Research Article of International Research Journal of Public Health
Patient Satisfaction: Bangladesh Perspective
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin
Dr. M. Nasirullah Memorial Trust, Tejgaon, Dhaka 1215, Bangladesh
Patient’s satisfaction is a useful measure to provide an indicator of quality in healthcare services. Concern over the quality of healthcare services in Bangladesh has led to loss of faith in healthcare providers, low utilization of public health facilities, and increasing outflow of Bangladeshi patients to hospitals in abroad. The main barriers to accessing health services are inadequate services and poor quality of existing facilities, shortage of medicine supplies, busyness of doctors due to high patient load, long travel distance to facilities, and long waiting times once facilities were reached, very short consultation time, lack of empathy of the health professionals, their generally callous and casual attitude, aggressive pursuit of monetary gains, poor levels of competence and, occasionally, disregard for the suffering that patients endure without being able to voice their concerns—all of these service failures are reported frequently in the print media. Such failures can play a powerful role in shaping patients’ negative attitudes and dissatisfaction with healthcare service providers and healthcare itself.
Keywords: consultation length; patient waiting time; rural health facilities; unethical drug promotion; quality of future doctors
How to cite this article:
Abdul Kader Mohiuddin. Patient Satisfaction: Bangladesh Perspective. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2019; 3:32. DOI:10.28933/irjph-2019-10-2805
1. Adhikary TS, Mollah S. ICU facilities scanty at government hospitals of Bangladesh: Intensive care units at 7 major public hospitals have only 80 beds; the service at pvt hospitals too expensive for most people. The Daily Star, September 16, 2015.
2. Afrin S. ‘Lost faith’ in the health sector causes upsurge in medical tourism. Dhaka tribune, September 15, 2019.
3. Ahmed SM, Majumdar MA, Karim R, Rahman S, Rahman N. Career choices among medical students in Bangladesh. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2011 Feb 14;2:51-8. doi: 10.2147/AMEP.S13451.
4. Ahmed SM, Naher N, Hossain T, Rawal LB. Exploring the status of retail private drug shops in Bangladesh and action points for developing an accredited drug shop model: a facility based cross-sectional study. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2017 Jul 11;10:21. doi: 10.1186/s40545-017-0108-8.
5. Ahmed M, Hwang JH, Hasan MA, Han D. Herbal medicine use by pregnant women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Dec 13;18(1):333. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2399-y.
6. Ahmad R. Know your medicine: Send text to verify if the medicine is counterfeit or not. The Daily Star, June 27, 2016.
7. Adams AM, Islam R, Ahmed T. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Health Policy Plan. 2015 Mar;30 Suppl 1:i32-45. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czu094.
8. Al-Shoaibi AAA, Matsuyama A, Khalequzzaman M, Haseen F, Choudhury SR, Hoque BA, Chiang C, Hirakawa Y, Yatsuya H, Aoyama A. Perceptions and behavior related to noncommunicable diseases among slum dwellers in a rapidly urbanizing city, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a qualitative study. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2018 Nov;80(4):559-569. doi: 10.18999/nagjms.80.4.559.
9. Al-Amin M. Hospitals swamped with dengue patients, doctors face a tough time. DhakaTribune, July 28, 2019.
10. Anik AI, Rahman MM, Rahman MM, Tareque MI, Khan MN, Alam MM. Double burden of malnutrition at household level: A comparative study among Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Myanmar. PLoS One. 2019 Aug 16;14(8):e0221274. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221274.
11. Akter N, Akter MK, Turale S. Barriers to quality of work life among Bangladeshi nurses: a qualitative study. Int Nurs Rev. 2019 Sep;66(3):396-403. doi: 10.1111/inr.12540.
