The treatment consisted of different doses of Paclobutrazol (PP333) namely 1.0g and 0.5g/canopy diameter along with control. Paclobutrazol was applied once in a year 15 October 1997 and 15 September 1998 in soil around the tree canopy spread. Paclobutrazol did not affect on Sugar, pH, Colour, K or glucose-fructose ratio, reduced sugar concentration and did not effect TSS and Firmness of Apple, increased TSS, Ascorbic Acid, Chlorophyll, ß-carotene, amylase, peroxides activity for 12 days in Dashehari Mango in storage at ambient temperature (30-33°C), chemical used Paclobutrazol [(2RS, 3RS)-1-1(4-Chlorophenyl)-4, 4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-trizol)-1-yl)] Pentan-3-ethanol.
Biochemical and Biological effects of Kaurene oxidase inhibitor such as Paclobutrazol on vegetative in Mango Cvs. Dashehri, Langra, Chausa and Fazri
The compound Paclobutrazol [(2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4, 4-dimethyle-2- (1, 2, 4 Triazol-1-y)] pentan-3-ethanol was the action of this retardants can be antagonized by Gibberellins (GA3) and ent-Kaurenoic acid. The growth regulating properties of paclobutrazol are mediated by changes in the levels of important plant hormones including the gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins (CK). Paclobutrazol (PBZ) affects the isoprenoid pathway, and alters the levels of plant hormones by inhibiting gibberellin synthesis and increasing cytokinins level. When gibberellins synthesis is inhibited, more precursors in the terpenoid pathway accumulate and that resulted to the production of abscisic acid. PBZ has been used to provide plant protection against numerous abiotic stresses such as chilling, water deficit stress, flooding and salinity. Paclobutrazol acts as stress protectant by maintaining relative water content, membrane stability index, photosynthetic activity, and photosynthetic pigments and protects the photosynthetic machinery by enhancing the level of osmolytes, antioxidant activities and level of endogenous hormones and thereby enhances the yield. It is suggested that its main biochemical action is to block the reactions that lead from ent-Kaurene to ent-Kaurenoic acid in the course of Gibberellins biosynthesis courses, reduced vegetative growth more intensively than root growth by this compound.
REFLECTION OF THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT ON SPECIES AND POPULATION OF THE BARRA DE CATUAMA BEACH (GOIANA-PE)
Objective: The objective of this article is to make an analysis of the anthropic impact on the lo-cal species of Barra de Catuama beach, which is located in the Southeast of the municipality of Goiana, Pernambuco. Methods: For this purpose, we used the methodology of analysis of pho-tos, reading articles published about the subject, and the tools found on the internet, such as news and videos. Results: Through analysis of photos and bibliography, it was possible the perception of the anthropic impact relactive to social, environmental and economic’s quality, in Barra de Catuama beach, since the presence of solid waste and domestic sewage accounted in the decrease of species of the region and of tourists. Conclusion: The conclusion of this ana-lyzes is that the ecological and public damage, prevent the recreation of the bathers and have a direct influence on the fishing and catching crabs, those are one of the main sources of income in the region, stressing that this anthropic impact resulted in the decrease of the population of the species, and a deviation of the local income.
In recent years, with peoples environmental protection continuous enhance and the proposal of the national sustainable development strategy, the restoration and landscape reconstruction of abandoned mines have begun to receive the attention of the government, experts and scholars in various fields.People realized that they can restore the abandoned land ecology through the knowledge of natural science and engineering disciplines. Landscape reconstruction and development can improve the living environment of residents which is also an important way to create economic value and realize the harmonious coexistence of human and nature. In this article, it is focus on the discussion which include how to carry on the ecological restoration of mining abandoned land, and the problem of landscape design modification, it is also put forward the concept of ecological recovery , discuss on the relationship between ecological restoration and design modification, and how to implement both of them at the same time, The article introduces the methods of how to implement in details, to provide the reference for the future on rehabilitation and reconstruction of mine waste land in practice .
