International Journal of Stem Cell Research

  • Biomedical Applications of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which are efficiently produced from somatic cells by the introduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) in fibroblasts could circumvent the restrictions of multipotent stem cells that obligated to differentiate into only several lineage cells and also, the ethical argument about ESCs that causes oocytes and embryo destruction . In addition, iPSCs are powerful tools applicable in biomedicine, cell therapy, pharmacology and toxicology. Therefore, the use of iPSCs in stem cell therapy has immense prospects and offer remarkable applications in regenerative medicine.This review aimed to summarize the most recent findings on iPSCs and focus on their biomedical applications.

  • The Advances in the Use of Stem Cells in Dentistry

    Stem cells can be used in several areas including dentistry for the formation and regeneration of tissues in the oral cavity. Dental pulp stem cells are able to differentiate into several types, such as fibroblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and odontoblasts. They have great potential for repairing and renewing bone tissues, dentin and dental fixation elements. The reason to use them is becasue they have the ability to differentiate into several cell types according to the stimulus received. Although they have not routinely applied in the clinic, the use may represent a major advance for dentistry, which may help the structural restoration of dental tissues. This study aims to review the literature on the use of stem cells and clarify the potential use of these cells in dentistry. A review of the literature was performed in the virtual libraries VHL and SCIELO with the keywords of “Cells Tronco”; “Dentistry”; “Bioengineering”. Following inclusion criteria, articles published from 2012 were established in the Portuguese and Spanish languages that relate the use of stem cells to dentistry. The search resulted in 55 related articles,but six articles met the inclusion criteria. It has been found that stomatognathic system is one of the richest sources of adult stem cells . There are many possibilities in using stem cell techniques in Dentistry, from the use of stem cells in dental losses due to periodontal diseases or cavities to prevent bone resorption. In studies, the mesenchymal stem cells mediated osteogenesis from two to 14 weeks post graft, reflecting the positive result of this application.The use of stem cells in regeneration of pulp in treatment of emptied channels induced the space of root canal to be refilled with pulp tissue. However, it has not yet been possible to guarantee adequate blood supply after pulp removal. The use of stem cells…

  • Stem Cells in Future Dentistry: Possibility Or Utopia?

    Teeth are organs that perform functions ranging from chewing, support and protection of soft tissues to help in the articulation of words and also an important factor in facial aesthetics. The dental support tissues include dental alveolus, periodontal ligament, cementum and gingiva, which protect and fix the teeth in the alveolar bone. When the teeth or any of supporting tissues were damaged, current techniques used to recover them in dental practice still fail to qualitatively and quantitatively restore all the lost structures. In this scenario, studies suggested that stem cells may stimulate these cells to differentiate in periodontal structures and even the formation of a biodent. A field of science that promotes studies with stem cells is tissue engineering with the objective of studying the possibility of functional and physiological restoration of damaged or lost tissues based on Engineering, Biology and Clinical Sciences.The interest of bioengineering in making dental structures is precisely the advantage of being accessible and not fundamental to life. Regardless of the technique used, three elements are essential in tissue engineering: stem cells, an extracellular matrix for transport of nutrients, oxygen and metabolite residues, and growth factors for coordinating dental morphogenesis. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the importance of stem cells in the development of Dentistry. Eleven articles both in Portuguese and English were slected with the search terms included: Dentistry, cells and Tissue Engineering.The articles suggested that it may be possible to perform in the clinic treatments of tissue and dental regeneration, from osteointegration in the implantology to correction of external cranial defects, in the future dentistry. Based on the articles published, further studies using stem cells for the purpose of application in Dentistry will be necessary. The results have shown to be positive and it is very likely…