12. Akter, Taslima and Shahidul Islam. Dhaka Medical College Hospital: A Diagnostic Study – Executive Summary, 2006:1–4. Available From: https://www.ti-bangladesh.org/research/ES_DMCH.pdf
13. Akter F. “Wrong Treatment or Negligence”. Ubinig.org, 15 April 2014.
14. AK Mohiuddin. An A-Z Pharmaceutical Industry: Bangladesh Perspective. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019; 9(1):17-28. DOI No: 10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00004.3
15. Alam A. Patient, doctors, nurses ratio: Bangladesh lags far behind its neighbours. DhakaTribune, July 21, 2019.
16. Ali, Mohammad, et al. “Problem Evaluation of Service Recipient and Service Provider at out Patient Departments of a Tertiary Level Hospital.” Journal of Armed Forces Medical College, Bangladesh, vol. 9, no. 2, Feb. 2015, pp. 26–31., doi:10.3329/jafmc.v9i2.21822.
17. Ali, Muhammad Mahboob, and Anita Medhekar. “Globalization, Medical Travel and Healthcare Management in Bangladesh.” Problems and Perspectives in Management, vol. 14, no. 2, 2016, pp. 360–375., doi:10.21511/ppm.14(2-2).2016.12.
18. Ali, M.m., and A. Medhekar. “Healthcare Quality of Bangladesh and Outbound Medical Travel to Thailand.” Economy of Region, vol. 14, no. 2, 2018, pp. 575–588., doi:10.17059/2018-2-19.
19. Arefin MS. The unethical gift-giving of drug companies. The Daily Star, March 06, 2017.
20. Aziz A. A piece of ‘Bangladesh’ in Bangkok Hospital. banglanews24.com, October 22, 2017.
21. Billah SM, Hoque DE, Rahman M, Christou A, Mugo NS, Begum K, Tahsina T, Rahman QS, Chowdhury EK, Haque TM, Khan R, Siddik A, Bryce J, Black RE, El Arifeen S. Feasibility of engaging “Village Doctors” in the Community-based Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (C-IMCI): experience from rural Bangladesh. J Glob Health. 2018 Dec;8(2):020413. doi: 10.7189/jogh.08.020413.
22. Begum K, Islam J. REPORT ON IN-DEPTH MONITORING OF THEOPERATIONAL PLAN “Hospital Services Management (May, 2015) (2nd Revised)”. Available From: https://imed.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/imed.portal.gov.bd/page/7b67fc61_3eef_4cb0_b798_00fe28fa13af/hospia%20srvic%20managemnt.pdf
23. Bdnews24.com. Wait 78 minutes to see a DMCH doctor. Bangladesh, October 18, 2006
24. Bhattacharyya SK. Improving the quality of healthcare in Bangladesh. The Independent (OP-ED), 24 June, 2015.
25. BSS, Dhaka. Poverty rate comes down at 21.8pc in 2018: BBS. The Daily Star, May 13, 2019.
26. Chaity AJ. Bangladeshis flock to Indian, Thai hospitals in huge numbers. DhakaTribune, December 10, 2017.
27. Chandan MSK. A Fatal Diagnosis: Cancer treatment in Bangladesh. The daily Star, January 15, 2019.
28. Chandan MSK. World Cancer Day Cancer treatment in Bangladesh: Still a long way to go. The Daily Star, February 04, 2019.
29. Chowdhury TS. Abducting and selling babies in Bangladesh: New parents describe ‘nightmares’ after their newborns were kidnapped from hospitals – a rising trend in the country. Aljazeera (News/Bangladesh), February 08, 2015.
30. Cockcroft A, Milne D, Oelofsen M, Karim E, Andersson N. Health services reform in Bangladesh: hearing the views of health workers and their professional bodies. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011 Dec 21;11 Suppl 2:S8. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-S2-S8.
31. Correspondent, Bogra. Stolen infant returned to mother: Smiles all around as police rescue the four-day-old boy. The daily Star, April 03, 2017.
32. Daily Industry. 700,000 Bangladeshis go abroad for health services every year: Spent $3.5 billion. News (Bangladesh), May 22, 2018.
33. Das S, Mia MN, Hanifi SM, Hoque S, Bhuiya A. Health literacy in a community with low levels of education: findings from Chakaria, a rural area of Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2017 Feb 16;17(1):203. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4097-y.
