Ophthalmic Research and Reviews

  • OPTICAL NEUROPATHY: ANTIGLAUCOMATOUS TREATMENTS OFFERED BY THE UNIQUE HEALTH SYSTEM IN BRAZIL, AN ANALYSIS OF THE LAST DECADE

    Introduction: Optical neuropathy with progressive loss of visual field, glaucoma represents the main cause of irreversible blindness. Objectives: To analyze the frequency of antiglaucomatous procedures performed by the Unified Health System (SUS), in the last 10 years, requiring hospitalization and outpatient care. Methods: This is a cross-sectional quantitative retrospective study, carried out through consultations and data analysis of antiglaucomatous procedures in the DATASUS system, between January 2010 and December 2019. Results: In Brazil, trabeculectomy was the most performed procedure in the last 10 years. Outpatient care had an average of 10,661 per year, on the other hand, the need for hospitalization increased by 70%. The second procedure that generated the most hospitalizations was the implantation of an anti-glaucomatous prosthesis, which doubled in the corresponding period. Cyclodialysis was the least used procedure in the 10 years of analysis, both on an outpatient and hospital basis, and is reserved for the final stages of glaucoma. Surgical iridectomy, used for acute treatment, showed a reduction, in 2019 it represented less than a third compared to 2010. As for outpatient procedures using lasers, such as phototrabeculoplasty and iridotomy, they showed significant growth. Conclusion: Trabeculectomy is considered the gold standard, justifying its greater frequency, both on an outpatient and hospital basis. Procedures using laser are expanding, trabeculoplasty as an alternative to primary therapy, and iridotomy for greater safety in acute treatment. As the population ages, glaucoma tends to be increasingly prevalent, contributing to the progressive increase in trabeculectomies.

  • OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, mandatory intracellular protozoan. It’s estimated that one third of the world population is infected with the parasite, a fact that makes it one of the most infectious parasites. Although 80-90% of the immunocompetent infected are asymptomatic, the disease stands out for being one of the main causes of retinochoroiditis, especially among the immunosuppressed. Case report: Patient, 17 years old, white, female, previously healthy, comes to primary care due to a counter-referral with ophthalmology. Patient presented low visual acuity for 6 months, being diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis. Standard treatment was started: sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, folinic acid and oral prednisolone for 6 weeks. Serum antitoxoplasma titers were obtained indicating previous infection: positive IgG and negative IgM. A patient will face another treatment cycle, as the condition doesn’t improve, which includes high doses of systemic corticosteroids. The physical examination showed no changes. The ophthalmologist requested periodic control of patient’s blood pressure and glucose, extending the treatment. Conclusion: In immunocompetent individuals, ocular toxoplasmosis is a consequence of reactivation of a scar that contained a previously inactive cyst, only a minority comes from a new infection. It’s considered the most common cause of posterior uveitis, emphasizing the importance of this report. Ocular reactivation occurs due to a decrease in specific immunity and the peak incidence is at 29 years old. Young patients with ocular toxoplasmosis have higher risk of recurrence when compared to elderly. Antitoxoplasma serology isn’t necessary for treatment, which must be started as clinical diagnosis is established.

  • TO CALCULATE THE BMI AND MEASURE THE AC OF A POPULATION OF A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS

    Introduction: Healthy Eating has been one of the guidelines of the Ministry of Health since 2014. Important indicators of the risks for chronic-degenerative diseases are Body Mass Index (BMI) and Abdominal Waist (CA) measurement. Objectives: To calculate the BMI and measure the AC of a population of a university campus. Methodology: Quantitative and descriptive research. Sample of convenience of 34 individuals in the campus of the Catholic University of Pernambuco in the activities of the Module Teaching, Service and Community II. Results and Discussion: 1st Social function and BMI: Students (Normal: 57%). Teacher (Normal: 50% and Overweight: 50%). Employees (Normal: 43% and Obesity: 43%). 2nd Social function and CA: Professor (Risk: 50%) Employees (Risk: 70%). Age and BMI: 31 to 40 years (Normal: 50% and Overweight: 50%). 41 to 50 years old (Overweight: 50%). 51 to 60 years old (Obesity: 52%) 4th Age and CA: 31 to 40 years old (Risk: 50%). 41 to 50 years (Risk: 75% and No Risk: 25%). 51 to 60 years (Risk: 60%). > 60 years (Risk: 67%). Increased risk between older ages and roles of teachers and staff. Conclusion: There is a need for Health Education orienting subjects in terms of changes in lifestyle habits.

