Exposure and transmission risk of blood and body fluids among health care personnel at first level referral public hospitals in Meme division, Cameroon

Exposure and transmission risk of blood and body fluids among health care personnel at first level referral public hospitals in Meme division, Cameroon

Tinyami Erick Tandi1, 2, 3*, KyungHee Kim3, Tambetakaw Njang Gilbert2, JaeWook Choi13*

1Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Graduate School of Public Health Korea University, Seoul South Korea. 2Ministry of Public Health Yaounde, Yaoude Cameroon; 3Institute for Occupational and Environmental Health, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea

Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern for health care personnel (HCP), and posed a serious risk for the transmission of infectious pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational exposures of HCP at first level hospitals in Meme Division, Cameroon.
We sampled 190 HCP working in 3 first level referral hospitals in Meme division in Cameroon using a structured questionnaire with a participation rate of 94.06 %. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis using logistic regression were performed.
Of the 190 HCP who participated in the study, 77 (40.53 %) indicated having at least an encounter with exposure with blood and body fluids within the past 12 months. The physicians (78.57%) and the nurses (40.54%) were the most exposed categories of HCP. Working for long hours, lack of continuous training on infection prevention, 7-10 years working experience, dissatisfaction with current jobs, recapping needles after used were significantly associated with exposure and transmission risk to blood and body fluids among HCP.
There was a high level of exposure to blood and body fluids among HCP at the first level referral hospitals in Meme division in Cameroon. Programs targeting the implementation of surveillance systems for training, registering, reporting, provision of basic personal protective equipment and management of occupational exposures in health care settings should be prioritised.

Keywords: Health care personnel, blood and body fluids, public district hospitals, Cameroon

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Tinyami Erick Tandi, KyungHee Kim, Tambetakaw Njang Gilbert, JaeWook Choi.Exposure and transmission risk of blood and body fluids among health care personnel at first level referral public hospitals in Meme division, Cameroon. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2018; 2:22. DOI:10.28933/irjph-2018-10-2808


