Global Journal of Energy and Environment

  • Urban Air Pollution- An emerging concern

    Air pollution in cities and urban sectors are increasing significantly on a time scale at global level. This alarming fact is substantiated with its gravity in the sense that more than 80% of people living in urban areas are exposed to air quality levels that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) limits. The situation world over is more critical to populations in low – income cities which are most impacted. According to the urban air quality database, 98% of cities in low – and middle income countries with more than 100 000 inhabitants do not meet WHO air quality guidelines. However, the cities in high – income countries this percentage decreases to 56%. The WHO reveals the fact that around 3000 cities in 103 countries have started measuring air pollution levels and recognizing the associated health impacts. With declines of urban air quality, the risk of stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma, increases for the people who live in these cities. An effort has therefore been made by the authors in this paper to explain briefly some of the relevant factors responsible for urban air pollution such as heat island effect, albedo effect, urban planning with environmental inputs, climate change, urban environment policy parameters, sustainable urban transport, environmental sustainability etc. These issues need to be addressed globally on high scientific scale for effective reduction of urban air pollution.

  • Hybrid Voltage Multiplier for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits

    Paper describes the design of an improved voltage multiplier for Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting circuits using a generic doubler circuit and the Dickson’s charge pump, all these utilize the BAT63-02V Schottky diode. The design is based on using four narrow band antennas operating at 800MHz, 1800MHz 2100MHz and 2400MHz, the designs and simulations are performed by Keysight’s ADS 2019 simulation software, the outputs observed show improved voltage levels that can be used to operate ultra-low powered devices such as sensor nodes and remotes.

  • Environmental Pollution- An Introduction

    Pollution is defined as introduction of harmful components into the environment and those harmful components are called pollutants. They can be natural, for example, volcanic ash, decomposition of organisms etc. or can also be created by human activity, such as dumping of waste, effluent produced by factories or emissions generated from factories, vehicles etc. They can damage the quality of air, water, and land.Many things that are useful to people produce pollution like burning coal to production of electricity pollutes the air. Industries and homes generate garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water. Pesticides—chemical poisons used to kill weeds and insects—seep into waterways and harm wildlife.Reducing pollution requires environmental, political, and economic leadership. Developed nations must work to reduce and recycle their materials, while developing nations must work to strengthen their economies without destroying the environment. Developed and developing countries must work together toward the common goal of protecting the environment for future use. An effort has been made by the authors of the present paper to briefly highlight environmental pollution and its emergence.

  • Experimental Study on Natural and Force Convection Hybrid Active Greenhouse Solar Drying of Mushroom

    This manuscript deals with drying of food to avoid losses between accumulation and consumption of edible material (food), as higher moisture content is one of the reasons for its spoilage during the storage period at time of accumulation (harvesting) .High moisture content in crops leads to fungus infection, attacked by insects, pests and the increased respiration of agriculture produce, which further all threat to food productivity and food security. In order to ensure this concern Solar drying of Mushroom is conducted to investigate the performance of the hybrid active greenhouse for drying mushroom and also study the drying behavior of mushroom (Pleurotus Florida) in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db). The green house consists of a transparent UV stabilized plastic covered and wire & tube type heat exchanger and drying chamber unit. Various experiments are conducted during the course of winter season, in months November and December 2017 and also January 2018 at Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior campus (26ᵒ.2183N and 78ᵒ.1828E), India. Experimental set up is situated on the open floor to have a good exposure to the solar radiation. Experimental data are used to calculate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. The products (mushroom) to be dried are placed on a single layer wire mesh in the drying chamber to receive energy from hot water obtained from the evacuated tube solar collector (ETSC) and the incident solar radiation on products. During the experimental procedure minimum and maximum solar radiations are 243 W/m² and 925 W/m² respectively. The generated voltages for the 40 W solar modules are 4.5. V to 14.8 V and temperatures in the drying chamber varied from 37.0°C to 72.5° C. Moisture content of mushrooms are decreasing from about 89.41% to 5.94% in 5 hours….

