Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract Parasites Among Students of Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract Parasites Among Students of Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

LeBari Barine Gboeloh1*, Ayibadinipre Jennis Gbeghebo2

1Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, P.M.B 5047, Rumuolumeni, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
2Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, P.M.B 74, Sagbama, Bayelsa State.

The prevalence of gastrointestinal and urinary tract parasites among students of Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education (IJBCOE), Bayelsa State was investiagted. Faecal and urine samples were collected from 273 presumably healthy students of the college. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory using sedimentation method for urine and formol-ether concentration method for the stool samples.  A self-structured questionnaire was used to obtain some risk factors associated with the transmission of the parasites. Out of the 273 students investigated, 60 (22.0%), 31(11.4%) and 12(4.4%) were positive for gastrointestinal parasites, urinary tract parasites and coinfection of gastrointestinal and urinary tract parasites respectively. Entamoeba histolytica recorded the highest prevalence among the gastrointestinal parasites identified (62%), followed by Entamoeba coli (18.3%), Giardia lamblia (11.7%), Blastccytis homonis (5%), and Enterobius vermicularis (3.3%). Among the two urinary tract parasites identified, Trichomonas vaginalis was more prevalent (90.3%) while Schistosoma haematobium had 9.7%.  More Female students (37.8%) were infected than males (25.7%) by gastrointestinal parasites. The age range prevalence for gastrointestinal parasites recorded 45%, 37.3%, 28.3% and 25% for 26 – 30 years, 16 – 20 years, 21 – 25 years, and 31 – 35 years respectively. Lack of awareness, consumption of faecal matter-contaminated food and water, poor sanitation, defaecation into drinking water sources were identified as risk factors for gastrointestinal parasites while engagement in unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners were recorded as risk factors for the transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis.  Increased personal hygiene and sanitation, provision of toilet facilities and health education will mitigate the prevalence of the parasites in the study area.

Keywords: Prevalence, Gastrointestinal Parasites, Urinary tract parasites, IJBCOE, Bayelsa State.

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
LeBari Barine Gboeloh, Jennis Ayibadinipre Gbeghebo. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal and Urinary Tract Parasites Among Students of Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education Sagbama, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public Health, 2021; 5:51. DOI: 10.28933/irjph-2021-02-1105


1. Arora, DR, Brij BA. Medical Parasitology. 3rd ed., CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2012.
2. Udensi JU, Mgbemena IC, Emek-Nwabunnia I, Ugochukwu MG, Awurum IN. (2005). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among Primary School Children in three Geopolitical Zones of Imo State, Nigeria. Sci J Publ Health. 3(5-1):25-28.
3. World Health Organization. Geo-helminthiasis. Geneva: Aide memoire; No. 366,2017.
4. Norhayati M, Fatmah M, Yusof S, Edariah AB. Intestinal parasitic infections in man: A review. The Med. J Malaysia. 2003; 58: 296-305
5. Brooker S, Clements ACA, Bundy DAP. Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Adv parasitol. 2006; 62:221-261.
6. Moore SR, Lima AA, Conaway MR, Schorling JB, Soares AM, Guerrant RL. Early Childhood diarrhea and helminthiases associated with long-term linear growth faltering. Int J Epidemiol. 2001; 30(6): 147-64.
7. Crompton DW, Nesheim MC. Nutritional Impact of Intestinal Helminthiasis during the human Life. Annual Rev Nutrit. 2002; 22:35-59.
8. Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. Soil Transmitted Helminthes. 2017; 15:35-38. Available: Retrieved June, 2020.
9. Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria, R. Brooker, SJ. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vect 2014; 7, 37 (2014).
10. Mbanugo JI, Abaziri OC. A Comparative Study of Intestinal Infection of Pregnant and Non- Pregnant Women in Nkpor, Anambra State, Nigeria. Nig J Parasitol. 2002; 23:19-26.
11. Arene FOI. A handbook of applied parasitology. Paragraphics Printing. 1998; Pp. 30.
12. Karz DE, Taylor DN. Parasitic Infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastro intestinal clinic. Worth Am. 2001; 30:395-815.
13. Rodnquz-Morales AJ, Barbella RA, Case C, Arria M, Ravelo M, Perez H, Urdaneta O, Gervasio G, Rubio N, Maldonado A, Aguilera Y, Viloria A, Blanco JJ, Colina M, Hernandez E, Araujo E, Cabaniel G, Benitez J, Rifakis P. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela. Infect. Dis. Obst Gynec. 2006; 23125. doi: 10.1155/IDOG/2006/23125
14. Udonsi JK. Host Parasite “Arms Race” the Nigerian Theatre. An Inaugural Lecture Delivered at University of Port Harcourt, 2002; Pp 68.
15. Udensi JU, Opara FN. “Waste to Wealth: An Approach to Environmental Waste Management. Inter J Env Health Hum Develop. 2011; 12:66 -70.
16. Kamau P, Aloo -Obudho P, Kabiru E, Ombacho K, Langat B, Mucheru O, Ireri L. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. J. Biomed. Res. 2012; 26(2): 84-89.
17. Akinboye DO, Abdullah AR, Awodele O, Akintunde TL, Effedua HL, Bamidele E. Prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasites among food-handlers in Ilisha-Remo, Ogun State. Nigerian journal of parasitology.: 2015; 36(2)113-118.
18. Akinbo FO, Mokobia CN, Ande AB. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City. Sahel Med J. 2017; 20:67 -71.
19. Toth MD. Trichomonas and Infertility. J Infect Dis. 2013; 19:68-70.
20. Ijeoma AO, Amara VN, Emmanuel IO. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis among Adults in Oru-East Local Government in Imo State, Nigeria. Arch Clin Microbiol. 2018; 9(2):79.
21. von Glehn M, Ferreira Sa LCE, da Silva HDF, Machado ER. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women of reproductive age at a family health clinic. J Infect Dev Ctries 2017; 1.(3): 269-276.
22. Moodley P, Wilkinson D, Connoly C, Moodley J, Sturm AW. Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34:519-522.
23. Ryu JS, Roh J, Lim YS, Seo MY, Choi Y. The secretory product of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro. Asian J. Androl. 2015;17:319.
24. Mann JR, McDermott S, Gill J. Sexually transmitted infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth in South Carolina women insured by Medicaid. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2010; 23:563-568.
25. Swygard H, Sena AC, Hobbs MM, Gohen MS (2004). Trichomoniasis clinical manifestations diagnosis and management. Sexually Transm Infec .2004; 80:91-95.
26. Gboeloh LB, Ike-Ihunwo CN. Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminthes (STHs) Among Pupils of Community Primary Schools in Nkpor and Mgbodohia Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria. South Asian J Parasit. 2019; 2(2):1-10.
27. Okike-Osisiogu FU, Nwoke BEB, Ukaga CN, Amaechi AA, Ezeigbo OR, Ike-Amadi CA. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among school pupils in aba, Abia State. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2018; 39(1) 74 -77.
28. Gboeloh LB, Elele K. Incidence of Gastrointestinal Parasites Among Workers in Major Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. World Acad Sci Engr and Techn Inter J Med Health Sci. 2013; 7 (11) 750-752.
29. Gboeloh LB, Nelly OE, Ike-Ihunwo CN. Risk Factors Associated with Urinary Tract Parasitic Infections among Students of Rivers State College of Health Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Special J Med Res Health Sci. 2019; 4(3) 1-9.
30. National Population Commission. Demographic data in Nigeria. National Population Commission. 2006; Abuja.
31. Taro Y. Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Edition, New York: Harper and Row, 1967.

