Mask mandate and use efficacy for COVID-19 containment in US States


Mask mandate and use efficacy for COVID-19 containment in US States


Damian D. Guerra1,*, Daniel J. Guerra2

1Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States of America;
2Authentic Biochemistry, VerEvMed, Clarkston, Washington, United States of America


Background: COVID-19 pandemic mitigation requires evidence-based strategies. Because COVID-19 can spread via respired droplets, most US states mandated mask use in public settings. Randomized control trials have not clearly demonstrated mask efficacy against respiratory viruses, and observational studies conflict on whether mask use predicts lower infection rates. We hypothesized that statewide mask mandates and mask use were associated with lower COVID-19 case growth rates in the United States.

Methods: We calculated total COVID-19 case growth and mask use for the continental United States with data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. We estimated post-mask mandate case growth in non-mandate states using median issuance dates of neighboring states with mandates.

Results: Earlier mask mandates were not associated with lower total cases or lower maximum growth rates. Earlier mandates were weakly associated with lower minimum COVID-19 growth rates. Mask use predicted lower minimum but not lower maximum growth rates. Growth rates and total growth were comparable between US states in the first and last mask use quintiles during the Fall-Winter wave. These observations persisted for both natural logarithmic and fold growth models and when adjusting for differences in US state population density.

Conclusions: We did not observe association between mask mandates or use and reduced COVID-19 spread in US states. COVID-19 mitigation requires further research and use of existing efficacious strategies, most notably vaccination.


Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, face covering, medical mask, mask mandate, nonpharmaceutical intervention

Free Full-text PDF Supporting-Information-Figures-S1-S4 Supporting-Information-Table-S1

How to cite this article:
Damian D.Guerra, Daniel J.Guerra. Mask mandate and use efficacy for COVID-19 containment in US States.International Research Journal of Public Health, 2021; 5:55. DOI: 10.28933/irjph-2021-08-1005


