Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Sociodemographic and health aspects of patients with tuberculosis in a city of alagoas
SANTOS, A.C.M1; BARBOSA, M.A.A1; SANTOS, BRC1; FERREIRA, J.M1; MOURA, E.L1; FIGUEIREDO, E.V.M.S1 O.
Federal University of Alagoas1
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease with contagious and infectious aspects, is one of the oldest diseases ever reported for humanity. It has relations with the socioeconomic conditions, poverty and unemployment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the global perspective about 2 billion people are infected with Koch’s bacillus and, every year, are detected 8.8 million new cases of the disease. In Brazil there are 60 million people infected, but most of these individuals do not develop tuberculosis. It is evident therefore that TB is a major public health problem, being intimately connected to settlements and poor health. 1,2TB is a disease in which its occurrence is associated with forms of organization of social processes, which are transversely related to ways of living Occupational indivíduo.2In this regard, studies addressing the occurrence model of tuberculosis and its epidemiological characteristics can subsidize part of understanding the dynamics of this disease and important actions on health surveillance. Understanding the epidemiology of this disease may provide grounds for prevention strategies and promoting health and decreasing the likelihood of spread of the disease. Given the epidemiological panorama of this importance to public health, this study aims to describe the sociodemographic aspects involving the health of tuberculosis patients in a Alagoas municipality. This is a descriptive study, cross-quantitative nature, held in Arapiraca Integrated Reference Center (CRIA). The study consisted of 15 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. To achieve the proposed objective there was a semi-structured questionnaire application developed by the researchers and subsequent analysis of the records. The records were collected aspects of treatment. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas in opinion n ° 492 924. Of the 15 interviewed, 60% (n = 9) were male and 40 % (n = 6) were female. The age range of individuals understood the range of 18 to 79 years. As regards to instruction level, most 53.3 % (n = 8) had elementary school. With regard to marital status 46.6 % (n = 7) were married and 33.3 % (n = 5) were single. As for the occupation 26.6 % (n = 4) were retirees. When asked about the type of tuberculosis 80 % (n = 12) were lung type and 6.6 % (n = 1) pleural tuberculosis, 6.6 % (n = 1) lymph node tuberculosis and 6.6 % (n = 1) mammary tuberculosis. With regard to morbidity, diabetes mellitus (DM), occurred in 2 (13.3 %) of respondents and all subjects tested negative for HIV. With regard to guidance on the collection of sputum, 80 % (n = 12) of respondents said they understood the information transmitted. When asked about the use of medication 100 % (n = 15) reported that they were informed about the particulars of the drugs used in treatment. As for side effects during treatment, 86.6 % (n = 13) patients reported having presented pruritus, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. As regards guidance on fluid intake and proper nutrition, specific in relation to hygiene and disposal of tissues and handwashing 86.6 % (n = 13) said they were told by the nurse. As for the nursing consultation contribution in patient monitoring with TB, 93.3 % (n = 14) mentioned that it is crucial to continue the treatment and consequently interfere in improving the quality of life of these patients. In this study showed that the sociodemographic characteristics common in tuberculosis carriers in the survey period is in line with other studies in the literature. 3,4,5. However, we emphasize other demographic data not shown even in epidemiological studies such as marital status and occupation of these individuals bring a broad vision of the social aspect of these patients. The pulmonary form was the most frequent type in these patients, it is noteworthy that this is the main form of infection in which the individual eliminates bacilli to the external environment, making it a disseminador.6 agent observed a low frequency of morbidity in patients of this study corroborating the literature.7 Aspects involving drug good practices regarding tuberculosis good patient education along with other measures such as more frequent consultations are important conduits for the strengthening of membership and maintenance treatment. With regard to guidance and care provided by the nurse it was shown that it acts as a protagonist in the care of patients with tuberculosis by intervening in full in the individual health-disease process. Acting on advice about the disease and therapy monitoring and the possible complications that can arise with the ineffective nutrition and side effects, promoting self-care and enhancing the basic human needs. One limitation of the study was the small sample size and therefore a careful interpretation must be considered. However data from this study reflect the profile of the individuals who developed tuberculosis in 2014 and subsidize health care actions. Through the responses of listed individuals for this study, it can be inferred that the role of nursing helps in treatment adherence. As well as actions and programs the success of treatment and on the interpersonal relationships between the patient and the healthcare professional and the dissemination of knowledge to the service users know the disease and become multipliers of information assisting in the control and prevention of tuberculosis.
Keywords: Public Health; Tuberculosis; Nursing; Multiprofessionality.
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