Alcohol Use Disorder among University Students in Cameroon and Its Related Harms

Alcohol Use Disorder among University Students in Cameroon and Its Related Harms

Ejowah Epine Njabe and Baronese Peters

The school of graduate studies Sahmyook University, 815, Hwarang-ro, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: Underage drinking, particularly heavy episodic bouts of underage drinking and the related consequences is a major social issue plaguing college campuses worldwide. Uncontrolled drinking behavior among college and university students has resulted in the occurrence of fatalities, assaults, unintentional serious injuries road accidents, crime, unprotected sexual activity, and poor school performance. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol dependence among Cameroonian university students and to identify the related factors.

Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 600 randomly selected university students in Cameroon.

Setting: The survey assessed students’ level of drinking using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, a screening test for harmful drinking. Data were collected online and students were asked to respond to the survey via email.

Results: Six hundred students participated in the survey. Among them, 261,(43.6%) were women and 337 (56%) were men and the majority (52.7%) lived with their parents.
The results demonstrated a statistically positive correlation between reason to drink, drinking demands situations, and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, proving the alternative hypothesis to be true in its form. There was also a strong statistically significant direct relationship between drinking demand and perceived drinking benefits.

Keywords: Alcohol use, harm, schools, policies, prevalence

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Ejowah Epine Njabe and Baronese Peters. Alcohol Use Disorder among University Students in Cameroon and Its Related Harms. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2019; 3:39. DOI:10.28933/irjph-2019-11-2305


