describe other important parts of metabolism that play a key role to GDM. With a larger picture of pregnant women metabolism prior and after GDM, better predictors and efficient treatment can be managed.

  • Gestational diabetes: diagnosis, care, and influence on fetus

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized by the WHO as a condition of hyperglycemia detected for the first time during pregnancy, with blood glucose levels that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for DM. There are some hormones produced by the placenta and increased by pregnancy, such as placental lactogen, cortisol, and prolactin. In which, they can reduce the performance of insulin at its receptors and, consequently, increase insulin production in healthy pregnant women. Prenatal care is essential to prevent complications for women and children. Thus, an individualized diet should be indicated, exercise during pregnancy, and delivery should be monitored. If the recommendations do not normalize the condition of GDM, spontaneous abortions, the formation of excess amniotic fluid, congenital malformations, restricted fetal growth, and even the death of the mother and fetus may occur.

  • Clinical Symptoms and Manifestations of Gestational Diabetes

    Although there is medical care focused on obstetric and neonatal care, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (MDG) is still considered one of the main gestational complications, due to numerous metabolic, hematological and anatomical risks for pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. In this chapter, the symptoms and clinical manifestations of pregnant women diagnosed with MDG and their offspring during and after pregnancy will be addressed, presenting the probable sequelae, in addition to the pathogenesis of the main clinical complications.

  • Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and postpartum care

    Treatment for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus comprises a series of Clinical-therapeutic protocols, which are necessary for proper attention to the patient with this pathology. In this sense, this chapter will address treatment care and postpartum care for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, taking into account pharmacotherapeutic protocols and adverse effects of non-recommended treatments.

  • Morphofunctional changes of the placenta in pregnant women with GDM

    Morphofunctional changes of the placenta during the gestational period may be influenced by the pathological condition of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. From this perspective, this chapter will address this theme as a way to evaluate the placental differences caused by this pathology.

  • Gestacional Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

    The existence of different types of diabetes contributes to a varied therapy, conditioned to the advance that this pathology is. In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus this condition is no different. In this context, this chapter will address Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, as well as its risk factors, prevention and consequences of this pathological condition.

  • Homeopathic treatment for Female infertility

    In this review article the writer contends that homeopathy is best effective methodology in barrenness of female’s Nowadays greater part of couples are deferring pregnancies for 1 to 2 years after marriage and subsequently when they are arranging pregnancy, around one fourth of them face issue in considering. Presently clinical field is a lot of cutting edge and bring to the table a ton in fruitlessness, similar to astute homeopathy is a most current framework which can fix the malady from the root, Homeopathy depends on side effect likeness and by sacred medication we can even treat barrenness of obscure etiology likewise, Here an endeavor is made to pass on the methodology of homeopathy in fruitlessness and its regular causes.

  • Effects of Sublingual Misoprostol as Adjunct to Oxytocin for Active Management of Third Stage of Labour in Paturients at Risk of Post-partum Haemorrhage in Abakaliki : a Comparison of 200 Versus 400 Micrograms

    Background: Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) still remains a major cause of maternal mortality despite adequate knowledge of its causes and treatment. Oxytocin administration is one of the major components of active management of third stage of labour (AMTSL). Evidence suggest benefit of misoprostol as an adjunct however optimal dose is yet to be determine considering the dose depended side effect profile of misoprostol. . Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy and side effect profile of 200µg versus 400µg of prophylactic sublingual misoprostol as adjunct to AMTSL among parturient at risk for PPH. Methods: This was a double blinded, single centre, randomized controlled trial involving two hundred and forty parturient with 2.1% drop out rate , thus 235 of them were analyzed; 117 (48.8%) and 118(49.2%) for 200 and 400 microgram group respectively. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (IBM SPSS) software (version 24, Chicago II, USA). Continuous variables were presented as mean and standard deviation (Mean ± 2SD), while categorical variables were presented as numbers and percentages. Chi-square test (X2) was used for comparison between groups for qualitative variables while t-test was used for comparison between groups for quantitative variables. A difference with a P value