IMPACT OF DRIVER DISTRACTION AND ITS EFFECT


IMPACT OF DRIVER DISTRACTION AND ITS EFFECT


PRAISE WOEYRAM ANANI, EDWARD APPIAH

KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


International Research Journal of Public Health-2D code

Deaths and injury from road accidents on the highways of Ghana seem to be on the rise. Along these highways are advertising billboards with attractive, but often very seductive images of females. These images, according to advertisers, are meant to catch the maximum attention within the shortest possible time. Drivers use a large proportion of their visual sensory input, hence visually conspicuous items, such as billboards, are likely to interfere with visual processing tasks. Though few researches have been conducted on billboards and the occurrence of road accidents, as well as driver distractions, none actually focused on the visual elements as far as image mental distractions are concerned. From the positivist paradigm, the study investigated the roles visual elements on billboards play in the occurrence of road accidents. It focused on how these images add to the numerous road accidents. Standard designed survey questionnaires were administered to 200 drivers who ply the Kumasi- Accra highway route on regular basis. The data was analysed with SPSS using descriptive and Crosstab analysis methods. The study revealed that the distractions from these images were factors for these road accidents that lead to injury and death. The study also shows a connection between advertising billboard images and road accidents and how these advertising billboard images have a negative influence on driver-performance. It is therefore being recommended that stakeholders begin to focus on the kinds of billboards being mounted along the highways.


Keywords: Car Crash, Driver Distraction, Road Users, Advertising Billboards, Roadside Distractions, Visual Pollution.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
PRAISE WOEYRAM ANANI,EDWARD APPIAH.IMPACT OF DRIVER DISTRACTION AND ITS EFFECT.International Research Journal of Public Health, 2019; 3:37. DOI:10.28933/irjph-2019-10-0607


References

1. Awal, M., (2013). Identification of risk factors involved in road Accidents in Ghana. A case study of the Techiman Municipality: Mphil Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)
2. Bishai, D, Asiimwe, B, Abbas, Syed S, Hyder, Adnan A and Bazeyo, W., (2008) Cost-effectiveness of traffic enforcement: case study from Uganda. Injury Prevention, 14 (4). pp. 223-227. ISSN 1353-8047
3. Chattington, M., Reed, N., Basacik, D., Flint, A. & Parkes, A. (2009). Investigating driver distraction: The effects of video and static advertising (No. CPR208). Crowthorne, UK: Transport Research Laboratory.
4. Edquist, J., Horberry, T., Hosking, S., and Johnston, I. (2011). Effects of advertising billboards during simulated driving. Applied Ergonomics, 42(4). Pp. 619-626.
5. Gitelman V., Zaidel D. and Doveh E. (2010). Influence of Billboards on Driving Behaviour and Road Safety. Haifa
6. Hasan, A. 2015. Hazardous attraction: External-to-vehicle distraction caused by billboard advertisements in Lahore. Global Media Journal 8 .2 (2015): pp1-9.
7. Horodniceanu M, Cantilla EJ (1979). Transportation System Safety”. Lexington, Lexington Books, MA.
8. Iveson, K. (2011). Branded cities: Outdoor advertising, urban governance, and the outdoor media landscape. Antipode, 44(1), 151-174.
9. Kaviyarasu Yellappan, Yusof Ghani, Maslina Musa , Mohd Firdaus Mohd Siam, Tan Choon Yeap (2016) Exposure and Perception on Distraction towards Roadside Digital Advertisements.
10. Klauer, S. G., Dingus, T. A., Neale, V. L., Sudweeks, J.D., & Ramsey, D.J. (2006).The Impact of Driver Inattention on near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis Using the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Data, DOT HS 810 594. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
11. Regan, M. A., Hallett, C. and Gordon, C. P. (2011). Driver distraction and driver inattention: Definition, relationship and taxonomy. Accident Analysis and Prevention 43 (2011) 1771-1781.
12. Salim and Salimah (2005) The road Ahead:the WHO newsletter on Road Safety. Sallim and Salimah child Passenger Campaign
13. Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, (4th Ed.). New York, Wiley.
14. Sherry K. A. and Stanisaus N., (2016) Analyzing the Causes of Road Traffic Accidents in Kumasi Metropolis [Online] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308233434 [4th June, 2017]
15. Smiley, A., Smahel, T., and Eizenman, M. (2004). Impact of video advertising on driver fixation patterns. Transport. Res. Rec. 1899. Pp. 76-83.
16. Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Johnston, W. A. (2003). Cell phone induced failures of visual attention during simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 23–32.
17. Stutts, J.C., Reinfurt, D.W., Staplin, L.W., &Rodgman, E.A. (2001). The Role of Driver Distraction in Traffic Crashes. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, DC.
18. Teker, U., (2003). Graphic Design and Advertising. Grafik Dokuz Eylül Yay›nlar›, ‹zmir, Ekim
19. Wallace, B., (2003). Driver distraction by advertising: genuine risk or urban myth. Municipal Eng., 156. Pp. 185-190.
20. Wolch, P., (2008). Do Road Signs and Billboards Contribute to Vehicle Accidents? Ezine Articles [Online], Available from: www.EzineArticles.com [Accessed 5/15/2017].
21. Wickens, C. D., (2008). Multiple Resources and Mental Workload. Human Factors, 50(3).Pp. 449-455.
22. Williams, D. (2009). The Arbitron National In-Car Study, 2009 Edition. [Online]Arbitron Inc, 1-18. Retrieved from http://www.arbitron.com/downloads/InCarStudy2009. Pdf [Accessed on 12th December, 2017]
23. WHO and World Bank. (2004). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. WHO, Geneva.
24. Young, K. L., Regan, M. A., & Hammer, M. (2003). Driver distraction: a review of the literature (No. 206). Melbourne: Monash University Accident Research Centre