Article of Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy
Profile of patients died of neoplasia cervical malignant in pernambuco state
SILVA, A.C1; FERREIRA, T.T.C1; ALVES, J.L1; BRANDÃO, F.S.R1; PEREIRA, M.A.S1; COSTA, B.G.S1.
Federal University of Pernambuco – UFPE1
Cervical cancer has a worldwide estimated incidence of approximately half a million cases per year, and 260,000 deaths worldwide, of which 80 % occurred in developing countries1. It is considered the second most common in women, accounting for approximately 15 % of female cancers1. Its incidence increases significantly in developing countries, especially in low-income, which ranks first in the classification of all female cancers in developed countries, only occupies the sixth position2. The cervical cancer in recent decades has been considered as a serious public health issue, due to the high incidence, morbid evolution and high rate of mortality2. In Brazil, it is considered the most frequent malignant tumors of the female genital tract, predominantly of low socioeconomic status women aged 35-55 years age2,3. The cancer as a public health problem in Brazil is therefore worthy of great attention from health professionals, because the magnitude of mortality rates and incidence of tumors almost entirely preventable, this reality reinforces the justification for the actions preventive, being a challenge for health professionals can help control the disease through health promotion, prevention and early detection, which are held in serviços2,4. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the profile of mortality from cervical cancer in the state of Pernambuco in the 2009 to 2013 period. Descriptive study, whose population consisted of all residents female deaths in the state of Pernambuco that had the basic cause of death cancer of the cervix, in the period 2009 to 2013. Data were extracted from the Information System mortality – SIM, Ministry of Health, which is a national epidemiological surveillance system, which aims to capture data on the country’s death in order to provide information on mortality for all levels of the healthcare system. The system of the input document is the Death Certificate, standardized across the country. The following variables were analyzed: age; race / color; marital status and residence macro-region. For data analysis, Microsoft Office Excel – 2010 software, which was calculated the average and standard deviation was used. During the years 2009-2013 in the state of Pernambuco, there were a total of 1317 deaths from malignant neoplasm of the cervix, according to the SIM. The average number of deaths in the study period was 263.4 deaths / year (SD ± 13.42). The age group that most deaths were concentrated between 40 and 49 years, representing 21.7 % of the total. When assessed deaths by age group of women of reproductive period, there was a percentage of 37.4 % of the deaths, as the population of older represent 42.5 % of deaths. Most women in all analyzed years were of mixed race, a percentage of 53.7 %, contrasting with the indigenous population was 0.2 % of all people who died. As for education, it was shown that 25.3 % of women were illiterate and only 2.4 % had 12 or more years of schooling. 37.7 % were single and only 27.3 % were married. As the macro-region where they lived, it is observed that most, 67.4 % lived in the metropolitan region of the state, unlike the hinterland which was represented only 6.7 % of residents. Of all deaths, 79 % were in hospitals, 19.7 % at home and only 0.3 % were recorded on public roads. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a 80 % coverage of Pap screening for women 25-59 years would be enough to impact the morbidity and mortality indicators, which can be seen after four years of implementation of the actions of detection precoce6. According to studies on the determinants of coverage of cervical cancer screening exam in Brazil, not the exam is associated with low education, low socioeconomic status, low family income, living without a partner, the brown color, the use of oral contraceptive, to shame or fear in relation to the examination, the fact that medical consultation was not held in the year preceding the survey and the difficulty of access to care médica.5 The data obtained deaths of the variable race / color show that brown women were the most affected, disagreeing with the study carried out in Rio de Janeiro (48.3 % white women) and Recife (60.5 % black women)7,9. Pernambuco shows that illiterate women and the low education were the most affected concomitantly with other studies that show that this disease is more frequent in social class women and less educated. In addition to the lower socioeconomic levels, cervical cancer of the uterus is related to smoking and nutritional factors such as vitamin A deficiency, and sexual conduct such as earliness of onset of sexual activity and promiscuidade9. As for marital status or marital status, it was observed that single women will more died when compared to married or those without partners (single, widowed and divorced) or with companions, according to studies conducted in São Paulo and Campinas8,6. In Overall, this study showed that most deaths occur in hospitals when compared to home deaths in line to study in the city of Itabuna, Bahia and Recife-PE, and in the latter authors report that 85.1 % of these deaths, 90.2 % belonged to the care network of the Unified Health System (SUS), and about 60 % in conveniadas philanthropic units7,9. Considering the advances in health, since access to services to the improvements in the treatment of cervical cancer, is still high mortality rate in the state of Pernambuco resulting from this cancer, then constituting a major problem in public health.
Keywords: Public health nursing; Mortality and Cervical Neoplasms.
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