Research article of Global Journal of Energy and Environment
Experimental Study on Natural and Force Convection Hybrid Active Greenhouse Solar Drying of Mushroom
Anand Kushwah*, M.K.Gaur , Puspendra Singh, Vikas Thakur
Mechanical Engineering Department, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior, (M.P.)
This manuscript deals with drying of food to avoid losses between accumulation and consumption of edible material (food), as higher moisture content is one of the reasons for its spoilage during the storage period at time of accumulation (harvesting) .High moisture content in crops leads to fungus infection, attacked by insects, pests and the increased respiration of agriculture produce, which further all threat to food productivity and food security. In order to ensure this concern Solar drying of Mushroom is conducted to investigate the performance of the hybrid active greenhouse for drying mushroom and also study the drying behavior of mushroom (Pleurotus Florida) in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db). The green house consists of a transparent UV stabilized plastic covered and wire & tube type heat exchanger and drying chamber unit. Various experiments are conducted during the course of winter season, in months November and December 2017 and also January 2018 at Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior campus (26ᵒ.2183N and 78ᵒ.1828E), India. Experimental set up is situated on the open floor to have a good exposure to the solar radiation. Experimental data are used to calculate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. The products (mushroom) to be dried are placed on a single layer wire mesh in the drying chamber to receive energy from hot water obtained from the evacuated tube solar collector (ETSC) and the incident solar radiation on products. During the experimental procedure minimum and maximum solar radiations are 243 W/m² and 925 W/m² respectively. The generated voltages for the 40 W solar modules are 4.5. V to 14.8 V and temperatures in the drying chamber varied from 37.0°C to 72.5° C. Moisture content of mushrooms are decreasing from about 89.41% to 5.94% in 5 hours. In the same time the moisture content of mushrooms reduced from 89.41% to15% in the traditional sun drying method also called OSD. In addition, the Mushroom being dried in the hybrid active greenhouse solar drier are fully protected from rain, insects and dust, and the dried mushrooms are great quality dried products terms of flavor, color and texture. As the fans are powered by a solar module, the drier could be used in rural areas where there is no supply of electricity from grid.
Keywords: Indirect solar dryer; mushroom drying; natural convection drying; convective heat transfer coefficient; moisture removing rate.
How to cite this article:
nand Kushwah, M.K.Gaur , Puspendra Singh, Vikas Thakur. Experimental Study on Natural and Force Convection Hybrid Active Greenhouse Solar Drying of Mushroom. Global Journal of Energy and Environment, 2020,2:11. DOI:10.28933/gjee-2019-11-2606
1. Akpinar E. Kavak (2010). Drying of mint leaves in a solar dryer and under open sun: Modelling, performance analyses. Energy conversion and management, 51(12), 2407-2418.
2. Alakali J. and Satimehin, A. A., (2005). Drying kinetics of ginger. Nigerian Food Journal, 22 (1), 105-111.
3. Ayyappan S. and Mayilsamy K., (2010).Experimental investigation on a solar tunnel drier for copra drying, Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 69(8), 635-638.
4. Ayyappan, S. and Mayilsamy K., (2012). Solar tunnel drier with thermal storage for drying of copra. International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, 8(1), 3-13.
5. Bala B., Morshed M. and Rahman M., (2009). Solar drying of mushroom using solar tunnel dryer, Proceedings of the International Solar Food Processing Conference, 1-11.
6. Basunia M. and Abe T., (2001). Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of rough rice under natural convection. Journal of Food Engineering, 47(4), 295-301
7. Loha C, Das R, Choudhury B, (2012).”Evaluation of air drying characteristics of sliced ginger (Zingier officinal) in a forced convective cabinet dryer and thermalconductivity measurement”, Journal of Food Processing & Technology,3:160
8. EL-Mesery Hany. S. and Mwithiga G., (2012). The drying of onion slices in two types of hot-air convective dryers. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(30), 4284-4296
9. Ezekoye B. and Enebe O., (2006). Development and performance evaluation of modified integrated passive solar grain dryer. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 7, 2185-190
10. Fadhel A., Kooli S., Farhat A and Bellghith A., (2005). Study of the solar drying of grapes by three different processes, Desalination, 185(1), 535-541.
