International Journal of Social Research


Tattoos, is it the new form of rebellion in China?

Research Article of International Journal of Social Research Tattoos, is it the new form of rebellion in China? Daniel Otero The Silver Beach International High School, Hui-dong Country, China When I first came to China, one thing tattoos were equated to: the mark of criminals, ‘loose women’ and gangsters. In other words, tattoos equated with rebellion or bad boy/girl behavior. The stereotypes which go with it! This was back in 2009, as time transpired [at least a decade], it actually became a symbol of defiance within the young-College educated and professional generation; whether it was covered or not. This form of rebellion was a stand-up against everything which had been forced into them, since their childhood. Like the period of the 1960s in American counterculture, China in theory is going through the same thing: whether it’s sexual exploration, homosexuality and now, tattoos. These are considered outside the norms and therefore, counterculture. It’s my point to prove that the ink on the body is the new symbolism of rebellion. Spreading like literal wildfire throughout Mainland China. In a still conservative society, the young-College students and professionals of today are coming at odds with their parents and older generation. In this investigative paper, I aim to show the reader why! Therefore, taking people back in history, with examples like: Yueh Fei, when the tattoo was accepted and hopefully demonstrating with interviews/opinions that this trend continues to grow in China. Keywords: Tattoo, criminals, ‘loose women’, gangsters, defiance, rebellion, counterculture, sexual exploration, College students, young professionals, homosexuality, ink, Yueh Fei and trend ...

The Ethical Issues in Ethnographic Research

Review Article of International Journal of Social Research The Ethical Issues in Ethnographic Research Pinaki Dey Mullick1 and Paramita Sen2 1Department of Anthropology, Haldia Government College, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India 2Department of Anthropology, Government General Degree College of Singur, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal, India Doing and conducting ethnographic research, the role of the researcher’s motivations, design of the research, reflexive nature of the researcher’s self, the nature of interpretation of the findings, and above all the moral and ethical stands of the researcher is been scrutinized per se as it deals with human agencies. The moral and ethical issues with its politicization and objectified imposition on the ethnographer are key concern of the present article. The authors are inclined to reflect the major and significant dimensions of ethical issues in ethnographic and/or social research along with its limitations, prejudices, contradictions and complexities in contemporary ethnographic practices in different academic discourses. Keywords: ethnography, ethics, politics, embodiment, rights ...

Citizenship and Identity Crisis: A brief account of African Experience

Review Article of International Journal of Social Research Citizenship and Identity Crisis: A brief account of African Experience Merkineh Mojira Moges1 and Nigatu Abebe2 1Assistant Professor of Federal Studies, College of Social Science and Humanities, Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia. PO. Box 138. 2Assistant Professor of State and Citizenship. Introduction The concept and practice of citizenship are usually associated with the relationship between individuals and the political community in which they reside. This statement can broadly be analyzed in terms of membership and identity. Furthermore different paradigms available on the intellectual discourse came up with their respective views pertinent the issue. Towards A definition As a matter of history definition of the term citizenship was closely associated with ancient city states of Greece. Accordingly citizens were defined as free individuals, (i.e.) men, who were involved in the public affairs of the city-state. A citizen was connected to the civic virtues of Athenian democracy, which was marked by the subordination of the private life to the dedication to public affairs and the common good. (Held, 1996). The citizen was a “homo politicus” With the political and social hegemony of Christianity during the Middle Ages. This way of understanding citizenship eclipsed and was replaced by (“homo credens”) (Held, 1996). A public political order or public life outside the religious order of Christianity was abandoned. The order of things was not connected to the public realm of republican commitment of the citizens, but to subordination to the will of God. The republican virtues of citizenship gained a new foothold during the Renaissance in the Italian city-states. Still, it was the French revolution, starting in 1789, that provided the framework for thinking and practicing citizenship within the formation of modern nation states. Below there is a description of how the heritage of the French revolution ...

