Research Article of International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Ethnomedicinal uses of exotic plant species in Mogalakwena Municipality of Waterberg District, Limpopo Province South Africa
L.P. Maema*, M.M. Mahlo and M.J. Potgieter
Department of Biodiversity, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa.
Traditional medicine still constitutes a large part of the primary health care sector in South Africa. However, limited information exists about the ethnomedicinal uses of exotic plant species. Thus an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to investigate its use in Mogalakwena Local Municipality of Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This was done by interviewing 30 traditional health practitioners, from 15 villages between April and November 2015. The study documented 8 exotic plant species that are used to treat various diseases. The documented species are distributed across 7 families, of which the Asteraceae (2) is the most prominent, while the remaining families are represented by single species. The plant parts, most used was roots (36.4%), followed by fruits (27.3%), whole plant (18.1%), whereas leaves and flower contributed 9.1% each. It was further evidenced that preparation of remedies were mainly through infusions (30%) and decoctions (30%), administered orally. It is concluded that exotic plants now form an integral part of the materia medica of Bapedi traditional health practitioners. It is further concluded that with proper and careful management exotic plant species can reduce overexploitation of heavily harvested indigenous medicinal plants in South Africa.
Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey, medicinal plants, tradition health practitioners and Conservation.
How to cite this article:
L.P. Maema*, M.M. Mahlo and M.J. Potgieter. Ethnomedicinal uses of exotic plant species in Mogalakwena Municipality of Waterberg District, Limpopo Province South Africa. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2017, 2:15. DOI:10.28933/meama-ijtcm-201604
1. Alencar, N.L., Santoro, F.R. & Albuquerque, U.P. 2014. What is the role of exotic medicinal plants in local medical systems? A study from the perspective of utilitarian redundancy. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 24: 506-515.
2. Anyasi, T.A., Jideani, A.I. & Mchau, G.R. 2013. Functional properties and postharvest utilization of commercial and noncommercial banana cultivars. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12: 509-522.
3. Andreotti, R., Garcia, M.V., Cunha, R.C. & Barros, J.C. 2013. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial. Veterinary parasitology, 197: 341-345.
4. Anwar, F., Latif, S., Ashraf, M. & Gilani, A.H. 2007. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy research, 21: 17-25.
5. Christen, D.C. & Matlack, G.R. 2008. The habitat and conduit functions of roads in the spread of three invasive plant species. Biological Invasions 11: 453-465.
6. Deba, F., Xuan, T.D., Yasuda, M. & Tawata, S. 2008. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata. Food control, 19: 346-352.
7. De Wet, H., Nzama, V.N. & Van Vuuren, S.F. 2012. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections by lay people in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu–Natal Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 78: 12-20.
8. Flora, S.J.S. & Pachauri, V. 2011. Moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed extract and the prevention of oxidative stress. Nuts & seeds in health and disease prevention. Elsevier Inc. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 776.
9. Foxcroft, L.C., Richardson, D.M. & Wilson, J.R. 2008. Ornamental plants as invasive exotics: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41: 32-51.
10. Horigome, T., Sakaguchi, E. & Kishimoto, C. 1992. “Hypocholesterolaemic effect of banana (Musa sapientum L. var. cavendishii) pulp in the rat fed on a cholesterol-containing diet”. Br. J. Nutr., 68: 231-244.
11. Igoli, J.O., Ogaji, O.G., Tor-Anyiin, T.A. & Igoli, N.P. 2005. Traditional medicine practice amongst the Igede people of Nigeria. Part II. Afr. J. Trad. CAM, 2: 134 – 152.
12. Jacobs, L.E.O., Richardson, D.M. & Wilson, J.R.U. 2014. Melaleuca parvistaminea Byrnes (Myrtaceae) in South Africa: Invasion risk and feasibility of eradication. South African Journal of Botany 94: 24-32.
13. Kalwij, J.M., Robertson, M.P. & Rensburg, B.J. 2008. Human activity facilitates altitudinal expansion of exotic plants along a road in montane grassland, South Africa. Applied Vegetation Science, 11: 491-498.
14. Lewis K. & Ausubel F.M. 2006. Prospects for plant-derived antibacterials. Nat Biotechnol, 24: 1504-1507.
15. Light, M.E., Sparg, S.G., Stafford, G.I. & Van Staden, J. 2005. Riding the wave: South Africa’s contribution to ethnopharmacological research over the last 25 years. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100: 127-130.
16. Mathabe, M.C., Nikolova, R.V., Lall, N. & Nyazema, N.Z., 2006. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 105: 286–293.
17. Maroyi, A. 2012. Garden Plants in Zimbabwe: Their ethnomedicinal uses and reported toxicity. Ethnobotany Research & Applications, 10: 045-057.
18. Meyerson, L.A. & Mooney, H.A. 2007. Invasive alien species in an era of globalization. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 199-208.
