Research article of Journal of Plant and Environmental Research
Assessment on Growth Performance of Green gram (Vigna radiate (L) Wilzeck). by Using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated Waste Water
Department of Botany, A.V.C College (Autonomous), Mannampandal 609 305, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Assessment on growth performance of Vigna radiate L. by using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated waste water. The plants were raised in petridish containing different concentrations of raw and treated waste water (C, 10%, 10% treated, 25%, 25% treated, 50%, 50% teated, 75%, 75% treated,100% and 100 % treated ). The morophological parameters like, seed germination percentage, seedling growth, (Such as, root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight fo root and shoot), vigoue index, tolerance index were measured on 7th days after sowing. All the morophological parameters were increased at 25 treated waste water in a petridish, when compared with control. Further increases in the waste water (50%-100%) in the soil have a negative effect on these parameters.
Keywords:Seed germination; Phytotreated; Non Phytotreated; Waste water; Seedling growth. Vigna radiate L.
How to cite this article:
Kaliyamoorthy Jayakumar. Assessment on Growth Performance of Green gram (Vigna radiate (L) Wilzeck). by Using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated Waste Water. Journal of Plant and Environmental Research, 2018,3:13. DOI:10.28933/jper-2018-12-1805
1. Akbarnejad, A.R. Astaraei, A. Fotovat, M. Nassiri Mehalati, J. Iran. Crop Res., 2009, 8(5), 767-771.
2. Akpor, O.B and M. Muchie 2010. Remediation of heavy metals in drinking water and wastewater treatment systems: process and applications. International Journal of the physical sciences. 5(12): 1807-1817.
3. Alaa, M.y. and M.A.N. Elsayed, 2015. Heavy metals and nutritional composition of some naturally growing aquatic macrophytes of Northern egyptian lakes. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), 6 (3): 16-23.
4. Andra S.S., R. Datta, D. Sarkar, K.C Markis, C.P. Mullens, S.V. Sahi and B.H. Bach, 2010. Synthesis of phytochelatins in vetiver grass upon lead exposure in the presence of phosphorous. Journal of plant soil, 326(1); 171-185.
5. Anjuli, S., L.U. Perm, P. Radha and S.A. Amrik, 2012. Rhytoremediation potential of aquatic macrorhyte, Azolla. A.M.B.I.O., 41: 122-137.
6. Arora A, Saxena S. 2005. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary treated Delhi municipal effluents. Biomass Bio energy. 29, 60-64.
7. Arora, A. and S. Saxena, 2005. Cultivation of Azolla microphylla biomass on secondary- treated Delhi municipal effluents. Biomass Bioenerg., 29:60-64.
8. Balpande SS and Ashok Mhaske, 2017. Quality of Sewage Water and Phytorid Technology for its Reuse in Agriculture. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research,6(6); 1-4.
9. Bennicelli RP, Stepniewska Z, Banach A, Szajnocha K, Ostrowski J. 2004. The ability of Azolla caroliniana to removes heavy metals Hg (II), Cr (III), Cr (IV) from municipal waste water. Chemosphere. 55(I): 141-146.
10. Cardwell A, Hawker D, Greenway M, 2002. Metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Southeast Queensland Australia. Chemosphere. 48:653-663.
11. Carrapico, F.2010. Azolla as a Superorganism. Its implication in symbiotic studies In: Symbioses and stress. Seckbah, J., and M. Grube (eds). Springer, Berlin Pp 227-241.
12. Caussy, D., M. Gochfeld E.Gurzau, C.Neagu and H. Ruedel, 2003. Lessons from case studies of metals: investiyation exposure, bioauailability and risk. Ecotoxical. Enuiron. Safe., 56: 45-51.
13. Celbi, S. and S. Kendir, 2002. Toxicity assessment of adye industry treatment sludge. Waste Manage. Res., 20: 541-545.
14. Chang J, Bergmann BA, Classen JJ, Howard JW, Yamamoto YT. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon liquid by Lemna minor. Am Soc Agri Eng 2002; 45: 1003-1010.