34. Editorial. Perennial manpower crisis in hospitals: Government should fix it urgently. Tha Daily Star, October 06, 2019.
35. Fahim SM, Bhuayan TA, Hassan MZ, Abid Zafr AH, Begum F, Rahman MM, Alam S. Financing health care in Bangladesh: Policy responses and challenges towards achieving universal health coverage. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2019 Jan;34(1):e11-e20. doi: 10.1002/hpm.2666.
36. Finger F, Funk S, White K, Siddiqui MR, Edmunds WJ, Kucharski AJ. Real-time analysis of the diphtheria outbreak in forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals in Bangladesh. BMC Med. 2019 Mar 12;17(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s12916-019-1288-7.
37. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015 Jan 10;385(9963):117-71. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2.
38. Hamid SA, Ahsan SM, Begum A. Disease-specific impoverishment impact of out-of-pocket payments for health care: evidence from rural Bangladesh. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2014 Aug;12(4):421-33. doi: 10.1007/s40258-014-0100-2.
39. Haque MA, Louis VR, Phalkey R, Sauerborn R. Use of traditional medicines to cope with climate-sensitive diseases in a resource poor setting in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2014 Feb 25;14:202. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-202.
40. Haque, Mainul, et al. “Medicine Promotional Literature as a Source of Updated Information in Bangladesh: Do Those Advertising Literature Promote Continued Medical Education or Deceptive Advertising?” Acta Medica International, vol. 4, no. 2, 2017, p. 20., doi:10.4103/ami.ami_58_17.
41. Haque MI, Chowdhury ABMA, Shahjahan M, Harun MGD. Traditional healing practices in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative investigation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Feb 15;18(1):62. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2129-5.
42. Hasan MI, Hassan MZ, Bulbul MMI, Joarder T, Chisti MJ. Iceberg of workplace violence in health sector of Bangladesh. BMC Res Notes. 2018 Oct 4;11(1):702. doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3795-6.
43. Hasan K. Detectives bust counterfeit medicine making gang in Dhaka. DhakaTribune, February 03, 2019.
44. Hasan S. Medical education in Bangladesh and its impact on doctors and patients. The Independent, June 08, 2018.
45. Hazard RH, Chowdhury HR, Adair T, Ansar A, Quaiyum Rahman AM, Alam S, Alam N, Rampatige R, Streatfield PK, Riley ID, Lopez AD. The quality of medical death certification of cause of death in hospitals in rural Bangladesh: impact of introducing the International Form of Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017 Oct 2;17(1):688. doi: 10.1186/s12913-017-2628-y.
46. Homeland. 46% teaching posts vacant at medical, dental colleges. Hot News, June 23, 2019.
47. Hoque, Md. Rakibul, et al. “e-Health in Bangladesh: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Direction.” The International Technology Management Review, vol. 4, no. 2, 2014, p. 87., doi:10.2991/itmr.2014.4.2.3.
48. Hossain SJ, Ferdousi MJ, Siddique MAB, Tipu SMMU, Qayyum MA, Laskar MS. Self-reported health problems, health care seeking behaviour and cost coping mechanism of older people: Implication for primary health care delivery in rural Bangladesh. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 Mar;8(3):1209-1215. doi: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_162_18.
49. Hossain MM, Sultana A, Mazumder H, Munzur-E-Murshid. Sexually transmitted infections among Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Lancet HIV. 2018 Jul;5(7):e342. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(18)30140-1.
50. Islam, Sharmin, et al. “Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Industry: Perspective and the Prospects.” Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science, vol. 17, no. 4, 2018, pp. 519–525., doi:10.3329/bjms.v17i4.38306.
51. Islam R, Hossain S, Bashar F, Khan SM, Sikder AAS, Yusuf SS, Adams AM. Contracting-out urban primary health care in Bangladesh: a qualitative exploration of implementation processes and experience. Int J Equity Health. 2018 Oct 5;17(1):93. doi: 10.1186/s12939-018-0805-1.
