Advances in Research and Reviews

  • The wood decomposition system and community diversity of fungi

    Fungi are critical agents of the global carbon cycle, however, our ability to link fungal community composition to ecosystem functioning is constrained by a limited understanding the wood decomposition rates of fungus. Here we examined the wood decomposition rate of fungus and the impact of fungal community diversity on the wood decomposing. To understand the relationship between the wood decomposition rate and the traits of fungi, we introduced 37 types of fungus into the wood decomposition system and set the growth rate and moisture tolerance of fungus as the explanatory variables. In addition, we constructed the competition, parasitic and symbiotic model based on Malthus-block growth comprehensive to analyze and predict the interactions between different fungus. The entropy weight-TOPSIS model was established to understand the biodiversity of fungus and obtain the relative dominance degree which can reflect the advantages and disadvantages of different fungus. The ARIMA model was used in five different environments to predict the impact of fungal community diversity on the overall efficiency of wood decomposing. Our research can not only help us to better understand the fungus community, but also significant for improving the quality of climate and the carbon cycle.

  • Principal optimization of semi-submersible support platform based on multi-island genetic algorithm

    Aiming at the conceptual design stage of semi-submersible support platform, the optimal primary scale scheme is designed. Latin hypercube design is adopted to sample the sample space. At the same time, SESAM software is used for parametric modeling based on sample point parameters to obtain the model of all schemes. According to the existing data of semi-submersible platforms, the main scale constraints of platforms are determined, and the mathematical model with the minimum heave, trim and roll response as the objective function is established. The multi-island genetic algorithm was used to optimize the main scale of the supporting platform model, and the scheme with the highest stability and suitable displacement was selected. The results show that the model and algorithm are feasible, and the smallest scale scheme of each response can be obtained under the constraint conditions. The multi-island genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the primary scale of the platform, which has a strong reference value for the determination of the primary scale scheme in the conceptual design stage of the platform.

  • Probiotics And Medicinal Plants In Poultry Nutrition: A Review

    The use of medicinal plants and probiotics has recently gained interest since the ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters by the European Union in 2006. They are new alternatives to bridge the gap between food safety and production. Medicinal plants are cheaper and loaded with several minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals such as: alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, phenols, tannins etc. which allows them to perform multiple biological activities. Probiotics on the other hand, repopulates the gastro intestinal tracts (GIT) with beneficial bacteria which controls the action of pathogens and control their population, thereby reducing mortality and improving general performance of an animal.

  • Predicting Traffic Congestion Time Based on Kalman Filter Algorithm

    This paper mainly solved the problem of predicting the time required for vehicles to pass through congested roads. In order to obtain more accurate prediction time, a Kalman prediction model based on multiple linear regression was established in this paper. Taking the 2008 Yanan elevated road in Shanghai as an example, the measured data in this section was collected from the traffic measured data sharing network, and the above model was used to obtain good prediction results. As an improvement, we used BP neural network instead of multiple linear regression to make the prediction result more in line with the actual situation.

  • Carcass Quality, Nutrient Retention And Caeca Microbial Population Of Broiler Chicks Administered Rolfe (Daniellia Oliveri) Leaf Extract As An Antibiotic Alternative

    The study was designed to evaluate the carcass quality, nutrient retention and caeca microbial population of broiler chicks administered Daniellia oliveri leaf extract (DOE) as an antibiotic alternative. A total of 250 – one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatments in a completely randomized design and each treatment group was further sub-divided into five replicates containing ten (10) birds each. Treatment 1 (Control) was given 1.20 g/ liter of Neomycin in water, while treatments 2, 3, 4 and 5 were given DOE at 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml and 40 ml/liter of water respectively. Clean feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 56 days. Data collected were used to determine the carcass quality, nutrient retention and caeca microbial population. Highest dressing percentage was recorded for birds in T5 (70.0%) followed by T4 (69.08 %), T3 (67.18 %), T2 (67.44 %) and T1 (65.0 %) respectively (P

  • Performance, Haematology And Serum Biochemical Parameters Of Growing Grass Cutters (Thyronoyms Swinderianus) Fed Phyllantus Amarus And Pilogstigma Thonngii Leaf Meal Mixture As Partial Replacement For Soya Bean Meal