11. Fudholi A., Sopian K., Ruslan M., Alghoul M. and Sulaiman M., (2010). Review of solar dryers for agricultural and marine products. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.14, No. 1, 1-30
12. Gatea.A., (2011). Performance evaluation of mixed-mode solar dryer evaporating moisture in beans. Journal of Agriculture Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, 3(4), 65-71.
13. Gürlek G., Özbalta N and GüngöA.,(2009). Solar tunnel drying characteristics and mathematical modeling of tomato, Journal of Thermal Science &Technology, 29(1)
14. Hossain M. and Bala B., (2007). Drying of hot chili using solar tunnel drier. Solar Energy, 81(1) 85-92.
15. Jain, D &Tiwari, G. (2004). Effect of greenhouse on crop drying under natural and forced convection I: Evaluation of convective mass transfer coefficient. Energy Conversion and Management – ENERG CONV MANAGE, 45, 765-783.
16. Koua, K., Gbaha, P., Koffi, E., Fassinou, W., &Toure, S. (2011). Modelling of Thermal Behaviour of a Direct Solar Drier Possessing a Chimney: Application to the Drying of Cassava. Indian Journal Of Science And Technology, 4(12), 1609-1618.
17. Lahsasni S., Kouhila M., Mahrouz M., Mohamed L. and Agorram B., (2004). Characteristic drying curve and mathematical modeling of thin‐layer solar drying of prickly pear cladode (opuntiaficusindica). Journal of Food Process Engineering, 27(2), 103-117
18. Lamnatou C., Papanicolaou E., Belessiotis V. and KyriakisN.,(2012).Experimental investigation and thermodynamic performance analysis of a solar dryer using an evacuated-tube air collector. Applied Energy, 94, 232-243.
19. Mahesh, A., Sooriamoorthi, C. E., &Kumaraguru, A. K. (2012). Performance study of solar vacuum tubes type dryer. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 4(6), 063121.
20. Medugu D. W. (2010) Performance study of two designs of solar dryers, Archives of Applied Science Research, 2 (2),136-148.
21. Mohanraj, M., &Chandrasekar, P. (2009). Performance of a forced convection solar drier integrated with gravel as heat storage material for chili drying. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 4(3), 305-314.
22. Mohanraj, M., & Chandrasekar, P. (2009). Performance of a solar drier with and without heat storage material for copra drying. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 31(2), 112-121.
23. Nahar, N. (2009). Processing of vegetables in a solar dryer in arid areas. In International Solar Food Processing Conference.
24. Parikh, D., and Agrawal, G. D. (2012). Solar drying in hot and dry climate of Jaipur. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), 1(4), 224-231.
25. Pangavhane, D. R., Sawhney, R. L., &Sarsavadia, P. N. (1999). Effect of various dipping pretreatment on drying kinetics of Thompson seedless grapes. Journal of Food Engineering, 39(2), 211-216.
26. Rajeshwari N and Ramalingam A., (2012). Low cost material used to construct Effective box type solar dryer. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4(3)
27. Saravanakumar, P. and Mayilsamy, K., (2010). Forced convection flat plate solar air heaters with and without thermal storage. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 69(12), 966-968
28. Singh, S. P., Jairaj, K. S., &Srikant, K. (2009). The development of solar dryers used for grape drying. Solar Energy, 83(9).
29. Tiwari, G. N., Kumar, S., &Prakash, O. (2004). Evaluation of convective mass transfer coefficient during drying of jaggery. Journal of Food Engineering, 63(2), 219-227.
30. Sundari, A. U., Neelamegam, P., & Subramanian, C. (2013). Study and analysis of drying characteristics of ginger using solar drier with evacuated tube collectors. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4(3), 1258-1267.
31. Wakjira, M. (2010). Solar drying of fruits and windows of opportunities in Ethiopia. African journal of food science, 4(13), 790-802.
32. Wiriyaumpaiwong, S., &Jamradloedluk, J. (2012). Forced convection solar drying: experimental investigation and mathematical modeling of pork strips. Engineering and Applied Science Research, 34(2), 243-250.
33. Yadav, A., &Bajpai, V. K. (2011). An experimental study on evacuated tube solar collector for heating of air in India. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 79(2011), 81-86.
34. Zomorodian, A., &Dadashzadeh, M. (2009). Indirect and mixed mode solar drying mathematical models for sultana grape. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 11.
This work and its PDF file(s) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.