Assessment of Injection Safety Practices among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria


Assessment of Injection Safety Practices among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria


KOLUDE, Olufunmilola1, EMMANUEL, Eyitayo E1, MARCUS, Oluwadare1, OGUNLAJA, Omotunde1, AJAYI, Paul1, ILESANMI, Mary1, IBIKUNLE, Funmi2, ONWU, Victor A2, ONYIBE, Rosemary3, SUME, Gerald4, BRAKA, Fiona4

1World Health Organization, Ekiti State Field Office, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 2State Ministry of Health, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 3World Health Organization, Southwest Zonal Field office, Ibadan; 4World Health Organization, Nigeria Country office, UN House, plot 617/618, Diplomatic, Drive, Central Business District, PMB 2861, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.


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Safety of injections been administered on daily basis is becoming of significant Public Health importance considering the increasing prevalence of complications and the negative impact this could have on the overall good intention of the Healthcare providers. It is on the basis of this that we assessed the level of awareness and compliance with injection safety practices among Healthcare workers in Ekiti State.

A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique to recruit 582 HCWs across the State. In Stage One, 2 LGAs were selected from each of the 3 senatorial districts by simple random sampling technique through balloting and in stage two, a list of all the Health Facilities (Public and Private) in the selected LGAs was compiled and all were included in the study. In Stage three, A cluster sampling method was used to select all the staff who are eligible to administer injections in the selected HFs at the time of survey. A semi-structured questionnaire and an observational checklist was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21.

A total of 582 HCWs were interviewed and 151 HFs were directly observed for compliance with Injection safety procedures. The mean age of the respondents was 38.2 ± 9.6 years. Females constituted about 86.8% while 83.5% were married. Majority of the respondents were CHEW, Nurses, Doctors and Health Attendants. Awareness of injection safety was generally high as about 93.6% of respondents were aware. However, only about 62.9% of them has ever had any form of training on Injection safety. Only about 3% of the respondents have not reused syringes, while only about 41% has ever used an AD syringe, among whom about 32% always use AD syringes. Safety boxes were available and used in about 93% of the HFs, however, the final method of sharp waste disposal is transportation to a predetermined site for onward final disposal in about 50% of the HFs. Similarly, general waste disposal is predominantly by Open burning. Recapping of needles is still being practiced occasionally by about 78.5% of the respondents, while about 13% are still regularly recapping needles. Hand washing with soap and water was a regular practice among about 88% of the HWs before attending to patients and about 93.1% after attending to patients. On the contrary, only about 20.5% of those observed actually washed their hands before/after giving injections. Majority (75.4%) of the prescribers preferred oral medications for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while exit interview revealed that about 34.2% of the patients preferred injections to other forms of treatment.

Although the awareness of the HCWs on injection safety is generally high, compliance with the standard safety precaution still needed to be accorded greater attention. Practices such as needle recapping, open burning of waste, poor hand hygiene, reuse of syringes and non-adherence to multidose vial policy should be totally discouraged. Regular training and unscheduled assessment of compliance could ensure that these instructions are clearly adhered to and confidence of the consumers could be built again.


Keywords: Injection safety, Nosocomial infections, injection neuritis, Ekiti state

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How to cite this article:
KOLUDE, Olufunmilola, EMMANUEL, Eyitayo E, MARCUS, Oluwadare, OGUNLAJA, Omotunde, AJAYI, Paul, ILESANMI, Mary, IBIKUNLE, Funmi, ONWU, Victor A, ONYIBE, Rosemary, SUME, Gerald, BRAKA, Fiona. Assessment of Injection Safety Practices among Health Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria.International Research Journal of Public Health, 2020; 4:42. DOI: 10.28933/irjph-2020-01-0305


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