  • Non-hodgkings Lymphoma

    Lymphoma is the general term for cancers that develop in the lymphatic system. Lymphoma originates in developing lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells), which have undergone a malignant change. They multiply without any proper order, forming tumours, which are collections of cancer cells. These tumours cause swelling in the lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Over time, malignant lymphocytes (called lymphoma cells) crowd out normal lymphocytes and eventually the immune system becomes weakened and can no longer function properly. This lymphoma affects the lymph nodes first, and could also affect other lymphoid organs like spleen and bone marrow. The Non-Hodgkins lymphoma can be classified into 2, depending on how fast or slow these tumors grow within the body namely; Aggressive non-hodgkins lymphoma and Indolent non¬ hodgkins lymphoma. Non-hodgkins lymphoma can also be classified based on the type of cells they emanate from namely; B-cells lymphoma and T-cells lymphoma. B-cell lymphoma are lymphomas that arise from developing B-cells, while T-cell lymphoma are lymphomas that arise from T -cells. The causes of non-hodgkins lymphoma includes infection like the Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients from specific geographic regions, exposure to certain chemicals ingredients in herbicides and pesticides such as organochlorine and phenoxy acid can lead to lymphoma and also immunosuppression. The extent to which the lymphoma has spread in body is called the stage of the disease. In stages 1 and 2, lymphoma is limited to one or two areas of the body (early stage). In stages 3 and 4, the disease is more widespread in the body (advanced stage). It’s signs and symptoms includes; enlarged lymph node in the neck, fever, excessive sweating, unexplained fatigue, loss of appetite or weight loss. Non-hodgkins lymphoma are usually diagnosed by examining a lymph node biopsy specimen under a microscope using either core biopsy or surgical…

  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Obsag) In Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic At The General Hospital, Amaku, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HBsAg among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at General Hospital in Agba, Ekwulobia, Anambra State. Two hundred pregnant women who consented voluntarily after thorough explanation of the purpose of the study were recruited for this study. The samples were tested for the presence of antibodies using rapid Dia Spot HBsAg rapid test strip developed by Dia Spot Diagnostics, USA and ClinotechHBsAg (Clinotech diagnostics, Richmond, Canada). Analysis of the result showed that 23 (11.5%) of the pregnant women had HBsAg. Statistical analysis, however, showed no significant difference between the prevalence and the age of patients, parity, trimester and type of family. The frequency of HBY carriers did not vary significantly with the Use of condoms and contraceptives. However, there was a significant frequency variation in the distribution of HBsAg between those that have previous history of transfusion, operation, circumcision and those who never had history of operation, transfusion or circumcision Therefore, the need to institute public health measures to reduce disease burden and transmission, including routine screening of all pregnant mothers for HBV infection and early passive-active immunization of babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers are advocated.

  • Umbilical Cord and Placentary Blood Storage for the Treatment of Blood Diseases in Brazil: the Third Bone Marrow Donor Facing New Technologies

    Contemporary medicine has had several advances when it comes to treating diseases such as leukemia. One of these innovations was the use of human stem cells, through bone marrow transplantation, because these cells have the capacity to originate new cells when stimulated. Currently, the use of hematopoietic stem cells is performed in the treatment of more than 80 blood diseases and is the most efficient method, of which we have access, in the highlighted scenario. However, there are still several obstacles to the use of bone marrow cells, given the difficulty of compatibility between the donor and the recipient of the transplant. Due to such impediment, it was then observed that umbilical cord and placenta blood have transplantable cells, albeit in limited numbers, but are more likely to be compatible with the patient that will be receiving such cells. The present study aimed to analyze the Brazilian situation regarding the collection, processing, storage and use of this type of blood, as well as to investigate, from public access data about health, the difficulties for its greater use in the treatment of blood diseases.

  • Evaluation of Effects Baccharis Dracunculifolia (Green Propolis) in Embryonic Development

    Propolis is a resinous substance made by bees from various plant fragments. Bees add salivary enzymes to their composition and this partially digested material is mixed with wax and used to make the beehive (MARCUCCI, 1995; BANKOVA et al., 2000). She may exhibit varied coloration, such as dark brown, greenish tones and reddish brown. A recently discovered type in Brazil is the red propolis, originating from the mangrove plant, Dalbergia ecastophyllum (SILVA et al., 2008). However, the one that has gained international prominence is the one produced from the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), the green propolis (MARCUCCI, BANKOVA, 1999). Although many studies have been carried out to evaluate the characteristics of several propolis samples, none of them confirmed or allowed any relationship between the chemical composition of propolis and its therapeutic efficacy (BANKOVA, 2005a). Due to the importance of the biological properties of green propolis, in addition to its wide use. This study aimed to add existing data on the use of propolis during pregnancy, especially warning about the possible risks of using green propolis (Baccharis dracunculifolia) during this period.