15. Chang P, kim JY, kim KW.2005. Concentrations of Arsenic and heavy metals in vegetation at two abandoned mine tailings in South Korea, Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 27: 109-119.
16. Chang, J.S., I.H. Yoon and K.W. Kim, 2009. Heavy metal and arsenic accumulating fern species as potential ecological indicators in AS. Containated abandoned mines. Ecological indicators, 9:1275-1279.
17. Chavan, B.L. and V.P. Dhulap, 2012 b. optimization of polluted concentration in sewage treatment using constructed wetland through phytoremediation. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Applied science, 1(6): 1-16.
18. Culley DD, Rajmankova E, kvet J and Fry JB Production, Chemical quality, and use of duck weed (Lemnaceae) in aquaculture, waste management, and animal feeds. J. World Naric. Soc 1981; 12(20 27-49.
19. Dar, S.H., D.M. Kumawat, N. Singh and K.A. Wani, 2011. Sewage treatment potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Research journal of Environmental science, 5(4): 377-1993.
20. Das KA, BA. 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: review. Ecotox. Environ. Safe.60:324-349.
21. David, T.W., M.M Than and S. Tun, 2002. Lead removal from industrial waters by water hyacinth. A.V.J.T., 6(4): 187-192.
22. Dejun, k., T.hongd, x. Danyu and k.pengzhen, 2014. Adsorption abilities by heavy metals and inorganic particles and activated sludge in domestic wastewater treatment plant. Journal of chemical and pharmaceutical research, 6(6): 2918-2926.
23. Devel CG, mane AV, joshi NP,Saratale GD .2012.Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte Azolla caroliniana with references to zinc plating effluent. Emir, Journal of food Agriculture 24, 208-223.
24. Divya, S., G. Richa and T. Archana, 2012. Potential of duckweed (Lemna minor) for removal of lead from wastewater by phytoremediation. Journal of pharmacy Research, 5(3): 1578-1582.
25. Dixit A, Dixit SL, Goswami CS 2011. Process and Plants for wastewater remediation: A review. Scientific Reviews and chemical Communication 1,71-77.
26. Dixit, A., S. Dixit, and C.S. Goswami, 2011. Process and plants for wasterwater remediation: A review. Sceintific Reviews and chemical counication, 1(1):71-77.
27. Drost W, Matxke M, Backhaus M. 2007. Heavy metal toxicity to Lena minor: studies on the time dependence of growth inhibition and the recovery after exposure. Chemosphere. 67: 36-43.
28. Duman F, Lebleici Z, Aksoy Aa. 2009. Bio accumulation of nickel, copper, and cadmium by spirodelapolyhiza and Lemnagibba. J. Fresh Ecol. 24.177: 179.
29. EL- Kheir WA, Gahiza Ismail, Farid About EL- Nour, Tarek Towfik, Doaa Hammed. Assessment of the efficiency of Duck weed (Lemna gibba) in waste water treatment, International Journal of agriculture & Biology 2007: 5: 681-687.
30. Erakhrumen, A.A., 2007. Phytoremediation: an environmentally sound technology for pollution prevention, control and remediation in developing countries. Educational Research anc Review, 2d (7): 151-156.
31. Forni, C., A. Casconb, M. Fioric and L. Migliored, 2002. Sulphadimethoxine and Azolla filiculoides Lam a model for dru remediation. Water Res., 36(13): 3398-3403.
32. Forni, C., Chen, J., Tancioni, L., Grilllicaiola, M.(2001). Evaluation of the fern Azolla for the growth, Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. Wat. Res., 35(6): 1592-1598.
33. Forni, C., J. Chen, L. Tancioni and M.G. Caiola, 2001. Evaluation of the fern Azolla for growth, nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater. Water Res., 35(6): 1592-1598.
34. Fritioff A, Greger M, 2003, Aquatic and Terrestrial plant species with potential to Remove Heavy Metals from stormwater. International Journal of phytoremediation. 5(3): 211-224.
