Antiparasitary Activity Of The Juglone Compound: A Narrative Review

Antiparasitary Activity Of The Juglone Compound: A Narrative Review

Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes1,2*, José Rafael da Silva Araújo2, Victor Hugo Barbosa dos Santos1,2, Renan Andrade Fernandes de Souza1,2, André de Lima Aires1,2, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo Albuquerque1,2

1Laboratorio de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami; 2Universidade Federal de Pernambuco;

Objective: To report, based on the literature, the action of the compound 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone against parasites (protozoa and helminths) that affect humans.

Methods: This is a narrative review that used Pubmed and Google Scholar as a data tool. This work included articles published until September 2020 that were directly related to the use of the compound juglone in antiparasitic trials.

Results: The compound juglone demonstrated promising effects as a human and animal antiparasitic substance. In protozoa, the Apicomplexo Toxoplasma gondii parasite showed a high mortality rate in concentrations of juglone in the nanomolar range. The juglone showed an average inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.62 µM, >100 µM, and 2.02 µM µM for Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei rhodesiense, and Leishmania donovani, respectively. Also, the juglone showed antihelmintic activity on Hymenolepis nana in mice, and on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni (LE strain) with IC50 34.16 µM, 32.14 µM, and 25 µM in the 24h, 48h, and 72 h, respectively.

Conclusion: The results published so far show the in vitro antiparasitic potential of juglone, and the need for further studies on the specific mode of action that interacts with parasites. Besides, the literature is still limited to studies that evaluate in vivo the compound juglone, requiring better information on its interaction with living organisms.

Keywords: natural compounds, antirapasite, pharmacology activity

Free Full-text PDF

How to cite this article:
Paulo Henrique Valença Nunes, José Rafael da Silva Araújo, Victor Hugo Barbosa dos Santos, Renan Andrade Fernandes de Souza, André de Lima Aires, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo Albuquerque.Antiparasitary Activity Of The Juglone Compound: A Narrative Review. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 2021, 5:13. DOI: 10.28933/rjpp-2021-06-1805


1. Meiga MZ, Souza JA de, Oliveira RN de, Rocha CS, Miné JC. Frequency of enteroparasites in individuals in the municipality of Ponta Grossa – PR ( 2010-2016 ). O mundo da Saúde. 2018;42(3):744–61.
2. WHO WHO. What is schistosomiasis? [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2018 Feb 27]. Available from:
3. WHO WHO. Integrating neglected tropical diseases in global health and development: Fourth WHO report on neglected tropical disease. World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. 269 p.
4. Maryon P. Strugstad & Saško Despotovski. and Potential Uses of Juglone : A Literature Review. J Ecosyst Manag. 2012;13(3):1–16.
5. Ahmad T, Suzuki YJ. Juglone in Oxidative Stress and Cell Signaling. antioxidants. 2019;8:91.
6. Kong Y, Xhang L, Yang Z, Han C, Hu L, Jiang H, et al. Natural product juglone targets three key enzymes from Helicobacter pylori : inhibition assay with crystal structure characterization 1. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2008;29(7):870–6.
7. Landa P, Kutil Z, Temml V, Vuorinen A, Malik J, Dvorakova M, et al. Redox and Non-Redox Mechanism of In Vitro Cyclooxygenase Inhibition by Natural Quinones. Planta Med. 2012;78:326–33.
8. Ahmad T, Khan T, Shah AJ. Juglone as antihypertensive agent acts through multiple vascular mechanisms. Clin Exp Hypertens [Internet]. 2019;00(00):1–10. Available from:
9. Ellendorff T, Brun R, Kaiser M, Sendker J, Schmidt TJ. PLS-Prediction and Confirmation of Hydrojuglone Glucoside as the Antitrypanosomal Constituent of Juglans Spp. Molecules. 2015;10082–94.
10. Dama L.B. and Jadhav B.V. Anthelmintic effect of Juglone on mature and Immature Hymenolepis nana in mice. Riv di Parassitol. 1997;(2):301–2.
11. L.B. D, B.N. P, B.V J, MD H. “Effect of Herbal “Juglone” on Development of the plant parasitic nematode (Meloidogyne Spp.) on Arachis hypogaea. Ecotoxicol Environ Monit. 1999;(9):73–5.
12. Akerman SE, Mu S. Peroxiredoxin-linked Detoxification of Hydroperoxides in Toxoplasma gondii *. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(1):564–70.
13. Magalhães LG, Ra GS, Soares IAO, Badocco FR, Cunha WR, Rodrigues V. Journal of Tropical Diseases Chemoprevention of Schistosomiasis : In vitro Antiparasitic Activity of Nineteen Plant-derived and Synthetic Simple Naphthoquinones and Naphthols against Schistosoma Mansoni Adult Worms. J Trop Dis. 2014;2(4).
14. Ribeiro KAL, Monteiro C, Carvalho D, Teresa M, Pereira E, López-montero E, et al. Activities of naphthoquinones against Aedes aegypti ( Linnaeus , 1762 ) ( Diptera : Culicidae ), vector of dengue and Biomphalaria glabrata ( Say , 1818 ), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Acta Trop. 2009;111:44–50.
15. Catanzaro E, Greco G, Potenza L, Calcabrini C, Fimognari C. Natural Products to Fight Cancer : A Focus on Juglans regia. Toxins (Basel). 2018;10:469.
16. Eweas AF, Allam G. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Targeting thioredoxin glutathione reductase as a potential antischistosomal drug target. Mol Biochem Parasitol [Internet]. 2018;225(October):94–102. Available from:
17. Verma RP. Anti-Cancer Activities of 1 , 4-Naphthoquinones : A QSAR Study. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006;6:489–99.
18. Kiran Aithal B, Sunil Kumar MR, Nageshwar Rao B, Udupa N, Satish Rao BS. Juglone, a naphthoquinone from walnut, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects against cultured melanoma tumor cells. Cell Biol Int [Internet]. 2009;33(10):1039–49. Available from:
19. Sajadimajd S, Yazdanparast R, Roshanzamir F. Augmentation of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells by ascorbate – tamoxifen and / or ascorbate – juglone treatments. IThe Soc Vitr Biol. 2015;
20. Wang X, Thomas B, Sachdeva R, Arterburn L, Frye L, Hatcher PG, et al. Mechanism of arylating quinone toxicity involving Michael adduct formation and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(10):3604–9.
21. Wu J, Zhang H, Xu Y, Zhang J, Zhu W, Zhang Y, et al. Juglone induces apoptosis of tumor stem-like cells through ROS-p38 pathway in glioblastoma. BMC Neurol. 2017;1–7.
22. Wang P, Gao C, Wang W, Yao L, Zhang J, Zhang S, et al. Juglone induces apoptosis and autophagy via modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;18(30206–0):S0278-6915.
23. Erisen S, Arasoğlu T, Mansuroglu B, Kocacaliskan İ, Derman S. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of juglone : a comparison of free and nano-encapsulated form. Arh Hig Toksikol. 2020;71:69–77.

Terms of Use/Privacy Policy/ Disclaimer/ Other Policies:
You agree that by using our site, you have read, understood, and agreed to be bound by all of our terms of use/privacy policy/ disclaimer/ other policies (click here for details)

CC BY 4.0
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.