52. Islam A. Nurses protest colleague’s death due to wrong treatment. DhakaTribune, ctober 28th, 2019.
53. Islam MM, Nuzhath T. Health risks of Rohingya refugee population in Bangladesh: a call for global attention. J Glob Health. 2018 Dec;8(2):020309. doi: 10.7189/jogh.08.020309.
54. Irving G, Neves AL, Dambha-Miller H, Oishi A, Tagashira H, Verho A, Holden J. International variations in primary care physician consultation time: a systematic review of 67 countries. BMJ Open. 2017 Nov 8;7(10):e017902. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017902.
55. Joarder T, Rawal LB, Ahmed SM, Uddin A, Evans TG. Retaining Doctors in Rural Bangladesh: A Policy Analysis. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2018 Sep 1;7(9):847-858. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2018.37.
56. Kabir H, Maple M, Islam MS, Usher K. The Current Health and Wellbeing of the Survivors of the Rana Plaza Building Collapse in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 2;16(13). pii: E2342. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16132342.
57. Kasonde L, Tordrup D, Naheed A, Zeng W, Ahmed S, Babar ZU. Evaluating medicine prices, availability and affordability in Bangladesh using World Health Organisation and Health Action International methodology. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 Jun 13;19(1):383. doi: 10.1186/s12913-019-4221-z.
58. Khan S. Anarchy rules healthcare system, Financial Express, July 09, 2017.
59. Khan JAM, Ahmed S, Evans TG. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure and poverty related to out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Bangladesh-an estimation of financial risk protection of universal health coverage. Health Policy Plan. 2017 Oct 1;32(8):1102-1110. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czx048.
60. Majumder AK, Rahman M. Dust pollution in winter. The New nation, November 02, 2018.
61. Matsuyama R, Akhmetzhanov AR, Endo A, Lee H, Yamaguchi T, Tsuzuki S, Nishiura H. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number of diphtheria: a case study of a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh, November-December 2017. PeerJ. 2018 Apr 2;6:e4583. doi: 10.7717/peerj.4583.
62. Mehta, Simi, et al. “Measurement of Sustainable Development in India and Bangladesh.” Lessons in Sustainable Development from Bangladesh and India, 2018, pp. 79–101., doi:10.1007/978-3-319-95483-7_4.
63. Medhekar, Anita, and Tabassum Ferdous. “Importance of Culturally Competent Health Literacy for Medical Tourism.” PsycEXTRA Dataset, 2012, doi:10.1037/e610182012-009.
64. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh (MoHFW, GoB). Bangladesh National Health Accounts 1997–2012. Dhaka: Health Economics Unit, MoHFW, GoB; 2015.
65. Molla M. A-M. Govt Hospital: Most lacking even basic equipment: 70pc public healthcare facilities don’t have thermometres, stethoscopes, blood pressure gauge, weighing scales, torchlights. The Daily Star, June 30, 2019.
66. Mohiuddin M, Rashid SF, Shuvro MI, Nahar N, Ahmed SM. Qualitative insights into promotion of pharmaceutical products in Bangladesh: how ethical are the practices? BMC Med Ethics. 2015 Dec 1;16(1):80. doi: 10.1186/s12910-015-0075-z.
67. Mohiuddin, A. K. “The Mysterious Domination of Food/Drinking Water Contaminants and Adulterants in Bangladesh.” Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, vol. 6, no. 1, 2019, pp. 30–40., doi:10.20448/journal.512.2019.61.30.40 (Published June 04, 2019).
68. Mohiuddin, A. K. “Chemical Contaminants and Pollutants in the Measurable Life of Dhaka City.” European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, vol. 3, no. 2, Mar. 2019, doi:10.29333/ejosdr/5727.
69. Mohiuddin, Abdul Kader. “Dengue Protection and Cure: Bangladesh Perspective.” European Journal of Sustainable Development Research, vol. 4, no. 1, 2019, doi:10.29333/ejosdr/6260 (Published in October, 2019).