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance, haematology and se-rum biochemical parameters of growing grasscutters (Thrynomys swinderianus) fed Phyl-lantus amarus (PAM) and Pilogstigma thonngii leaf meal (PTM) mixture as partial re-placement for soya bean meal. A total of 35 weaned grasscutters of mixed sex between 5-6 weeks with an average weight of 436.1 and 437.0 g were divided into five groups of 7 animals each and randomly assigned to 5 experimental diets each animal served as a repli-cate in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments include a control diet with no PATML, T2 (10.0% PATML), T3 (20.0 % PATML), T4 (30.0 % PATML) and T5 (40.0 % PATML) respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 12 weeks. The data obtained was used to evaluate the growth, haematological parameters (PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH , MCHC, WBC and its differentials ), serum biochemical indices (Albumin, globulin, total protein, creatinine, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, ALP, AST and ALT) and fatty acid composition. Aver-age weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced by the dietary treatments (P

  • Assessment of Football Cooperation Performance Based on Evaluation Model: a Case Study of the Everton Team

    To comprehensively measure the effect of football team cooperation, this paper established a football team performance evaluation model and takes the performance of Everton F.C. in 2017 to 2018 season as an example. We selected 12 indicators from three aspects and use hierarchical clustering to divide the performance into four levels: very successful, relatively successful, unsuccessful and very failed. Then, we evaluated the performance of the team’s changes and focus on the opponent’s strategy indicators to analyze its impact. It is found that the reason for most of the failed games is that the team is affected by the away effect, the intra-team cooperation is not dominant and the opponent’s ability is strong, resulting in low CPI scores. At the end of the season, the influence of the opponent strategy on team performance becomes stronger and stronger.

  • Conflict Resolution Among The Gumuz Communities: Mangima Institution In The Twentieth Century

    This study critically inspected the Mangima conflict resolution within Gumuz society in Metekel Zone, Bineshangul Gumuz National Regional state, Ethiopia. Mangima institution played a significant role in resolving conflicts as well as contributed to the establishment of peaceful relations within Gumuz communities in each districts of region. Gumuz are one of the indigenous peoples have settled in the region. Their conflict was instigated by the problems related to marriage, abducting girls, elopement, adultery, incest, belief in evil eye, Gäfia (Witch doctor), deliberate killings for heroism, competitions over the use of land resources, insults and failure to pay back debts. The Gumuz inhabited areas of Metekel was purposively selected for this study. The data was collected using key informants interview and focus group discussion. Gumuz elders and local leaders that appointed during the regime were independently interviewed and focus group discussions attended by five groups through 20 peoples in each group on the issues of conflict generating practices and the role Mangima conflict resolution within Gumuz communities. The sources are critically collected, examined and then analyzed. The legitimacies of the sources are cross-checked one against the other.

  • Albizia Lebbeck Stem Bark Aqueous Extract As Alternative To Antibiotic Feed Additives In Broiler Chicks Diets: Haematology, Serum Indices And Oxidative Status

    A total of Three hundred and seventy five (375) one day old (Ross 308) broiler chicks with mixed sex were used to examine the effects of Albizia lebbeck stem bark (ATSM) aqueous extract as alternative to antibiotic feed additives in broiler chicks diets: haematology, serum biochemical indices and oxidative status. Birds were divided to five treatments with five replicates of fifteen (15) birds in a completely randomized design. Treatment 1 (basal diet + 0 % ATSM), treatment 2 (basal diet +1.2 grams Oxytetracycline per litre of water), treatment 3 (basal diet + 10 ml ATSM per liter of water), treatment 4 (basal diet + 20 ml ATSM per litre of water) and treatment 5 (basal diet + 30 ml ATSM per liter of water) and the trial lasted for 56 days. Results on some haematological parameters revealed that red blood cell (RBC), pack cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differentials were significantly ((P


    The objective of the present study was to investigate the performance, haematology and serum biochemical parameters of rabbits fed different levels of fermented Lagenaria brevlifora extract (LBE). A total of fifty (50) weaner rabbits aged 9-10 weeks with an aver-age weight of 405 ± 1.8 were allotted to five treatments with 5 replicates of two rabbit per replicate in a CRD. Treatment 1 was fed 0 ml LBE while 2, 3, 4 and 5 were fed LBE at 20ml, 40ml, 60ml and 80 ml per liter of water respectively and the experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The data obtained was used to evaluate the growth, haematological parameters (PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV, MCH , MCHC, WBC and its differentials ), serum biochemical indi-ces (Albumin, globulin, total protein, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, ALP, AST and ALT). Result obtained revealed that there was a significant differences (P