References

1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382[8]:727-33.
2. Hojyo S, Uchida M, Tanaka K, Hasebe R, Tanaka Y, Murakami M, et al. How COVID-19 induces cytokine storm with high mortality. Inflamm Regen. 2020;40:37.
3. Chu Y, Yang J, Shi J, Zhang P, Wang X. Obesity is associated with increased severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Med Res. 2020;25[1]:64.
4. Jayaweera M, Perera H, Gunawardana B, Manatunge J. Transmission of COVID-19 virus by droplets and aerosols: A critical review on the unresolved dichotomy. Environ Res. 2020;188:109819.
5. Payne DC, Smith-Jeffcoat SE, Nowak G, Chukwuma U, Geibe JR, Hawkins RJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Serologic Responses from a Sample of U.S. Navy Service Members – USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69[23]:714-21.
6. Hendrix MJ, Walde C, Findley K, Trotman R. Absence of Apparent Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from Two Stylists After Exposure at a Hair Salon with a Universal Face Covering Policy – Springfield, Missouri, May 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69[28]:930-2.
7. Ludvigsson JF, Engerström L, Nordenhäll C, Larsson E. Open Schools, Covid-19, and Child and Teacher Morbidity in Sweden. N Engl J Med. 2021;384[7]:669-71.
8. Bundgaard H, Bundgaard JS, Raaschou-Pedersen DET, von Buchwald C, Todsen T, Norsk JB, et al. Effectiveness of Adding a Mask Recommendation to Other Public Health Measures to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Danish Mask Wearers : A Randomized Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2021;174[3]:335-43.
9. MacIntyre CR, Seale H, Dung TC, Hien NT, Nga PT, Chughtai AA, et al. A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015;5[4]:e006577.
10. MacIntyre CR, Wang Q, Rahman B, Seale H, Ridda I, Gao Z, et al. Efficacy of face masks and respirators in preventing upper respiratory tract bacterial colonization and co-infection in hospital healthcare workers. Prev Med. 2014;62:1-7.
11. Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tufekci Z, Zdimal V, van der Westhuizen H-M, et al. An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2021;118[4]:e2014564118.
12. Wang Y, Tian H, Zhang L, Zhang M, Guo D, Wu W, et al. Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China. BMJ Glob Health. 2020;5[5].
13. United States COVID-19 Cases and Deaths by State over Time. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]; 2021.
14. Worldometers.info. Worldometer Dover, DE USA2021 [updated 25 May 2021; cited 2021. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/us/.
15. Guy GP, Jr., Lee FC, Sunshine G, McCord R, Howard-Williams M, Kompaniyets L, et al. Association of State-Issued Mask Mandates and Allowing On-Premises Restaurant Dining with County-Level COVID-19 Case and Death Growth Rates – United States, March 1-December 31, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70[10]:350-4.
16. Lyu W, Wehby GL. Community Use Of Face Masks And COVID-19: Evidence From A Natural Experiment Of State Mandates In The US. Health Aff [Millwood]. 2020;39[8]:1419-25.
17. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation COVID-19 model: University of Washington; 2021 [Available from: https://covid19.healthdata.org/.
18. Liu Z, Fang CT. A modeling study of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 virus in mainland China. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;41:73-8.
19. Perneger T, Kevorkian A, Grenet T, Gallée H, Gayet-Ageron A. Alternative graphical displays for the monitoring of epidemic outbreaks, with application to COVID-19 mortality. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 2020;20[1]:248.
20. De Flora S, La Maestra S. Growth and decline of the COVID-19 epidemic wave in Italy from March to June 2020. J Med Virol. 2021;93[3]:1613-9.
21. Bureau USC. 2010 Census Urban and Rural Classification and Urban Area Criteria. In: Commerce UDo, editor. 2010.
22. Curtis MJ, Alexander S, Cirino G, Docherty JR, George CH, Giembycz MA, et al. Experimental design and analysis and their reporting II: updated and simplified guidance for authors and peer reviewers. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2018;175[7]:987-93.
23. Khan A, Waleed M, Imran M. Mathematical analysis of an influenza epidemic model, formulation of different controlling strategies using optimal control and estimation of basic reproduction number. Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems. 2015;21[5]:432-59.
24. Samaras L, Sicilia M-A, García-Barriocanal E. Predicting epidemics using search engine data: a comparative study on measles in the largest countries of Europe. BMC Public Health. 2021;21[1]:100.
25. Ghosal S, Sengupta S, Majumder M, Sinha B. Linear Regression Analysis to predict the number of deaths in India due to SARS-CoV-2 at 6 weeks from day 0 [100 cases – March 14th 2020]. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14[4]:311-5.
26. Chu J. A statistical analysis of the novel coronavirus [COVID-19] in Italy and Spain. PloS one. 2021;16[3]:e0249037.
27. Jha AK, Tsai T, Jacobson B. Why we need at least 500,000 tests per day to open the economy — and stay open: Brown School of Public Health; 2020 [Available from: https://globalepidemics.org/2020/04/18/why-we-need-500000-tests-per-day-to-open-the-economy-and-stay-open/.
28. Anand S, Montez-Rath M, Han J, Bozeman J, Kerschmann R, Beyer P, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a large nationwide sample of patients on dialysis in the USA: a cross-sectional study. Lancet [London, England]. 2020;396[10259]:1335-44.
29. Chan JF, Yuan S, Zhang AJ, Poon VK, Chan CC, Lee AC, et al. Surgical Mask Partition Reduces the Risk of Noncontact Transmission in a Golden Syrian Hamster Model for Coronavirus Disease 2019 [COVID-19]. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71[16]:2139-49.
30. Wu J, Xu F, Zhou W, Feikin DR, Lin CY, He X, et al. Risk factors for SARS among persons without known contact with SARS patients, Beijing, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10[2]:210-6.
31. Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, Cheng CK, Fung RO, Wai W, et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151[7]:437-46.
32. Fong MW, Leung NHL, Cowling BJ, Wu P. Upper Respiratory Infections in Schools and Childcare Centers Reopening after COVID-19 Dismissals, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27[5].
33. Fong MW, Gao H, Wong JY, Xiao J, Shiu EYC, Ryu S, et al. Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Social Distancing Measures. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26[5]:976-84.
34. Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Al-Ansary LA, Bawazeer GA, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020[11].
35. Goh Y, Tan BYQ, Bhartendu C, Ong JJY, Sharma VK. The face mask: How a real protection becomes a psychological symbol during Covid-19? Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:1-5.
36. Yan Y, Bayham J, Richter A, Fenichel EP. Risk compensation and face mask mandates during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scientific Reports. 2021;11[1]:3174.
37. Spitzer M. Masked education? The benefits and burdens of wearing face masks in schools during the current Corona pandemic. Trends Neurosci Educ. 2020;20:100138.
38. Corey RM, Jones U, Singer AC. Acoustic effects of medical, cloth, and transparent face masks on speech signals. J Acoust Soc Am. 2020;148[4]:2371.
39. Atcherson SR, Finley ET, Renee McDowell BR, Watson C. More Speech Degradations and Considerations in the Search for Transparent Face Coverings During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Audiology Today. 2020;Nov/Dec.
40. Hua W, Zuo Y, Wan R, Xiong L, Tang J, Zou L, et al. Short-term skin reactions following use of N95 respirators and medical masks. Contact Dermatitis. 2020;83[2]:115-21.
41. Davey SL, Lee BJ, Robbins T, Randeva H, Thake CD. Heat stress and PPE during COVID-19: impact on healthcare workers’ performance, safety and well-being in NHS settings. J Hosp Infect. 2021;108:185-8.
42. Rosenberg K. The joint commission addresses health care worker fatigue. Am J Nurs. 2014;114[7]:17.
43. Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020;383[27]:2603-15.
44. Radujkovic A, Hippchen T, Tiwari-Heckler S, Dreher S, Boxberger M, Merle U. Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients. 2020;12[9].
45. Xi J, Si XA, Nagarajan R. Effects of mask-wearing on the inhalability and deposition of airborne SARS-CoV-2 aerosols in human upper airway. Phys Fluids [1994]. 2020;32[12]:123312.
46. Edwards DA, Ausiello D, Salzman J, Devlin T, Langer R, Beddingfield BJ, et al. Exhaled aerosol increases with COVID-19 infection, age, and obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2021;118[8].


