International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Epilepsy in Childhood: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study from Sudan

Research Article of International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Epilepsy in Childhood: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study from Sudan Mohamed Osman Omer Dablouk1, Amin Alagib Mohamed Musa1, Ahlam Abdulrahman Hamed2, Rabih Brair Rabih1, Khalid Awad Mohamed3*, Mamoun Mohamed Ali Homeida1 1University of Medical Science and Technology. 2University of Khartoum. 3Weil Cornel Medicine QA. Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting around 1% of children.  The incidence in Sudan is likely to be higher given the high rate of genetic disorders related to consanguity and acquired disorders caused by CNS infection and birth injury. Epilepsy can be idiopathic or non-idiopathic, symptomatic epilepsy indicates a known cause while cryptogenic epilepsy implies a presumed unknown cause. Objective: To understand the demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy in children in the setting of a tertiary epilepsy clinic in Khartoum, Sudan. Methods: This is a hospital-based cross sectional study recruiting patients with epilepsy attending a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic. All patients attending the clinic in the 6 month period were included. Data was collected by medical students and was analyzed on IBM SPSS Version 20.0 in a descriptive fashion. Results: 284 Children were recruited. The mean age for children with epilepsy was 5.74 (range 0-12 Years). Females constituted 59.9%; while 94.7% of patients were of low socioeconomic status. The most common type of seizures found were generalized tonic clinic at 51.8% (147/284), followed by focal seizures at 21.1% (60/284).  71% of our patients (201/284) had no identifiable cause (idiopathic), while 29% were non-idiopathic. Of the non-idiopathic group; 41% were due to congenital anomalies, followed by HIE at 24.1%, infections at 16.9% trauma at 10.8% and tumors at 7.2%. Only 18.3% (52/284) had a positive family history of epilepsy. Conclusions: There appears to be a higher incidence of epilepsy ...

Association Between Alzheimers Disease and Obesity

Review Article of International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease Association Between Alzheimer's Disease and Obesity Inácio, A.V.G.T1; Araújo, M.L.S2; Inácio, M.L.G.T3; Maia, L.M.S.S4 1,2,3Student of the Medicine Course of the Federal University of Pernambuco – UFPE; 4Teacher/Researcher of the Department of Histology and Embryology of the Center of Biosciences of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive ability, with deposits of extraneuronal beta-amyloid peptides and neurofibrillary tangles derived from intracellular TAU proteins in the central nervous system (CNS). This disease, due to the aging population, has been increasing significantly, being, some studies, related to obesity. Objective: To associate the relationship of obesity with the onset of AD. Methodology: Researches carried out in the SciELO, CAPES Periodical Portal, PubMED and BVS databases between 2014 and 2017. The descriptors were “Alzheimer” and “obesity”, being the inclusion criteria of complete articles in humans, addressing neurology, medicine and metabolism. Results and Discussion: We found 16 related articles, of which five included the theme addressed, being read in the whole. AD increases chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular changes. These effects are enhanced by obesity, which is considered a systemic inflammation. Adipose tissue is responsible for the release of inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and adiponectins, which affect different organs and can influence the CNS, impairing brain functions. One of the experiments reported involved the high fat diet, showing the significant increase of phosphorylated TAU proteins and beta-amyloid proteins in the brain, being considered indicative of induction of the disease. As aging and metabolic diseases alter the metabolism of the whole organism, the brain is an affected organ, contributing to the onset of AD. Conclusion: Changes of adipose tissue can influence characteristics of aging, as a cognitive fragility, favoring its progress ...