19. Mulaudzi, R.B., Ndhlala, A.R. & Van Staden, J. 2015. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of a traditional herbal remedy used to treat gonorrhoea in Limpopo province, South Africa. South African Journal of Botany, 97: 117-122.
20. Naidoo, D., Van Vuuren, S.F., Van Zyl, R.L. & De Wet, H. 2013. Plants traditionally used individually and in combination to treat sexually transmitted infections in northern Maputaland, South Africa: antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 149: 656-667.
21. NEMBA, 2014. National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act 2004 (Act No. 10 of 2004. Alien and Invasive Species Regulations, Department of Environmental Affaires). https://www.environment.gov.za/…/legislations/nemba10of2004_ alienandinvasive_speciesregulations.pdf (Accessed on 27 February 2016).
22. Nchu, F., Magano, S.R. & Eloff, J.N. 2012. In vitro anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) on Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae). Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 79: 01-05.
23. Njoroge, G.N. & Bussmann, R.W., 2006. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2 : DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-54.
24. Pyšek, P & Richardson, D.M. 2010. Invasive Species, Environmental Change and Management, and Health. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 35: 25-55.
25. Ramalingum, N. & Mahomoodally, M.F. 2014. The Therapeutic Potential of Medicinal Foods. In: Neal Davies (ed.), Advances in pharmacological sciences, 2014: 1-18.
26. Pradeep, B.V., Manojbabu, M.K. & Palaniswamy, M. 2008. Antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. against gastro intestinal tract infection causing organisms. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12: 143.
27. Ribeiro, A., Romeiras, M. M., Tavares, J. & Faria, M. T. 2010. Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed, 6: 33-48.
28. Rojas, J.J., Ochoa, V.J., Ocampo, S.A. & Muñoz, J.F. 2006. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 6: 2.
29. Semenya, S.S., Potgieter, M.J., Tshisikhawe, M.P., Shava, S. & Maroyi, A. 2012. Medicinal utilization of exotic plants by Bapedi traditional healers to treat human ailments in Limpopo province, South Africa. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 144: 646-655.
30. Semenya, S.S., Potgieter, M.J. & Tshisikhawe, M.P. 2013. Use, conservation and present availability status of ethnomedicinal plants of Matebele Village in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 12: 2392-2405.
31. Senatore, F., Napolitano, F., Mohamed, M., Harris, P.J.C., Mnkeni, P.N.S. & Henderson, J. 2004. Antibacterial activity of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oil with different chemical composition. Flavour and fragrance journal, 19: 574-578.
32. Shai, L.J., McGaw, L.J., Masoko, P. & Eloff, J.N. 2008. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of seven traditionally used South African plant species active against Candida albicans. South African Journal of Botany, 74: 677-684.
33. Shanmugam, S., Manikandan, K. & Rajendran, K. 2009. Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes and jaundice among the villagers of Sivagangai District, Tamilnadu. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2009: 22.
34. Silva, M.F., Nishi, L., Farooqi, A. & Bergamasco, R. 2014. The many health benefits of Moringa oleifera. Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Innovation, 1: 9-12.
35. Street, R.A. & Prinsloo, G. 2012. Commercially important medicinal plants of South Africa: A review. Journal of Chemistry 2013: 1-16.
36. Truter, I. 2007. African traditional healers: Cultural and religious beliefs intertwined in a holistic way. SA Pharmaceutical Journal, 74: 56-60.
37. Usha, V., Vijayammal, P.L. & Kurup, P.A. 1989. “Effect of dietary fibre from banana (Musa paradisiaca) on metabolism of carbohydrates in rats fed cholesterol-free diet” Indian journal of experimental biology, 27:445-449.
38. Weitz, F.M. & Thring, T.S.A. 2005. Medicinal plant use in the Bredasdorp/Elim region of the Southern Overberg in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 103: 261–275.
39. Wiersum, K.F., Dold, A.P., Husselman, M. & Cocks, M. 2006. Cultivation of medicinal plants as a tool for biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation in the Amatola region, South Africa. Frontis, 17: 43-57.
40. Williamson, M. & Fitter, A. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77: 1661-1666.
41. Williams, V.L., Victor, J.E. & Crouch, N.R. 2013. Red listed medicinal plants of South Africa: status, trends, and assessment challenges. South African Journal of Botany, 86: 23-35.
42. Wink, M. 2003. Evolution of secondary metabolites from an ecological and molecular phylogenetic perspective. Phytochemistry, 64:3-19.
43. Wojtasik, E.M. 2013. Richness and diversity of alien ethnomedicinal plant taxa used and sold for traditional medicine in South Africa. MSc Dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
44. World Health Organisation, 1996. Water and Sanitation: Fact sheet, vol. 112. Geneva, World Health Organisation.
45. World Health Organization (WHO). 2002. Traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005. World Health Organization, Geneva.