Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Epilepsy in Childhood: A Prospective Cross Sectional Study from Sudan
Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting around 1% of children. The incidence in Sudan is likely to be higher given the high rate of genetic disorders related to consanguity and acquired disorders caused by CNS infection and birth injury. Epilepsy can be idiopathic or non-idiopathic, symptomatic epilepsy indicates a known cause while cryptogenic epilepsy implies a presumed unknown cause. Objective: To understand the demographic and clinical characteristics of epilepsy in children in the setting of a tertiary epilepsy clinic in Khartoum, Sudan. Methods: This is a hospital-based cross sectional study recruiting patients with epilepsy attending a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic. All patients attending the clinic in the 6 month period were included. Data was collected by medical students and was analyzed on IBM SPSS Version 20.0 in a descriptive fashion. Results: 284 Children were recruited. The mean age for children with epilepsy was 5.74 (range 0-12 Years). Females constituted 59.9%; while 94.7% of patients were of low socioeconomic status. The most common type of seizures found were generalized tonic clinic at 51.8% (147/284), followed by focal seizures at 21.1% (60/284). 71% of our patients (201/284) had no identifiable cause (idiopathic), while 29% were non-idiopathic. Of the non-idiopathic group; 41% were due to congenital anomalies, followed by HIE at 24.1%, infections at 16.9% trauma at 10.8% and tumors at 7.2%. Only 18.3% (52/284) had a positive family history of epilepsy. Conclusions: There appears to be a higher incidence of epilepsy in Children with low socio – economic status with a slight female predominance. The incidence of idiopathic epilepsy appears to be similar to inter-national figures. We recommend broader community based and long-term studies for better understanding of epilepsy in Sudan.
Objectives: Metastatic tumors to the oral cavity are observed extremely rarely, accounting for approximately 1% of all malignant oral lesions. The purpose of our study is to record and analyze the data of the patients who revealed metastasis to the oral cavity. Material and Methods: The records of the patients diagnosed with oral metastases who were admitted to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Departments from 1996 to 2018 were reviewed and analyzed for demographic data and outcomes. Results: Over a period of 22 years (from 1996 to 2018), 22 patients were admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Departments of General Hospital G. Papanikolaou and Theageneion Anticancer Hospital with oral metastasic tumors from a distant primary site. Conclusions: Metastasis to the oral cavity is a very rare finding but it exists so we have to be aware of it and have in mind the possibility of this condition.
Introduction: Mental retardation is characterized by the arrest or incomplete development of intellectual functioning, essentially by a impairment of cognitive functions, language, motor skills and social behavior. The prevalence rate traditionally quoted is 1% of the young population. Objective: To describe the incidence / prevalence data in cases of mental retardation between 2014 and 2018 by sample of the type of clinical care, gender and age group in the city of Recife. Methodology: This is a study in secondary databases, through the Basic Data indicators of Brazil, a tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of the variables. Results: We analyzed data regarding hospitalizations between 2014 and 2018. We observed that Recife had 93.7% of hospital admissions in Pernambuco, and the total amount spent by public coffers in 2018 was 31% higher than 2017, however, 24.2% lower than the average of the analyzed period. There is an equivalence in elective (56%) and urgent (46%) hospitalizations. The most frequently hospitalized age group was 20 to 29 years old (33.1%), followed by 30 to 39 years old (22.7%); The brown color presented 78.1% of the hospitalizations and 61% of the hospitalizations corresponded to the male gender. The average hospital stay of 2018 was the highest in the historical series (17.7), 46.7% higher than the average of the analyzed period (12.06). It is also noteworthy that together, the Areias General Hospital and the Ulysses Pernambucano Psychiatric Hospital received 81% of the notified hospitalizations. Discussion: There was a decrease in the incidence of cases in the population of the city of Recife, especially in 2017 and 2018. The most affected age group is young adults and males can be considered as a risk factor. Attention should be paid to the increase in permanence in 2018 as this is not a good indicator…