Prevention of Alzheimer Through the Mediterranean Diet

Review Article of International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease Prevention of Alzheimer Through the Mediterranean Diet Inácio, A.V.G.T1; Araújo, M.L.S2; Inácio, M.L.G.T3; Maia, L.M.S.S4 1,2,3Student of the Medicine Course of the Federal University of Pernambuco – UFPE; 4Teacher/Researcher of the Department of Histology and Embryology of the Center of Biosciences of the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by signs of dementia and cognitive loss. This disease affects ≈38 million individuals worldwide. In Mediterranean countries, it is believed that because of the influence of dietary factors, the prevalence of this disease is lower. Objective: To investigate the dietary habits of the Mediterranean population related to AD. Methodology: Researches were carried out in the databases SciELO, BVS and CAPES Periodical Portal between 2013 and 2017. The keywords used were “Alzheimer”, “diet” and “Mediterranean”. Results and Discussion: 25 articles were included in English, Spanish and Portuguese, of which five were selected, using as an inclusion criterion the direct relationship with the disease and the Mediterranean diet. In AD there is the formation of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, as well as increased inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disorders. The studies indicate that the Mediterranean diet decreases the risk factors for the development of AD. Food rich in fish, olive oil, wine, some fruits and vegetables avoids mild cognitive impairment. Dietary adherence decreases levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. The diet has several nutrients, such as omega-3, which contribute to reducing the damage from increased oxidative stress in AD. The omega-3 present in this diet increases eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, decreasing inflammation. Another benefit described involves the reduction of thrombolytic factors, reducing cerebral vascular damage, and consequently neuronal damage. Conclusion: The consumption of foods present in the Mediterranean ...

Olfactory Dysfunction Related to Parkinson Evil

Review Article of International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease Olfactory Dysfunction Related to Parkinson Evil Inácio, M.L.G.T¹; Inácio, A.V.G.T2; Araújo, M.L.S3; Maia, L.M.S.S4 1,2,3Medicine Student at the Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE; 4Lecturer/Researcher, Department of Histology and Embryology, Center of Biosciences, Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that installs progressively and usually manifests itself in individuals around 60 years of age. Identifying the presence of olfactory dysfunction may enable early treatment and delay the onset of motor symptoms. Objective: To relate the diagnosis of olfaction dysfunction with the delay of the appearance of other symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease. Methodology: Review the BVL and SciELO databases using the descriptors “Parkinson” and “Smell” and applying the inclusion criteria: articles available on human studies in the period between 2012 and 2017. Results and Discussion: The main symptoms associated with PD are motor (tremors, stiffness, postural instability). However, PD is a multifactorial pathology, and there may even be olfactory dysfunction. This situation is worrying because it can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Through the smell it is possible to avoid the ingestion of toxic foods, besides the fact that the olfaction is always associated with the sense of taste, the palate. Olfactory dysfunction does not always occur in PD patients, but, when present, it is one of the initial symptoms, and may occur even a few years before motor manifestations. Therefore, it would be possible to initiate an early treatment to delay the appearance of other symptoms, considering that PD is still incurable. Conclusion: The use of olfaction tests is essential to identify risk groups for PD and is economically viable. Thus, the routine implementation of these tests is of great relevance as a way to delay the onset of motor symptoms of PD ...

Dr. Jitesh K. Kar
Clinical assistant professor, Department of Internal Medicine – Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Huntsville Regional Campus

Dr. Ayanabha Chakraborti
Senior Researcher, Department of Surgery, THT-1066, University of Alabama at Birmingham

Dr Amanjot Kaur Riar
Brigham and Women’s Hospital- Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Harvard New Research Building USA

Dr Shashi Kant Tiwari
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Facility II (Health Sciences)

Dr. Pousette Farouk Gaber Hamed
Neurology Ain Shams University Hospitals

International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease

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1. Avinaba Mukherjee, Sourav Sikdar, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of isolated flavonol fractions from Thuja occidentalis in lung cancer cells and in Benzo(a) pyrene induced lung toxicity in mice. International Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0013. 
2. Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal, Junaid Niazi, Kamlesh Kohli, Pankaj Ghaiye. Anti-anxiety Activity of Citrus paradisi var. duncan Extracts in Swiss Albino Mice-A Preclinical Study. Journal of Herbal Medicine Research, 2016; 1(1): 0001-0006.

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International Journal of Central Nervous System Disease