70. Nasim NH. Newborn stolen from hospital rescued. DhakaTribune, April 02, 2017.
71. Nuri NN, Sarker M, Ahmed HU, Hossain MD, Beiersmann C, Jahn A. Experience and perceived quality of care of patients and their attendants in a specialized mental hospital in Bangladesh. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2019 Jun 22;13:46. doi: 10.1186/s13033-019-0303-x.
72. Palma P, Sujan MA. Rising Medical Expenses: The poor slide deeper into poverty: Flawed healthcare system to blame, say experts. The Daily Star, April 07, 2019.
73. Palma P. Uphill battle of female doctors: They surpass male peers in number, yet struggle against host of barriers. The daily Star, May 07, 2019.
74. Palma P. Silent on rising healthcare cost: Proposal for setting up eight more medical colleges. The daily Star, June 14, 2019.
75. Rabbi AR. 22 pharmacy owners fined for selling expired, fake medicine. DhakaTribune, June 20, 2019.
76. Rousham EK, Islam MA, Nahar P, Lucas PJ, Naher N, Ahmed SM, Nizame FA, Unicomb L. Pathways of antibiotic use in Bangladesh: qualitative protocol for the PAUSE study. BMJ Open. 2019 Jan 25;9(1):e028215. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028215.
77. Rahman, Mohammad Sofiqur, et al. “The Health Consequences of Falsified Medicines- A Study of the Published Literature.” Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 23, no. 12, 2018, pp. 1294–1303., doi:10.1111/tmi.13161.
78. Rahman MR, Islam K. Massive diphtheria outbreak among Rohingya refugees: lessons learnt. J Travel Med. 2019 Jan 1;26(1). doi: 10.1093/jtm/tay122.
79. Rahman R. The privatisation of healthcare system in Bangladesh. Int J Health Care Qual Assur. 2019 Feb 11;32(1):97-107. doi: 10.1108/IJHCQA-11-2017-0217.
80. Saha S, Hossain MT. Evaluation of medicines dispensing pattern of private pharmacies in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017 Feb 13;17(1):136. doi: 10.1186/s12913-017-2072-z.
81. Saha BL, Seam MOR, Islam MM, Das A, Ahamed SK, Karmakar P, Islam MF, Kundu SK. General perception and self-practice of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among undergraduate pharmacy students of Bangladesh. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jun 14;17(1):314. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1832-y.
82. Sample I. Fake drugs kill more than 250,000 children a year, doctors warn. The Guardian, March 11, 2019.
83. Senior Correspondent. 20 pharmacos going out of business for making adulterated, low-quality drugs. bdnews24.com, April 21, 2016.
84. Senior Correspondent. New pharmaceutical company One Pharma Ltd launched in Bangladesh. Bdnews24.com, October 25, 2015.
85. Senior Correspondent. Dhaka hospital continued ‘treatment’ of dead patient to drive up bill, allege relatives. Bdnews24, 22 June 2019.
86. Shafique S, Bhattacharyya DS, Anwar I, Adams A. Right to health and social justice in Bangladesh: ethical dilemmas and obligations of state and non-state actors to ensure health for urban poor. BMC Med Ethics. 2018 Jun 15;19(Suppl 1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12910-018-0285-2.
87. Shahriar TS. Doctors prescribe unnecessary food supplements. October 09, 2015.
88. Shahida, S. M., et al. “Hospital Acquired Infections in Low and Middle Income Countries: Root Cause Analysis and the Development of Infection Control Practices in Bangladesh.” Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 06, no. 01, 2016, pp. 28–39., doi:10.4236/ojog.2016.61004.
89. Shaon AI. Verdict for substandard drug production case deferred. February 10, 2017.
90. Solamain M. 554 die from wrong treatment in 6 yrs. The daily Sun, December 19, 2017.
91. Star Online Report. 46% teaching posts vacant at medical, dental colleges: Health minister tells JS. The Daily Star, June 23, 2019.
92. Star Business Report. Bangladesh a key source market for medical tourism: CEMS Global says at the opening of expos on health tourism. The Daily Star, May 04, 2018.