Haemonchus contortus is a blood sucking nematode parasite of sheep all over the tropics and subtropics which causes retarded growth, lower productivity and even mortality in young animals. A cross sectional study was conducted from April, 2018 to May, 2018 in sheep slaughtered at Jimma municipal abattoir in Jimma town conducted using purposive. Purposively, sheep were selected during ante-mortem examination and the necessary information was recorded in data collection format. In the present study, a total of 384 sheep (217 males and 167 females) were slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir and inspected for the presence or absence of the parasite. Accordingly, the findings of this study revealed that an overall prevalence of 33.1% was recorded. High prevalence of disease occur in poor body condition score 117/245(47.8) and low prevalence occur in good body condition score 10/139 (7.2%) and there was statistically significant differences (P= 0.000) between body condition scores. Among the male and female slaughtered sheep, 70 (32.3%) and 57 (34.2%) were found to be positive for H. contortus, respectively; and shows no statistical significant difference (P >0.05) between sex. Based on age group, prevalence of haemonchosis was 57 (30.5%) and 70 (35.5 %), in young and adult, respectively. The result from the present study indicated that there was no statistical significance (P > 0.05) among age groups. There is no statistical significance difference (P > 0.05) between urban and rural origin of sheep. In the present study, moderate prevalence of H. contortus was observed in sheep during the study period. Therefore, strategic prevention and control measures should be implemented to decrease the burden of the parasitic infection so as to enhance productivity of sheep in the study area.
Patient behavior is often described as disruptive behavior as they have an altered mental stage of fear of being sick, anxious about out of the pocket cost, alteration of lifestyle if suffered from a chronic illness. And the outcomes often faced by providers are inappropriate language, make unreasonable demands, and may even resort to physical abuse. The article comprises a few of this unusual behavior and a simple comparison between patients from developed world with those of the under-developed east. Purpose of the study: Discussion and projection of behavior pattern, health seeking behavior and monitoring status in both developed and under-privileged countries. The pharmacists have a vital role to play which is discussed along with comparison. Findings: Developed or under developed country, patients have a separate behavior pattern which develops and worsen with disease progression mostly. So many factors are behind but one thing clearly understood that the handling of such situation is a provider’s function, a challenge they have to face along with treatment intervention. Research Limitations: Very few articles found in matters regarding along with a very less interest paid by general people to talk about healthcare matters. It was very difficult to bring out facts of irrational patient behavior, giving it a substantial figure to discuss in this article. However, the major limitation is the article could be a comparison of behaviors of developed and under-privileged countries which requires an enormous exposure and financial support. However, the sole focus was to detail mysterious patient behavior and a greater part is covered. Practical Implication: The soul of this article was to detail about patient behavior, both in Bangladesh and developed countries. Along with students, researchers and professionals of different background and disciplines, eg. Pharmacists, marketers, doctors, nurses, hospital authorities, public representatives, policy makers and regulatory authorities have to…
In China, the development and the wide usage of mobile Internet and intelligent terminal devices have exerted a huge impact on people’s reading patterns. Reading has entered the “Fragmentation Era”, and “Fragmented Reading” has become the major pattern of reading.This paper expounds the advantages and disadvantages of fragmented reading and the influence of the major trend of fragmented reading on college students’ reading and what role should university library play and what reading service should it provide in the age of fragmented reading.
Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive disease. Objectives: To verify the nursing behavior in patients with COPD in the literature Methodology: Integrative review of the literature in the Latin American Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO). We included studies referring to the conduct of nursing to the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, published in national and international journals. Results and Discussion: After crossing the descriptors, 392 articles were identified in the different databases, of which 12 were repeated, 262 were rejected by the title, due to the fact that they were not performed in a hospital environment or because they were related to other disciplines. Of the remaining articles, 68 articles were rejected by reading the abstract and 44 articles were rejected by the full reading. These articles were rejected because they were not: randomized clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies, systematic reviews of the literature or meta-analysis study. In summary, 6 articles were included in the final analysis of the sample. Conclusion: It is verified that for the control of the disease it is essential to develop the patient’s capacity for self-care.