1. Mekonen T, Fekadu W, Chane T, et al. Problematic alcohol use among university students. Front Psychiatry. 2017 May 19; 8:86.
2. Nicolas David. Alcohol causes one in 20 deaths worldwide, says WHO [Internet] The Grauniad [cited 18 august 2018]. Available from:
3. World Health Organization. Global Status on Alcohol and Health Internet. Accessed 18 August 2018.
4. Mekonen T, Fekadu W, Mekonnen TC, et al. Substance use as a strong predictor of poor academic achievement among university students. Psychatry J.2017;2017 ; :7517450.
5. Tembo C, Burns S, Kalembo F. The association between levels of alcohol consumption and mental health problems and academic performance among young university students. PloS One. 2017 Jun 28; 12(6): e0178142.
6. Nyström M. Positive and negative consequences of alcohol drinking among young university students in Finland. Brit. J. Addict. 1992 May; 87(5):715-22.
7. Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Aloba OO, et al. Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Soc Psychiatry and Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006 Aug 1; 41(8):674-8.
8. Asante KO, Andoh-Arthur J. Prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms among university students in Ghana. J Affect Disord. 2015 Jan 15; 171:161-6.
9. Othieno CJ, Okoth RO, Peltzer K, et al. Depression among university students in Kenya: prevalence and sociodemographic correlates. J Affect Disord. 2014 Aug 20; 165:120-5.
10. Park CL, Levenson MR. Drinking to cope among college students: prevalence, problems and coping processes. J Stud Alcohol. 2002 Jul; 63(4):486-97.
11. Park CL, Armeli S, Tennen H. The daily stress and coping process and alcohol use among college students. J Stud Alcohol. 2004 Jan; 65(1):126-35.
12. Mekonen T, Fekadu W, Chane T, et al. Problematic alcohol use among university students. Front Psychiatry. 2017 May 19; 8:86.
13. National Cancer Institute Alcohol and cancer risk. Internet. Available from: Accessed 28 August 2018.
14. Nelson DE, Jarman DW, Rehm J, et al. Alcohol-attributable cancer deaths and years of potential life lost in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2013 Apr; 103(4):641-8.
15. Fedirko V, Tramacere I, Bagnardi V, et al. Alcohol drinking and colorectal cancer risk: an overall and dose–response meta-analysis of published studies. Ann. Oncol. 2011 Feb ;22(9):1958-72.
16. Grewal P, Viswanathan VA. Liver cancer and alcohol. Clin Liver Dis. 2012 Nov 1; 16(4):839-50. 9; 22(9):1958-72.
17. Adewuya AO. Validation of the alcohol use disorders identification test (audit) as a screening tool for alcohol-related problems among Nigerian university students. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2005 Aug 22; 40(6):575-7.
18. Beck KH, Kaspersky SJ, Caldeira KM, et al. Trends in alcohol‐related traffic risk behaviors among college students. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 Aug; 34(8):1472-8.
19. Steptoe A, Wardle J, Bages N, et al. Drinking and driving in university students: an international study of 23 countries. Psychol Health 2004 Aug 1; 19(4):527-40.
20. Howard DE, Griffin MA, Boekeloo BO. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault among university students. Adolescence, 2008; 43(172):733-50.
21. Flack Jr WF, Kimble MO, and Campbell BE et al. Sexual assault victimization among female undergraduates during study abroad: A single campus survey study. J.Interpers Violence. 2015 Dec; 30(20):3453-66.
22. Kypri K, Paschall MJ, Langley J, et al. Drinking and alcohol‐related harm among New Zealand university students: findings from a national web‐based survey. Alcohol Clin and Exp Res. 2009 Feb; 33(2):307-14.
23. Alcohol use in young people [Internet] Available from : Accessed September 2018.
24. Weitzman ER, Folkman A, Folkman MK, et al. The relationship of alcohol outlet density to heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems among college students at eight universities. Health Place. 2003 Mar 1; 9(1):1-6.
25. Midford R, Mitchell J, Lester L, et al. Preventing alcohol harm: early results from a cluster randomised, controlled trial in Victoria, Australia of comprehensive harm minimisation school drug education. Int J Drug Policy. 2014 Jan 1; 25(1):142-50.
26. Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF, et al. Underage college students’ drinking behavior, access to alcohol, and the influence of deterrence policies: findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. J Am College Health. 2002 Mar 1; 50(5):223-36.
27. Midford R. Drug prevention programmes for young people: where have we been and where should we be going? Addiction. 2010 Oct: 105(10):1688-95.
28. Midford R, Mitchell J, Lester L, et al. Preventing alcohol harm: early results from a cluster randomised, controlled trial in Victoria, Australia of comprehensive harm minimisation school drug education. Int. J Drug Policy. 2014 Jan 1; 25(1):142-50.
29. Jernigan DH, Shields K, and Mitchell M, et al. Assessing campus alcohol policies: measuring accessibility, clarity, and effectiveness. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2019 May: 43(5):1007-15.
30. Larsen EL, Smorawski GA, Kragbak KL, et al. Students’ drinking behavior and perceptions towards introducing alcohol policies on university campus in Denmark: a focus group study. Subst Abuse Treat Prey Policy. 2016 Dec; 11(1):17.
31. World Health Organisation. Alcohol consumption: levels and patterns [Internet] Available from: Accessed 5 September 2019.
32. KyungHee Kim, Tinyami Erick Tandi, JaeWook Choi. Risk perception of cigarette and alcohol consumption : Korea and Cameroon public assessment views. 2018 : 2:19.
33. Fon EE, Acha AE, Abia WA. Survey on alcohol exposure in relations to behavioral practices, health situations, and academic performances of students in higher institutions of learning in Buea, Cameroon. Int J Public Health Epidemiol. 204 July;3(7):48-53.
34. Miles, Adam Winstock, John Strang H. Identifying young people who drink too much: the clinical utility of the five-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Drug Alcohol Rev. 2001 Jan 1:20(1):9-18.
35. Evans-Whipp TJ, Plenty SM, Catalano RF, et al. The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking. Health Educ Res. 2013 Jun 13; 28(4):651-62.
36. Studer J, Baggio S, Deline S, et al. Peer pressure and alcohol use in young men: A mediation analysis of drinking motives Int. J Drug Policy. 2014 Jul 1:25(4):700-8.
37. Paschall MJ, Yau R, Ringwalt CL. Substance Use Policy Interventions: Intended and Unintended Consequences. In: Prevention of Substance Use, Cham: Springer;2019 (pp. 165-180).
38. Perkins HW, Berkowitz AD. Perceiving the community norms of alcohol use among students: some research implications for campus alcohol education programming. Int J Addict. 1986 Jan 1; 21(9-10):961-76.
39. Brown R, Murphy S. Contrasting staff and student views on alcohol education provision in a UK university. Drug ( Abingdon Engl). 2019 May 4: 26(3):229-37.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details). This site cannot and does not contain professional advice. The information on this site is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals. We do not provide any kind of professional advice. The use or reliance of any information contained on this site or our mobile application is solely at your own risk. Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site or our mobile application or reliance on any information provided on the site and our mobile application. We may publish articles without peer-review. Published articles of authors are open access. Authors hold the copyright and retain publishing rights without restrictions. Authors are solely responsible for their articles published in our journals. Publication of any information in authors’ articles does not constitute an endorsement by us. We make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness of any information that authors provided. more..

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.