93. Staff Correspondent. Unethical promotion raises healthcare cost: Experts tell discussion about pharma companies. The Daily Star, October 25, 2016.
94. Staff Correspondent. Revoke licences of 20 drug firms: Recommends expert committee citing the companies’ failure to ensure quality, submits report to JS body. The Daily Star, April 21, 2016.
95. Staff Correspondent. Substandard Drugs Govt revokes licences of 11 companies: Production at 9 others halted. The Daily Star, June 15, 2016.
96. Staff Correspondent. Hospitals cannot refuse to hand over dead patients to relatives for unpaid bills: High Court. Bdnews24.com, November 20, 2017.
97. Staff Correspondent. Central Hospital vandalised after DU student dies from ‘wrong treatment’. Bdnews24.com, 18 May 2017.
98. Staff Reporter. HC cancels licences of 20 drug cos. The Independent, February 14, 2017.
99. Sun Online Desk. Writ seeks revocation of 20 drug companies’ licences. Daily Sun, June 06, 2016.
100. Sun Online Desk. ‘20 pharmaceutical companies’ lincenses to be revoked promptly’. Daily Sun, June 12, 2016.
101. Tribune Desk. Family alleges hospital kept dead baby at ICU for days. DhakaTribune, September 26th, 2017.
102. Tribune desk. Poverty rate comes down to 21.8% in 2018. DhakaTribune, May 13, 2019.
103. Tribune Online Report. ‘War should be declared against drug adulteration’. DhakaTribune, October 19, 2014.
104. Tribune Desk. DGHS: 149 more hospitalized for dengue in 24hrs. DhakaTribune, November 08, 2019.
105. The New Nation. Stop importing fake medicines for the sake of public health. Editorial, November 02, 2019.
106. The Daily Star. Child stolen from hospital. Editorial, November 07, 2016.
107. The Daily Star. New method for combating counterfeit drugs: A laudable initiative. Editorial, June 23, 2016.
108. The Daily Prothom Alo. More medical colleges, but what about quality? Opinion, August 28, 2018.
109. The Daily Star. People left high and dry by medical bills: Experts blame our flawed healthcare system. Editorial, April 08, 2019.
110. The Daily Star. Unsatisfactory state of private medical education: The colleges need government’s urgent attention. Editorial, March 27, 2019.
111. The independent. Emergency medicine and critical care: A new horizon. Stethoscope desk, 17 December, 2018.
112. Uddin J. Govt moves to discourage food supplement import. NEWAGE, Nov 27,2016.
113. Ullah A. Diagnostic centres use low-quality chemicals for tests. The Daily Sun, 17 September, 2018.
114. United Nations (NY). World Population Prospects 2019 Highlights
115. UNB. Nasim: Guidelines coming for medical treatment abroad. DhakaTribune, July 12, 2018.
116. UNB. HC orders release of dead bodies from hospitals even if bills are due. DhakaTribune, November 20th, 2017.
117. Unb, New York. Rohingya Crisis: It’s becoming a regional threat. The daily Star, September 29, 2019.
118. van der Heijden J, Gray N, Stringer B, Rahman A, Akhter S, Kalon S, Dada M, Biswas A. ‘Working to stay healthy’, health-seeking behaviour in Bangladesh’s urban slums: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2019 May 17;19(1):600. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6750-0.
119. Wadud M. Bangladesh’s battle with fake and low-standard medicine. The New Humanitarian, 04 November 2013.
120. “World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights.” Statistical Papers – United Nations (Ser. A), Population and Vital Statistics Report, 2019, doi:10.18356/13bf5476-en. Available From: https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2019_Highlights.pdf
121. Yusuf A, Salam U. THE DEADLY WORLD OF FAKE MEDICINE. The Daily Star, March 08, 2015.
122. Yoshida Y, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Yoshida Y, Alim MA. Perceptions of Ayurvedic medicine by citizens in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2016 Feb;78(1):99-107.
123. Zahid SH. High cost of treatment abroad. The Financial Express, October 20, 2019.
CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.