  • Garbage Classification Based on Fuzzy Mathematical Model

    China is the world’s largest garbage importer, importing more than half of the global trade volume of garbage every year. By the end of 2019, “foreign garbage” was banned from entering the country, which led to the global attention to garbage treatment and classification. This paper studies the impact of foreign waste ban on China’s economy and environment and the problem of waste classification. By using the mechanism modeling method, a solid waste recycling and degradation model is established to analyze the impact of foreign waste ban on China’s economy and environment. Finally, it comes to the conclusion that the foreign waste ban slightly hinders the development of China’s economy and reduces waste to a certain extent Rubbish’s damage to our environment. In addition, the fuzzy mathematical model is established by using the fuzzy clustering analysis method to calculate the membership degree of the given garbage on all kinds of garbage and finally determine the types of garbage.

  • Emission control of pollutants in waste incineration power generation process

    The waste incineration power generation is not only an effective measure to deal with the urban domestic garbage, but also can realize the supplement of the urban electric energy resources. Because of the complexity and diversification of the municipal solid waste in our country, there are different and complex chemical reactions in the waste incineration process. The reaction itself has a direct hazard to the human body and the environment, especially the highly toxic dioxins, which is a key factor to hinder the development of the waste incineration power generation technology. In order to better improve the comprehensive benefit of the waste incineration power generation, this paper briefly analyzes the emission control of the pollutants in the waste incineration power generation process, and hopes to provide theoretical help to the relevant workers.

  • Essay on Sustainable Development of Ethiopia in Relation to Environmental Policy

    In the developing countries like Ethiopia most of the environmental problems are caused by underdevelopment. Millions continue to live far below the minimum levels required for a decent human existence, deprived of adequate food and clothing, shelter and education, health direct their efforts to development, bearing in mind their priorities and the need to safeguard and improve the environment. For the same purpose, the industrialized countries should make efforts to reduce the gap themselves and the developing countries, environmental problems are generally related to industrialization and technological development (Yared, 2017:17).

  • Power Planning

    This paper calculates the existing system reliability index and typical daily optimal load distribution, studies the optimization problem of the generator unit’s investment plan in the next ten years, and uses the minimum cost of the investment plan to establish a multi-objective planning model. Combined with the artificial bee colony algorithm. It also discusses the impact of a large number of renewable energy power generation access power systems on traditional power system planning, and proposes an experimental model to solve this problem. Based on the system enumeration method of fault enumeration, enumerate all possible states of the system at each moment, consider the total cost of the system, increase the load demand constraint on the basis, and obtain the probability of occurrence of low-order faults. LOLP, EENS and power outage fees. After the above analysis, after the fault order reaches 5th order, the LOLP of the system is negligible, so the power loss cost is considered to be 4th order. Using the minimum total cost as the objective function, the artificial bee colony algorithm is used to find the optimal solution. The uncertainty of the output of renewable energy in the power system greatly increases the risk of operation scheduling, does not guarantee the quality of power, and is currently economically poor. In view of the difficulties caused by the system components in solving nonlinear constrained power supply planning, an experimental model is also established.

  • Assessment heavy metal ions and toxic metal ions in ground water

    The present study was carried out to determine various physico-chemical parameters and water quality index of the Patancheru in Medak District of Telangana state to examine the quality of water for public consumption, recreation and other purposes. This study deals with the influence of environmental factors as well as domestic activities in the water quality in the related area.

  • DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Twenty two Medicinal Species From South Algeria (Laghouat region)

    Free radicals scavenging Activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of Twenty two ethanolic extracts, from the botanical families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Ericaceae and Rhamnaceae, collected from the Laghouat region (Algeria Sahara) were investigated. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity of the plant extracts, while the Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content and flavonoids using AlCl3 method . The antioxidant capacity expressed as IC50 values ranged from 20 µg/ml for O. basilicum to 650 ± 8.60 µg/ml for A. iva. The total phenolic content ranged from 2.72 to 87.11 mg/g of dry weight of extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The total flavonoid concentrations varied from 1.48 to 12.59 mg/g, expressed as rutin equivalents. The results of this study showed that there is no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and phenolic content of the studied plant materials and phenolic content could not be a good indicator of antioxidant capacity.