Anti-inflammatory Activity of Saccharum Officinarum Linn (Poaceae) Juice in Animal Models

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Saccharum Officinarum Linn (Poaceae) Juice in Animal Models

Agbaje Esther Oluwatoyin, Ayinla Adebola Christina, **Ujomo Tejumade

Department Of Pharmacology, Therapeutics & Toxicology, College Of Medicine, University Of Lagos; **Department Of Pharmacology And Therapeutic, University Of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Saccharum officcinarum (SOC) juice has been used for treatment and management of several conditions including urinary tract infection, diabetes, constipation, tooth decay and bad breath according to folklore. This study was carried out to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of the juice of Saccharum officinarum in doses of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mL/kg using the following models in rats – carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, formalin-induced paw oedema, and cotton-pellet granuloma. Also employing the following models in mice – castor oil-induced diarrhea and xylene-induced ear oedema. Animals were pretreated with aspirin (100 mg/kg; p.o), cyproheptadine (10 mg/kg; p.o.), atropine (1 mg/kg p.o), dexamethasone (5 mg/kg; p.o.) and celecoxib (20 mg/kg p.o.).  Oral administration of SOC juice significantly (p<0.001) reduced the right hind paw circumference induced by carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and formalin compared to control group. Furthermore, it inhibited xylene-induced ear oedema with peak effect at 20 mL/kg, as well as castor oil-induced diarrhea and cotton pellet granuloma with peak effect at 10 mL/kg. The anti-inflammatory activities of SOC were significant (p<0.05) when compared with aspirin, cyproheptadine and dexamethasone. The study revealed the potent anti-inflammatory activities of the juice of S. officinarum.

Keywords: Saccharum officinarum, anti-inflammatory, carrageenan, aspirin, histamine, rat

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Agbaje Esther Oluwatoyin, Ayinla Adebola Christina, Ujomo Tejumade. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Saccharum Officinarum Linn (Poaceae) Juice in Animal Models.Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 2019, 3:7. DOI: 10.28933/rjpp-2019-09-2205


1. Medzhitov R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature, 2008; 454 (7203): 428-435.
2. Asnakech A, Wondmagegn T, Teshome N, Workineh S. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of 80 % Methanol extract of Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm.f.) Iwarsson leaves in Rodent Models. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018; Article ID 1614793, 8 pages.
3. Ferrero-Miliani L, Nielsen OH, Andersen PS, Girardin SE; Nielsen; Andersen; Girardin. “Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1beta generation”. Clinical Experiment on Immunology, 2007; 147 (2): 061127015327006––doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03261.x. PMC 1810472.PMID 17223962.
4. Abbas AB, Lichtman AH. “Innate Immunity”. In Functions and disorders of the immune system (3rd edition), Saunders (Elsevier). Basic Immunology. 2009; ISBN 978-1-4160-4688-2.
5. Shahbandeh, M. – Global sugar production by leading country 2018/2019; 2019.
6. Sharma MD, Rautela I, Sharma N, Gahlot M, Koshy EP, – GC-MS Analysis of phytocomponents in juice sample of indian cane:Saccharum barberi. Int. J. Pharm Sc and Res. (IJPSR) 2015; 6 (12): 5147-5153.
7. Vedavthy S, Rao KN, Rajiah M, Nagarajun N. Folklore information from Rysalasenna region, Andhra Pradesh for family planning and birth control. International Journal Pharmacognosy, 1991; 29:113–116.
8. Karthikeyan J, Simipillai SS. Sugarcane in therapeutics. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, 2010; 4: 9–14.
9. Khare CP. New York: Springer Science; Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary, 2007.
10. Zimmerman M. Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain, 1983; 16(2): 109-110.
11. Lorke, D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol, 1983; 54: 275–87.
12. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenin-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med, 1962; 111: 544 – 547.
13. Agbaje E.O, Fageyinbo M.S. Evaluating anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous root extract of Strophanthus hispidus (DC.) (Apocynaceae). International Journal Applied Research for National Production, 2010; 4: 7-14.
14. Amann R, Schuligoi R, Lanz I, Donnerer J. Histamine induced edema in the rat paw effect of capasaicin derivation and a cgrp receptor antagonist, European Journal of Pharmacology, 1995; 2: 227-231.
15. Agbaje EO, Adeneye AA, Adeleke T.I. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of a Nigerian polyherbal tonic tea (PHT) extract in rodents. African Journal Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 2008; 5(4): 399-408.
16. Awounters F, Niemegeers CJE, Lenaerts FM, Jansen PAJ. Delayed of castor oil diarrhea in rats: Anew way to evaluate inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis. J. Pharm Pharmacol, 1978; 30: 41-45.
17. Barros W.M, Rao V.S.N, Silva R.M, Lima J.C.S, Martins D.T.O. Anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract from Bowdichia virgilliodes H.B.K. Stem bark. Anais de Academia Brasileira de ciencias, 2010, 82 (3): 609-616.
18. Harbone JB, Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, 1973; 279.
19. Trease GE, Evans WC. Phttochemicals. In: Pharmacognosy, Saunders Publishers, London, 2002.
20. Jayaramu M; Prasad M; Prabhavati R.M. “Studies on Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Cissusquadrangularis”. Advance Applied Science Research, 2016; 7(4):11-17.
21. Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. The nitric oxide scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761. Biochemistry Biophysics Research Community, 1994; 201: 748-755.
22. Zuraini Z, Rais A, Yoga L, Sasidharan S, Xavier R. Antioxidant activity of Coleus Blumei, Orthosiphon stamineus, Ocimum basilicum and Mentha arvensis from Lamiaceae Family. Int. J. Nat. Eng. Sci, 2008; 2: 93-95.
23. Gador-Indra, S. and Almajano, M. Red Fruits: Extraction of Antioxidants, Phenolic content, and Radical Scavenging Determination: A review. Antioxidant (Basel), 2017; 6(1): 19.
24. Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R. Biphasic development of carrageenan oedema in rats, Journal of Pharmacological Experimental Therapeutics, 1969; 66: 96-103.
25. Crunkhon P and Meacock S. Mediators of the inflammation induced in the rat paw by carrageenan. British Journal of Pharmacology, 1971; 42: 392-402.
26. Jiang, D; Liang, J; Fan, J; Yu, S; Chen, S; Luo, Y; Prestwich, G. D.; Mascarenhas, M. M.; Garg, H. G.; Quinn, D. A.; Homer, R. J.; Goldstein, D. R.; Bucala, R; Lee, P. J.; Medzhitov, R; Noble, P. W. “Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan”. National Medicine, 2005; 11 (11): 1173–9. doi:10.1038/nm1315. PMID 16244651.
27. Di Rosa M, Ground JP, Willoughby DA. Studies of the mediators of the acute inflammatory response induced in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine. J. Pathol, 1971; 104: 15-29.
28. Kim PK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS. Anti-inflammatory plant flavonoids and cellular action mechanisms. J. Pharmacol. Sc, 2004; 96: 229-245.
29. Ahmadiani A, Hosseiny J, Semnanian S, Javan M, Saeedi F, Kamalinejad M, Saremi S. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of Elaegnus angustifolia fruit extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2000; 72: 287-292.
30. Ma, S., Zhou, S., Shu, B. and Zhou, J. Pharmacological studies on Crocus glycosides I. Effects on anti-inflammatory and immune function. Zhongcaoyao, 1998; 29: 536-539.
31. Biswas S, Das R, Banerjee ER. Role of free radicals in human inflammatory diseases. AIMS Biophysics, 2017; 4 (4): 596-614.