  • NURSING ASSISTANCE TO THE PATIENT IN THE PERIOPERATORY PERIOD OF GENERAL SURGERY: AN INTEGRATING REVIEW

    In the perioperative period the role of the nurse is to guide the patient and prepare him for the procedure, raise problems and needs, provide information. Objective: To verify in the literature the performance of nursing in a surgical center during the perioperative period of general surgery. Method: This is an integrative review, referring to the scientific production in the area of nursing in a surgical center (CC), in order to summarize the studies already published in national journals in the years 2011 to 2016, indexed in databases: (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO), the articles included were in Portuguese (Brazil) and with full texts, available for access on -line. Results: Of the 161 articles found, 139 were excluded, respecting the exclusion criteria mentioned above. Of these 22 articles found in the indexed, only 9 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles dealt with the experience of nurses and their staff in providing the best quality care possible. This study addresses the quantitative of articles researched concerning the role of the nurse before, during and after general surgery procedure, ie, showing the nursing performance. Conclusion: Nursing performance in the preparation of the patient in the perioperative of general surgery is fundamental for a quality assistance.

  • DETECT AND PARTIALLY PURIFY TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM (INDIAN CHESTNUT) SEEDS

    Introduction: Plants have several mechanisms of defense against phytopathogens, being one of them formation of defense proteins, such as protease inhibitors. Objectives: The objective of this work was to detect and partially purify trypsin inhibitor from Aesculus hippocastanum (Indian chestnut) seeds. Methodology: The A. hippocastanum seed powder was submitted to saline extraction in 0.15 M NaCl (10% w/v). The extract was evaluated for trypsin inhibitor activity and protein concentration and to chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex column equilibrated with 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.0 and eluted with the same buffer containing 1.0 M NaCl. The obtained peaks were dialyzed and evaluated for trypsin inhibitory activity. Results and Discussion: Saline extract (4 mg/mL of protein) showed a specific trypsin inhibitory activity (STIA) of 149.57 U/mg. The pool of proteins adsorbed on DEAE-Sephadex matrix showed high STIA (1280.31 U/mg), corresponding to a purification factor of 8.5. Conclusion: Seeds of A. hippocastanum possess a trypsin inhibitor that was partially purified by ion exchange chromatography.

  • THE MAIN TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER SYMPTOMS

    Introduction: Chikungunya fever is a disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and is transmitted by arthropod bites, mainly by the species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It became an epidemic in 2005, reaching, afterwards, America, including Brazil, with intense consequences for its population. Its spectrum of manifestation includes three phases: acute, subacute and chronic, in addition to some reports of atypical cases. Little is known about its pathophysiology, fact that turns it into an area of extreme research. Objectives: Carry out a literature review about the main treatment options for patients with chronic Chikungunya fever symptoms. Methodology: A literature review was carried out covering articles from the last 10 years (2007 to 2017), selected through a search in the PUBMED database, using the descriptor “Febre Chinkungunya”. Results and Conclusion: Regarding the treatment, it was seen that there is still no specific drug, despite the studies, using purely symptomatic drugs, with increasing doses based on the clinical phase presented.

  • EVALUATION OF THE VISUAL FUNCTION OF PATIENTS IN TREATMENT FOR HANSENÍASE

    Introduction: Leprosy is a long-term infectious and contagious dermatoneurological disease whose etiologic agent is Mycobacterium leprae and manifests itself in the skin and peripheral nerves. This pathology can trigger serious eye complications by altering visual functional performance, impairing visual acuity through retinal lesions triggering blindness. Objective: of this study was to evaluate visual psychophysical performance in leprosy patients with normal or near normal visual acuity. Methodology: The Farnsworth – Munsell 100 Hue multi – paucibacillary test of thirty – one patients with leprosy (59 eyes), 19 men and 40 women, with a mean age of 31.28 ± 10 , 2 years of age, were compared to the control group composed of twenty-eight participants (56 eyes), 20 men and 36 women, with a mean age of 46.29 ± 11.81. Patient data were compared with the confidence interval and tolerance established by the controls. The Agostino-Pearson test and one-way ANOVA were applied in the statistical analyzes. Results and Discussion: Showed that there was statistical difference in Farnsworth – Munsell test between patients and controls. Patients presented higher number of errors than controls (p