35. Greger M, Kautsky L, Sandberg TA. 1995. Tentative model of cd uptake in potamogetonpectinatus in relation to salinity. Environ EXP. Bot. 35:215-225.
36. Hammouda O. Gaber A. and Abdel-Hamead MS, Assessment of effectiveness of treatment of wastewater contaminated aquatic system with Lemna. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1995;17: 317-323.
37. Harvey RM, Fox JL. Nutrient removal using lemna minor. J. WPFC 1973; 45:1928-1938.
38. Hassan SH, Talat, Rai S. 2007. Sorption of cadmium and Zinc from aqueous solutios by water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes). Bio resources Technol. 98:918-928.
39. Hazrat, A.K. Ezzat and A.S. Muhammad, 2013. Phytoremediation of heavy metals. Concepts and applications. Chemosphere. 91: 869-881.
40. Hossein, A.B. Pejman, D. Kondiram and P. Gorakh, 2014. Waste water remediation by using Azolla and lemna for selective removal of mineral nutrients. International Journal of Biosciences, 4(3): 66-73.
41. HU, M.H., AO, Y.S., Yang, X.E., Li, T.Q. 2008. Treating eutrophic water for nutrient reduction using an aquatic macrophyte (Ipomoea aquatic Forsskal) in a deep flow technique syste,. Agricultural water management 95:609-615.
42. Iram, S., I. Ahmad, Y. Riaz and A, Zahra, 2012. Treatment of wastewater by Lena inor. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44(2):553-557.
43. Jarda0, C., M. Pereira and J.Pereira and J.Perirda, 2002. Metal contamination of river waters and sediments from effluents of kaolin processing in Brazil. Water, Air and soil pollution, 140(1): 119-138.
44. Jayakumar K., T.M. Sathees Kannan and M. Nagarajan, 2013. Effect of Raw and Biologically Treated Municipal Waste Water on Growth of Paddy (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy, 7(1): 1-9.
45. Jia, H., Ren H., GU, M., Zhao, J., Sun, S., Zhang, X., Chen, J.,; Wu, P., Xu, G.2011. The phosphate homestasis in rice. 156: 1164-1175.
46. K. Jayakumar, Rajesh. M and T.M. Sathees Kannan, 2014. Impact of Sugar Mill Effluent on Photosynthetic Pigment content and Biochemical constituents variance of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba (L) Taub). International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy, 9(3): 143-160.
47. Kitah, S., Shiomi, N. and uheda, E. (1993) The growth and nitrogen fixation of Azolla filiculoides cam. Polluted water. Aquat. Bot., 46, 129-139.
48. Kutty, S.R.M., Ngatenah, S.N.I., Isa, M.H., Malakahad, A. 2009. Nutrients removal from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent using Eichhornia crassipes world Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 60:826-831.
49. Kutty, S.R.M., S.N.I Nagatenah, M.H. Isa, A. Malakahmad, 2009. Nutrients removal from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent using Eichhornia crassipes. World Acadelmy of science, Engineering and Technology, 36(12&22):910-915.
50. LU Q, He Zl, Graetz DA, Stofella PJ, yang X. 2011. Uptake and distribution of metals by water letcuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). Journal of Environmental Science and Pollution Research 18, 978-986.
51. M. Sharifi, M. Afuni, A. Khoshgftarmanesh, sci. Technol. Greenhouse plantation, 2010, 1(2): 43-53.
52. Marchial, L., S. Assolari, P. Sacco and G. Zerbi, 2004. Rhytoextraction of heavey etals by Canola (Brossica napus) and radish (Raphanus satisvus) grown on multicontainated soil. Environpollut., 132:21-27.
53. Mudget, S.R., Rae, A.L., Diatloff E., Smith F.W. 2002 Expression analysis suggest novel roles for membrane of the pht1 family of phosphate transporters in Arabidopsis. The plant Journal 31: 341-353.