Rural Hierarchy of Prosperity: A Study of Livelihood Diversification and Its Implications on Rurality

Research Article of International Journal of Social Research Rural Hierarchy of Prosperity: A Study of Livelihood Diversification and Its Implications on Rurality Dwi Wulan Pujiriyani*¹, Endriatmo Soetarto², Dwi A Santosa³, Ivanovich Agusta² *¹National Land College, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; ²Department of Communication and Community Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia; ³Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia. This study aimed to analyze the social changes in rural areas as a consequence of the shift of peasants to non-agrarian activities. Social change in the context of this paper is associated with livelihood diversification and its implications for rural restratification and its characteristic today.The research is conducted using qualitative method through community case study approach. Data collection is obtained through direct observation, face-to-face interviews and personal history. Respective perspective from three generations is used to track community history and changes that occur in the context of the village, community, and agricultural activities. The result shows that economic diversification has created a new rurality. New rurality or present-day rural characteristic are indicated by increasing prosperity, and agriculture that is no longer the dominant source of income. Livelihood diversification provides opportunities for vertical social mobility for the rural poors which are the offsprings of farm laborers and tenants who choose to become migrant workers in Korea. There has been a restratification characterized by the emergence of migrant groups as a new social class that shifts the upper class position previously occupied by landlords and their descendants. They are a new upper class in social stratification in the rural that manages to show their prosperity through the accumulation of capital from remittances they brought back to the village. Keywords: Indonesia, rural Java, migrants, landlords, restratification, social class, social change ...

Prof. (DR) O. P. MONGA
Freelance Professor of Sociology, OB &HR and United Nations Volunteer (Online)

Dr. Gapsalamov Almaz Rafisovich
PhD in Economics, the head of department of economics and management, Kazan Federal University, Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University.

Dr. Ronaldo Pierre Cavalcanti Lundgren
Professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Dr. Teodoro Hernandez de Frutos

Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain, Member board Sociology Mind, Expert ANECA

Dr. Boychenko Mykhailo Ivanovych

Professor, Department of Theoretic and Practical Philosophy at Taras Shevchenko National university of Kyiv

Dr. Dennis J. Mazur
Senior Scholar, Center for Ethics in Health Care, and Professor of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon USA

Dr. Santosh Kumar Behera

Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University

Dr. Mehmet EROĞLU
Firat University Education Faculty, Educational Science Department, 23119, Elazig, Turkey

Dr. Sedat Karadavut
Assistant Professor, Agricultural Structers and İrrigation (Biosystems Engineering), Trakya University/TURKEY

Prof. Agney G K
Assistant Professor, Mar Thoma College, Thiruvalla

Dr. Neamtu Adina Claudia
Full professor, University “Constantin Brancusi” Targu-Jiu, Republicii Street, NO.1, JUD. GORJ

Dr. Milena Palczewska
Vice Dean for student affairs, Military Faculty, War Studies University, al. gen. Antoniego Chruściela “Montera” 10300-910 Warszawa

Dr. Santosh Kumar Jha
Senior Faculty, School of Fashion Leather Accessories Design, Footwear Design & Development Institute (Government of India)

Dr. Alireza Miremadi
Dean & Assistant Marketing Professor, Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology-International Campus

Dr. Kabita Mishra
Senior Research Fellow (Homoeopathy), D.D.P.R.-Central Research Institute for Homoeopathy , (Ministry of A.Y.U.S.H., Government of India)

Dr. Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo
Scientist, Regional Research & Technology Transfer Station, (OUAT), Semiliguda

Dr. Sagar Chandrakant Jirapure
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engg and Technology.Yavatmal

Dr. Eşi Marius- Costel
 “Stefan cel Mare” University of Suceava

Dr. Zinchenko Viktor Viktorovich
Principal research scientist of the Institute of Higher Education of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine;Professor of the department of management and innovative technologies of social and cultural activities of the National Pedagogical Dragomanov University; Head of the Department of Management of the Ukrainian Institute of Arts and Sciences;

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1.Rebecca S. Powers and Monica Calderon Pinedo. Comparing Places on Types of Internet Use. International Journal of Social Research, 2018; 2:19. DOI: 10.28933/ijsr-2018-06-2001 
2. Lei Zhang. Identity and Political Media Literacy of Youths in Hong Kong. International Journal of Social Research, 2018; 2:23. DOI:10.28933/ijsr-2018-10-0801

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International Journal of social research

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