1. World Health Organization. (2006). Neurological disorders: public health challenges. World Health Organization.
2. Board, S. (2001). Risks to health care workers in developing countries. N Engl j Med, 345(7).
3. Benjamin, O. (2001). Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety. ILO, 13(2).
4. World Health Organization. (2006). The world health report: 2006: working together for health.
5. Noubiap, J. J. N., Jingi, A. M., & Kengne, A. P. (2014). Local innovation for improving primary care cardiology in resource-limited African settings: an insight on the Cardio Pad® project in Cameroon. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, 4(5), 397.
6. Connelly, Daniela, Youssef Veriava, Sue Roberts, Josephine Tsotetsi, Annie Jordan, Eliot DeSilva, Sydney Rosen, and Mary Bachman DeSilva. “Prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts among health care workers in South Africa.” SAMJ-South African Medical Journal 97, no. 2 (2007): 115-119.
7. Mbanya, D., Ateudjieu, J., Tagny, C. T., Moudourou, S., Lobe, M. M., & Kaptue, L. (2010). Risk factors for transmission of HIV in a hospital environment of Yaounde, Cameroon. International journal of environmental research and public health, 7(5), 2085-2100.
8. Nouetchognou, J. S., Ateudjieu, J., Jemea, B., & Mbanya, D. (2016). Accidental exposures to blood and body fluids among health care workers in a Referral Hospital of Cameroon. BMC research notes, 9(1), 1.
9. Fritzsche, C., Becker, F., Hemmer, C. J., Riebold, D., Klammt, S., Hufert, F., & Reisinger, E. C. (2013). Hepatitis B and C: neglected diseases among health care workers in Cameroon. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, trs087.
10. Ippolito, G., Puro, V., Heptonstall, J., Jagger, J., De Carli, G., & Petrosillo, N. (1999). Occupational human immunodeficiency virus infection in health care workers: worldwide cases through September 1997. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 28(2), 365-383.
11. Marcus, R., Kay, K., & Mann, J. M. (1989). Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health-care settings worldwide. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 67(5), 577.
12. Henderson, D. K., Saah, A. J., Zak, B. J., KASLOW, R. A., LANE, H. C., FOLKS, T., & FAUCI, A. S. (1986). Risk of nosocomial infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in a large cohort of intensively exposed health care workers. Annals of internal medicine, 104(5), 644-647.
13. Romea, S., Alkiza, M. E., Ramon, J. M., & Oromí, J. (1995). Risk for occupational transmission of HIV infection among health care workers. European journal of epidemiology, 11(2), 225-229.
14 Odujinrin, O. M. T., & Adegoke, O. A. (1995). AIDS: awareness and blood handling practices of health care workers in Lagos, Nigeria. European journal of epidemiology, 11(4), 425-430.
15. http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/pdfs/bbp/Exp_to_Blood.pdf. (Access 20th March. 2016).
16. Beyera, G. K., & Beyen, T. K. (2014). Epidemiology of exposure to HIV/AIDS risky conditions in healthcare settings: the case of health facilities in Gondar City, North West Ethiopia. BMC public health, 14(1), 1.
17. Tandi, T. E., Cho, Y., Akam, A. J. C., Afoh, C. O., Ryu, S. H., Choi, M. S., & Choi, J. W. (2015). Cameroon public health sector: shortage and inequalities in geographic distribution of health personnel. International journal for equity in health, 14(1), 43.
18. Ashkenazi, M., Fisher, N., Levin, L., & Littner, M. M. (2009). Seroepidemiology of hepatitis C antibodies among dentists and their self-reported use of infection control measures. Community dental health, 26(2), 99.
19. Tarantola, A., Koumare, A., Rachline, A., Sow, P. S., Diallo, M. B., Doumbia, S., & Groupe d’Etude des Risques d’Exposition des Soignants aux agents infectieux. (2005). A descriptive, retrospective study of 567 accidental blood exposures in healthcare workers in three West African countries. Journal of Hospital Infection, 60(3), 276-282.
20. Hoelscher, M., Riedner, G., Hemed, Y., Wagner, H. U., Kortet, R., & von Sonnenburg, F. (1994). Estimating the number of H6V transmissions through reused syringes and needles in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Aids, 8(11), 1609-1616.
21. Kaweti, G., & Abegaz, T. (2016). Prevalence of percutaneous injuries and associated factors among health care workers in Hawassa referral and adare District hospitals, Hawassa, Ethiopia, January 2014. BMC public health, 16(1), 1.
22. Doebbeling, B. N., Vaughn, T. E., McCoy, K. D., Beekmann, S. E., Woolson, R. F., Ferguson, K. J., & Torner, J. C. (2003). Percutaneous injury, blood exposure, and adherence to standard precautions: are hospital-based health care providers still at risk?. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(8), 1006-1013.
23. Du Maroc, R. O. Y. A. U. M. E. (2004). Evaluation Des Risques Professionnels A L’hopital.
24. Kebede, G., Molla, M., & Sharma, H. R. (2012). Needle stick and sharps injuries among health care workers in Gondar city, Ethiopia. Safety Science, 50(4), 1093-1097.
25. Gershon, R. R., Stone, P. W., Zeltser, M., Faucett, J., Macdavitt, K., & Chou, S. S. (2007). Organizational climate and nurse health outcomes in the United States: a systematic review. Industrial health, 45(5), 622-636.
26. Mashoto, K. O., Mubyazi, G. M., Mohamed, H., & Malebo, H. M. (2013). Self-reported occupational exposure to HIV and factors influencing its management practice: a study of healthcare workers in Tumbi and Dodoma Hospitals, Tanzania. BMC health services research, 13(1), 276.
27. Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Lotfi, M. S. (2013). Behavior of healthcare workers after injuries from sharp instruments. Trauma monthly, 18(2), 75-80.
28. Bekele, T., Gebremariam, A., Kaso, M., & Ahmed, K. (2015). Attitude, reporting behavour and management practice of occupational needle stick and sharps injuries among hospital healthcare workers in Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 10(1), 42.
29. Mashoto, K. O., Mubyazi, G. M., Makundi, E., Mohamed, H., & Malebo, H. M. (2013). Estimated risk of HIV acquisition and practice for preventing occupational exposure: a study of healthcare workers at Tumbi and Dodoma Hospitals, Tanzania. BMC health services research, 13(1), 1.
30. Attaullah, S., Khan, S., Ayaz, S., Khan, S., Ali, I., Hoti, N., & Siraj, S. (2011). Prevalence of HBV and HBV vaccination coverage in health care workers of tertiary hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan. Virology journal, 8(1), 1.
31. Nagao, M., Iinuma, Y., Igawa, J., Matsumura, Y., Shirano, M., Matsushima, A., & Ichiyama, S. (2009). Accidental exposures to blood and body fluid in the operation room and the issue of underreporting. American journal of infection control, 37(7), 541-544.
32. Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Lotfi, M. S. (2013). Behavior of healthcare workers after injuries from sharp instruments. Trauma monthly, 18(2), 75-80.
33. Azadi, A., Anoosheh, M., & Delpisheh, A. (2011). Frequency and barriers of underreported needlestick injuries amongst Iranian nurses, a questionnaire survey. Journal of clinical nursing, 20(3‐4), 488-493.
34. Efstathiou, G., Papastavrou, E., Raftopoulos, V., & Merkouris, A. (2013). Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Pathogens and Reporting Behaviour among Cypriot Nurses. Int J Caring Sci, 6(3), 420-430.
35. Reda, A. A., Fisseha, S., Mengistie, B., & Vandeweerd, J. M. (2010). Standard precautions: occupational exposure and behavior of health care workers in Ethiopia. PLoS One, 5(12), e14420.
36. Shimelis, T., Torben, W., Medhin, G., Tebeje, M., Andualm, A., Demessie, F., & Gebre-Selassie, S. (2008). Hepatitis B virus infection among people attending the voluntary counselling and testing centre and anti-retroviral therapy clinic of St Paul’s General Specialised Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Sexually transmitted infections, 84(1), 37-41.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details). This site cannot and does not contain professional advice. The information on this site is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals. We do not provide any kind of professional advice. The use or reliance of any information contained on this site or our mobile application is solely at your own risk. Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site or our mobile application or reliance on any information provided on the site and our mobile application. We may publish articles without peer-review. Published articles of authors are open access. Authors hold the copyright and retain publishing rights without restrictions. Authors are solely responsible for their articles published in our journals. Publication of any information in authors’ articles does not constitute an endorsement by us. We make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness of any information that authors provided. more..

This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.