54. Noraho N, Gaur JP, 1995. Effect of Cations, including heavy metals, on cadmium uptake by Lenapolyrhiza L. Bio metals. 8:95-98.,
55. Nuzhat, S., K.P. Ashok, N.K. \Azra and M. Basharat, 2015. Heavey etal accumulation by Azalla Pinnata of Dal Lake Ecosystem, India, 1(1):8-12.
56. Obek E, Sasaz A.2011. Bioaccumulation of aluminum by lemnagibba L.fro secondary treated municipal wastewater effluents. Bulletin of Environmental contamination and Toxicalogy 86, 217-220.
57. Oron G, Duck weed culture for Wastewater renovation and biomass Production. Agric water management 1994; 26(1-2): 27-40.
58. Oron G, Porath D, Jansen H. Performance of duckweed Species Lemna gibba on municipal water for effluent renovation and protein production. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1987;29: 258-267.
59. Overesch, M.,J. Rinklebe, G. Brall and H.U. Neue,2007. Metals and arsenic in soils and corresponding vegetation at central Elbe river flood plains (Gerany). Environmental pollution, 145(3): 800-812.
60. Pabby, A., prasanna, R. and singh, P.K. (2004). Biological significance of Azlla and its utilization in Agriculture, pro. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., BTO(3): 299-333. http://WWW.new. Dil.ernet.in/rawdatapload/ insa/INSA-1/2000c954-299.pdf.
61. Pettersson FJR. 1999. The effects of variations of water quality on the partitioning of heavy metals I a storm water pond. In:Proceeding of the Eighth international conference on urbon storm Drainage, Sydney, Australia, 30 August-3 september. 4:1943-1946.
62. Porath D, Pollock J Ammonia stripping by duck weed and its feasibility in circulating aquaculture. Aquatic Botany, 2982; 13(2):125-131.
63. Priya A, Avishek K, Pathak G. 22012. Assessing the Potentials of Lemna minorin the treatment of domestic waste water at pilot Scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184, 4301-4307.
64. Punita, S.P. and K>M. Soma, 2015, Capacity of Azolla pinnata Var. imbricate to absorb heavy metals and fluorides from the waste water of oil and petroleum refining industry at vododara. International peer Reviewed Referred Journal. Vol. 11, Issue 1.37-43.
65. Ra JS, Kim HK, Chang NI, Kim SD. 2007. Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests on wastewater treatment plants with Daphnia magna and solenastrum Capricornutum. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 129, 107-113.
66. Raghothama, K.G. 2000. Phosphate transport and signaling. Current opinion in plant Biology 3:182-187.
67. Rahman MA, Hasetawa H.2011. Aquatic Arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes. Chemospterce.83(5): 633-646`
68. Rai PK, Tripathi BD.2009. Comparative assessment of Azallapinnata and Vallisneriaspiralis in Hg reoval from G.B. pant sagar of singravli Industrial region, India. Environ. Minit Assess.148:75-84.
69. Rai, P.K. and B.D. Tripathi, 2009. Comparative assessment 0f Azolla pinnata and Vallisneria Spirlis in Hg removal from G.B. pant sagar of singrauli Industrial region. Industrial region. India . Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 148:75-84.
70. Rai, P.k. and B.D.Tripathi, 2009. Comparative assessment of Azolla pinnta and vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from G.B. pant sagar singrauli Industrial region. India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 1148:75-84.
71. Rai, P.K., 2010. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of subtropical industrial region and its phytoremediation. International journal of phytoremediation, 12:226-242.
72. Raj, P.K., 2008, Heavy- metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: An eco-sustainable approach. Int J. Phytoremediation, 12:226-242.
73. Raj, P.K., 2010. Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystems of subtropical industrial region and its phytoremediation. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 12:226-242.27
74. Raj, P.K., 2011. An eco- Sustainable green approach for heavy metals management: two case studies of developing industrial region. Environmental monitoring and Assessment, 1-28.
75. Rajesh. M, K. Jayakumar, T.M. Sathees Kannan and K. Sankar Ganesh, 2013. Influence of Sugar Mill Effluent on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba (L) Taub). International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy, 7(2): 54-62.