Notes from Editorial Office
International Research Journal of Public Health (ISSN:2573-380X) is committed to freedom of expression. Sharing different research information in public health improves global health and creates new insights. Our aim is to provide a platform that encourages publication of the most recent research and reviews for authors from all countries. The article entitled “Mask mandate and use efficacy for COVID-19 containment in US States” by Drs Damian D. Guerra and Daniel J. Guerra was initially reviewed and then accepted for publication without peer-review (Per our policies, we may accept and publish a few manuscripts of authors without peer-review. click here for details). Should you have any questions or comments regarding the article, you may contact the authors directly. Or please contact us.


Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details). This site cannot and does not contain professional advice. The information on this site is provided for general informational and educational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice. Accordingly, before taking any actions based upon such information, we encourage you to consult with the appropriate professionals. We do not provide any kind of professional advice. The use or reliance of any information contained on this site or our mobile application is solely at your own risk. Under no circumstance shall we have any liability to you for any loss or damage of any kind incurred as a result of the use of the site or our mobile application or reliance on any information provided on the site and our mobile application. We may publish articles without peer-review. Published articles of authors are open access. Authors hold the copyright and retain publishing rights without restrictions. Authors are solely responsible for their articles published in our journals. Publication of any information in authors’ articles does not constitute an endorsement by us. We make no representation or warranty of any kind, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness of any information that authors provided. more..



This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.