Introduction: Cancer is a disease where cell proliferation occurs abnormally, ignoring signs of growth regulation. The child with cancer needs the help of the caregiver, their greatest support. Objective: to unveil the feelings faced by caregivers of children with cancer at a University Hospital. Methodology: descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study, carried out at the Pediatric Oncology Center of the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife / PE. The population was constituted by the main caregivers of hospitalized children with cancer. Survey conducted in June 2017, through an interview, with a population of 10 caregivers. The data were submitted to Bardin content analysis. Results and Discussion: as results, four thematic categories emerged: Caregiver perception about Cancer; Family relations in the context of the disease; Changes faced after the discovery of the diagnosis; Feelings in the context of the disease. The caregiver’s understanding and understanding of the illness allows him to optimize his suffering and encourages him to face the obstacles encountered during treatment. Conclusion: caregivers experience a long process of diagnosis at the end of treatment. They present feelings that blend between guilt, fear, sadness, exhaustion, hope, faith and tranquility.
Estudo Eletroencefalográfico De Indivíduos Com Dor Crônica Decorrente Da Fibromialgia: Uma Revisão Da Literatura
A fibromialgia (FM) é uma condição em que há presença de dor crônica, caracterizada por fadiga, distúrbios do sono e sintomas cognitivos, como ansiedade e depressão1. Dentre esse quadro clínico, destaca-se a dor crônica, como característica mais marcante, podendo levar a incapacidades laborais e declínio na qualidade de vida. A fisiopatologia da FM ainda é desconhecida, mas acredita-se que existe uma alteração no mecanismo central de controle da dor, o qual poderia resultar de uma disfunção dos neurotransmissores2. Assim, essa disfunção acarretaria uma deficiência no sistema de neurotransmissores inibitórios em níveis espinhais ou supraespinhais (serotonina, encefalina e noradrenalina), ou uma hiperatividade de neurotransmissores excitatórios (substância P, glutamato e bradicinina)3. Através da análise dos registros do eletroencefalograma (EEG), pode-se observar nas áreas envolvidas no processamento da dor, uma hiperexcitabilidade representando um mecanismo importante na manutenção deste sintoma na FM1. Nesse contexto, alterações no EEG têm sido relacionadas a um biomarcador fisiológico em síndromes dolorosas distintas. Achados de perfis electroencefalográficos de grupos populacionais com dor crônica estão sendo avaliados com o intuito de elucidar a fisiopatologia da dor e promover a avaliação e monitoramento do tratamento da dor1. Embora alguns estudos envolvendo o uso do EEG para avaliação da dor crônica tenham mostrado que existem algumas características semelhantes entre indivíduos que sofrem de diversas síndromes dolorosas, os dados permanecem inconclusivos1. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo objetivou investigar os principais achados eletroencefalográficos, na literatura especializada, em indivíduos com FM no tocante: (a) à utilização do EEG na FM, (b) aos principais protocolos de utilização do EEG na FM, e (c) aos principais achados eletroencefalográficos na FM.
A Síndrome de Treacher Collins, ou disostose mandibulofacial, é um distúrbio autossômico dominante em que o indivíduo não tem o desenvolvimento de alguns ossos e tecidos da face1,2,3,4,5. Considerada uma síndrome rara, afeta, aproximadamente um em cada 40.000 pessoas sem preferência de cor, raça ou gênero6,7. A probabilidade de uma criança herdar é de 50% caso um de seus progenitores já possua a síndrome1,2,5. Ocorre durante a sétima semana da gestação e é caracterizado por deformação dos dois primeiros arcos branquiais, perda parcial ou total da audição, fissura das pálpebras (com inclinação antimongolóide) e do palato, hipoplasia das eminências malares e zigomáticas, ausência dos cílios, micrognatia. Problemas de respiração e deglutição também são associados a esta falha genética2,3,4,5,6,7. A necessidade de aprimorar conhecimentos sobre a Síndrome de Treacher Collins é notável, visando melhorar as condições vitais para o paciente7. Diversos profissionais de diferentes especializações, tais como cirurgiões plásticos, cirurgiões dentistas, fisioterapeutas, psicólogos, neurologistas, atuam no recurso terapêutico do indivíduo4,6,79,10,8,. Motivou-se a pesquisa para o desenvolvimento da informação sobre a síndrome, os tratamentos realizados e a maneira em que acontece a reabilitação.