76. Rakhashaee, R., M. Khosravi and M.T. Ganji, 2006. Kinetic modeling and thermodynamic study to remove Pb(II), cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution using dead and living Azolla filiculoides. J. Hazard, Mater., 134:120-129.
77. Rakhshaee R, Khosravi M, Ganji MT. 2006. Kinetic modeling and thermodynamic study to removes Pb (11), Cd(11), Ni(11) from aqueous solution using dead and living Azolla filiculaides. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 134:120-129.
78. Rausch, C. Bucher, M. 2002. Molecular mechanism of phosphate transport in plants. Planta 216:23-37.
79. Sarma, H. 2011. Metal hyperaccuulation in plants: A review focusing on phytoremediation technology. Journal of Environmental science and Technology 4:118-138.
80. Schumann, P.H.D., \Richardson, A.E., Smith, F.W., Delhaize, E.2014. Characterization of promater expression patterns derived from pht1 phosphate transporter genes of barley (Hodeum Vulage L.) Journal of experiental Batary 55: 855-865.
81. Sengar, R.M.S., K.K. Singh and S. Singh, 2011. Application of phycoremediation technoloty in the treatment of sewage water to reduce pollution load. Indian Journal of scientific Research, 2(4): 33-39.
82. Skillicor P, Spira W, Journey W. Duck weed aquaculture. A new aquatic forming system for developing countries. The World Bank; Washington DC, USA, 1993.
83. Snezana, P., P. Dragana and T. Marinel, 2005. Comparative analysis of heavey metal content in aquatic acrophytes in the reservoirs Gruza, Babanj and Memorial park. Kragujevac j. Sci., 27: 147-156.
84. Solido AL., Hasty KL, Lim JM, Butcher DJ.2003. Phytoremediation of Arsenic and lead in contaminated soilusing Chinese Brake ferns (Pterisvittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). International Journal of phytoremediation, 5(2): 89-103.
85. Sood, A. and Ahluwalia, A.S. 2009. Cyanobacterial-plant symbioses with emphasis on Azolla – Anabaena symbiotic system. Indian fern Journal 26:166-178.
86. Sood, A., L. Perm, U.R. Prasanna and A.S. Ahluwalia, 2012. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla. A Journal of the Human Environment, 41:122-137.
87. Stepniewska, Z., R.P. Bennicelli, T>I Balakhnina, K. Szajnocha, A. Banach and A. Wolinska, 2005. Potential of Azolla Caroliniana for the removal of pb and cd from waste waters. Int. Agrophysics, 19:251-255.
88. Stood A, Perm L, Prasanna UR, Ahluwalia AS. 2012. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla. A Journal of the Human Environent 41, 122-137.
89. Sutlon D, Ornes WH, Phosphorous removal from static sewage effluent using duck weed and algal ponds. Water Sci. Technol 1975; 42:363-370.
90. Taylor GJ, Crowder AA. 1983 a.Uptake and accumulation of copper, nickel and iron by Typha latifolia L. grown in solution culture. Conadian Journal of Botany 61, 1825-1830.
91. Venkatesharaju, K., P. Ravikumar, R.K. Somashekar and K.L. Prakash, 2010. Physic-chemical and bauteriological investigation on the river Cauvery of kollegal stretech in Karnataka. Journal of science, Engineering and Technology, 6(1): 50-59.
92. Vermaat, J.E. and Hanif, M.K. (1998) performance of common duckweed species (Lemnaceae) and the waterfern Azolla filiculoides on Different Types of wastewater.
93. Wagner GM. 1997. Azolla: a Review of its biology and utilization. Bot. Rev. 63:1-26.
94. Watanabe, I., Roger, P.A., Ladha, J.K. and van Hove, C. (1992) Bio fertilizer germplasm collations at IRRI. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines.
95. Wolverton BC. Engineering design data for small vascular aquatic plants wastewater treatment systems. In: Proc. EPA seminor on Aquaculture systems for waste water treatment, EPA 430/9-80-006, 1979.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.