Assessment on Growth Performance of Green gram (Vigna radiate (L) Wilzeck). by Using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated Waste Water
Assessment on growth performance of Vigna radiate L. by using Phytotreated and Non Phytotreated waste water. The plants were raised in petridish containing different concentrations of raw and treated waste water (C, 10%, 10% treated, 25%, 25% treated, 50%, 50% teated, 75%, 75% treated,100% and 100 % treated ). The morophological parameters like, seed germination percentage, seedling growth, (Such as, root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight fo root and shoot), vigoue index, tolerance index were measured on 7th days after sowing. All the morophological parameters were increased at 25 treated waste water in a petridish, when compared with control. Further increases in the waste water (50%-100%) in the soil have a negative effect on these parameters.
Iron can be removed from groundwater through the process of chemical oxidation followed by a rapid sand filtration. Different mechanisms (physicochemical and biological) contribute for the iron removal in filters but the dominant mechanism depends on physical and chemical characteristics of the water and which the process conditions applied. Now there are number of methods of biological iron removal which are reported to be much more efficient and cost effective than conventional physicochemical iron removal method. The mechanism of iron removal in filters could be solely biological the physicochemical iron removal mechanisms under certain specific conditions. The paper reviews that the theoretical background of biologically mediated iron removal, the advantages and limitations of the method and a few case studies. A literature review revealed that biological iron removal is not suitable when pH and oxygen concentrations are high and/or NH+4, H2S and Zn are present. Physico chemical removal mechanisms can achieve the same removal efficiency under the conditions that are reported to be favorable for biological iron removal. Biological iron removal is likely to be supplementary to conventional physico chemical iron removal.
Nitrogen Release Dynamics of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei litters as Influenced by Polyphenol, Lignin and Nitrogen Contents
Litter mineralization is a crucial process in providing nutrients through decomposition to plants, which also depends in the chemical composition of the litter and soil properties as well. Decomposition rate of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei in Luvisol was investigated in relation to their nutrient release dynamics such as NH4+ and NO3- in relation to their initial concentrations of lignin, ADF, cellulose and total polyphenol content and their ratios. The dynamic was followed in an incubation pot experiment, CRD design in replication. Erythrina abyssinian has an average of 4.05%, 9.7% and 2.04% TN, lignin and total polyphenol content respectively. Erythrina brucei has also an average of 3.05 %, 12.63 % and 1.05 % content of TN, lignin and total polyphenol respectively. The samples of Erythrina abyssinian and Erythrina brucei were ground and incorporated with Luvisol in pots. Each treatment and control were sampled and analyzed on weekly basses to determine the amount of ammonium and nitrate released. The lignin and total polyphenol was significantly positively correlated with the release of NH4+, while the NO3- showed significant negative correlations with the release of ammonium. From the experiment it was observed that the Erythrina abyssinian with lower content of lignin and high in TN has released the nutrients faster where as Erythrina brucei with high lignin and low total polyphenol content released slowly. In general, these leguminous trees released NH4+and NO3- easily because of their high total nitrogen content and low lignin, ADF, cellulose and total polyphenol content. They attained their half-life within 2–3 weeks. Therefore, Erythrina abyssinica and Erythrina brucei bears fast mineralization as a result they can be used for fast-term correction of crop nutrient demand. However, more detailed researches are needed to synchronize and verify laboratory results with field measurements of their effect on crop production and synchronization of…
A large-scale pot experiment was accomplished for investigation of the varied effects of different concentrations of Cu and Cd on certain growth and metabolic attributes of roots and shoots of Phaseolus vulgaris plants, over a period of three weeks. Plants supplemented with Cu and Cd at the concentrations of 10-6 and 10-3 M, showed increased levels of Cu and Cd in both shoots and roots, above those levels in controls. However, Cu or Cd accumulation was lower in shoots than in roots. As compared with control levels, the low (10-6 M) concentration of Cu induced either a significant or an insignificant increase in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, PS II activity, glucose, proline and glycine contents in both roots and shoots. Otherwise, insignificant decreases in fructose, sucrose, polysaccharides, total saccharides, total soluble-N, protein –N, DNA and RNA contents, in the same test plant parts, were obtained. A reverse situation was however observed with the high concentration (10-3 M) of Cu as well as with the low and high concentrations (10-3 and 10-6 M) of Cd. In general, the observed adverse effects were more pronounced with Cd at (10-6 M) as compared with those maintained with Cu at the same concentration. Furthermore, the most detrimental adverse effects were apparent upon administration of the high (10-3 M) concentration of Cd. The prominence of the above mentioned changes in growth and metabolism to stress tolerance in common bean is discussed.