32. Chesbrough M. (2018). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2nd Edition, Part1. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2018.
33. Ejinaka OR, Obeta MU, Iwanse RI, Lote-Nwara IE, Nkop JP, Agbalaka PI, Friday PE. Prevalence of Intestinal parasites among Students of a Tertiary Institution in Jos Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasit. 2019; 10(4) 1-4.
34. Kpurkpur T, Sani A, Nongu C. (2016). Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and their Association with Nutirtional Status of Rural and Urban Pre-School Children in Benue State, Nigeria. Interl J MCH and AIDS. 2016; 5(2) 146-152
35. Alexander SI, Idowu ET, Otubanjo OA, Ajayi MB. Trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Ifako Ijaiye, Shomolu and Agege Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Nigerian J parasitol. 2018; 39(1) 91-94.
36. Ngele KK, Okoye NT. Prevalence of Schistosomiasis infection among primary school pupils in Awgu primary school pupils in Awgu Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2016; 37(1). 11-15.
37. Obadiah HI, Idu ME, Omudu EA, Shenge MF, Ameh MO, Mwakyoga, A (2018). Studies on Schistosoma Haematobium infection in School-ages children in some parts of Benue State, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2018; 39(1).48 -51.
38. Ugochukwu O, Onwulin C, Osuala F, Dozie I, Opara F, Nwengi U. Endemicity of Schistosomiasis in some parts of Anambra State, Nigeria J Med Lab and Diag. 2013; 4:54-61.
39. Akwa YV, Jafaaru A, Elkanah OS, Chintem DGW, Njilmah JA, Thomas D, Tese T. (2018). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes infections among school-aged children in Kurmi Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria. Nigerian J parasitol. 2018; 39(2) 167 -171.
40. Utume LN, Umeh EU, Onekutu A, Omudu EA. Intestinal protozoan and helminthic diarrheal infections in children under five years old in Agasha, Benue State, north-central Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2015; 36(2) 119-124.
41. Okike-Osisiogu FU, Nwoke BEB, Ukaga CN, Amaechi AA, Ezeigbo OR, Ike-Amadi CA. Prevalence of Intestinal parasites and bacteria among school pupils in Aba, Abias State. Nigerian J Parasitol.. 2018; 39(1) 74-
42. Orji NM, Yufanyi EAC, Anene CC. Comparative Study of variability of giardiasis prevalence caused by anthropogenic activities in Fundong Health District, north-west region of Cameroon. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2018; 39(2) 161-165.
43. Nwoke BEB. Public Health Parasitology. Owerri: Milestone Publishers Limited, 2018.
44. Eze CN, Owhoeli O, Ganale SS (2016). Assessment of intestinal helminthes in community school children of Khana Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigerian J Parasitol. 37(1) 117-119.
45. Abah AE, Arene FOI. (2016). Intestinal parasitic infections in three geographical zones of Rivers State, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol. 2016; 37(1) 83-85.
46. Kashibu E, Victor O, Ojumah I, Akafa R, Rikwentishe E. Trichomonan vaginalis infection: Prevalence and risk factors among antenatal attendees in a tertiary facility in Taraba Sate, Nigeria. Nigerian J Parasitol.. 2018; 39(2) 199 -202