Rate of Mineralization for Organic Nutrient Sources (ONS) depends on temperature, soil moisture, soil chemical, physical, biological properties as well as the chemical composition of the ONS. Erythrinaabyssinica (EA), Erythrinabrucei(EB) and Enseteventricosum(EV) (ONS) were randomly collected from Sidama and Wolaita zones of southern Ethiopia. Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) depths were also collected from Cambisols of Wolaita and Luvisol of Sidama areas. Physicochemical properties of the composite soils were analyzed following standard analytical methods. For the greenhousemineralization potexperiment, 21 treatments for each week were designed for EA, EB and EVin Luvisol and Cambisols. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The incubation was carried out in green house for five consecutive weeks., the average TN contents of EA, EB and EV were 4.05, 3.35 and 2.56%, respectively. Based on the TN contents, the amount of ONS equivalent to 100 kg urea + 100 kg DAP ha-1, was calculatedand incorporated into 200g of each soil type separately. The pots were watered to field capacity every day or two.In general, the study was conducted to investigate the effect of soil chemical and physical properties such as pH, particle size, organic carbon and total nitrogen content on rate of mineralization of these ONS. Each week determination of OC and TN contents were conducted. The results of mineralization revealed that the TN concentration was highest in the first week and became low and constant at the third to fifth week. The same trend was followed by OC constant declining in both soil types. There was a reduction of C/N ratio in both soil types. The ONS had medium to high TN content and they decompose easily. Thus, the study reveals these ONS can be used as alternative or supportive fast decomposing organic sources of fertilizers.
Determination of some Heavy Metals Speciation Pattern in Typha domingensis invaded Soil in Bauchi, Nigeria
The speciation of some heavy metals on Typha domingensis invaded soil along Gombe road, Bauchi were evaluated. Soil samples from the Typha domengensis invaded soil and the control site were collected and analysed for exchangeable bound metals, carbonate bound metals, manganese bound metals, iron-manganese bound metals, organic/sulphide bound metals and residual bound metals. The results on the Typha domingensis invaded soil were found to be exchangeable bound metals; Fe 1.47 ± 0.21 mg/dm3, Zn 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.16 ± 0.04 mg/dm3. Carbonate bound metals Fe 26.10 ± 1.01 mg/dm3, Zn 2.66 ± 0.17 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.89 ± 0.03 mg/dm3 and Manganese bound metals Fe 14.50 ± 0.45 mg/dm3, Zn 4.03 ± 0.78 mg/dm3 and Pb 1.22 ± 0.06 mg/dm3. Iron-manganese bound metals Fe 120.40 ± 19.15 mg/dm3, Zn 6.79 ± 1.12 mg/dm3 and Pb 2.16 ± 0.05 mg/dm3. Organic/sulphide bound metals Fe 5.90 ± 0.50 mg/dm3, Zn 4.14 ± 0.68 mg/dm3 and Pb 3.58 ± 0.07 mg/dm3. Residual bound metals Fe 13.10 ± 0.55 mg/dm3, Zn 6.12 ± 0.17 mg/dm3 and Pb 4.48 ± 0.09 mg/dm3.The results of the control sample (without Typha domingensis) shows that the exchangeable bound metals Fe 9.40 ± 1.89 mg/dm3, Zn 1.71 ± 0.45 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.28 ± 0.05 mg/dm3, Carbonate bound metals Fe 0.70 ± 0.12 mg/dm3, Zn 2.20 ± 0.71 mg/dm3 and Pb 0.46 ± 0.12 mg/dm3, Manganese bound metals Fe 2.50 ± 0.21 mg/dm3, Zn 1.90 ± 0.09 mg/dm3 and Pb 1.68 ± 0.04 mg/dm3, Iron-manganese bound metals Fe 221.30 ± 21.12 mg/dm3, Zn 7.46 ± 0.48 mg/dm3 and Pb 2.75 ± 0.06 mg/dm3, Organic/sulphide Fe 4.20 ± 0.62 mg/dm3, Zn 3.70 ± 0.80 mg/dm3 and Pb 3.93 ± 0.04 mg/dm3 and Residual bound metals Fe 30.10 ± 5.80 mg/dm3, Zn 7.38 ± 0.61 mg/dm3 and Pb…