International Journal of Social Research


Symbolic Interaction, The Looking Glass Self and Aberrant Social Behavior in School Aged Children

Review Article of International Journal of Social Research Symbolic Interaction, The Looking Glass Self and Aberrant Social Behavior in School Aged Children Steven Gerardi, Ph. D Professor Emeritus for Sociology (CUNY) This effort suggests that aberrant social behavior found in school-age seen as a Symbolic Interaction issue. Keywords: Symbolic Interaction, Looking Glass Self and Aberrant Social Behavior; School Aged Children ...

Marx and Weber’s Polar Opposing Theorical Concepts of Capitalism and Christianity: A Tribute to The Depth of Sociological Theory in the 21 Century

Review Article of International Journal of Social Research Marx and Weber’s Polar Opposing Theorical Concepts of Capitalism and Christianity: A Tribute to The Depth of Sociological Theory in the 21 Century Steven Gerardi, Ph. D Professor Emeritus for Sociology York City College of Technology (CUNY) Abstract: Marx and Weber two German Sociologists with opposite social theories centered around Capitalism and Religion in Western Civilization. Context:  This effort is the first in a series of articles designed to expose Sociology’s depth in theorical free social thought.  The second article in this series will contrast “Conflict Theory” with “Functionalism”. Marx viewed modern capitalist society as an historical process of oppression and alienation. Indeed, labor is viewed as a commodity, Marx refers to this social conditions as Alienated or Estrange labor. Found in this social position humanity cannot experience a creative function; rather experiences oneself passively as the subject separated from the object. Therefore, the perversion of labor into a meaningless crippling productive force. Furthermore, Marx argued the nature of humanity is to transform, and change nature to fit human needs or “Species-Being”. Therefore, Humanity is the past, present and the future. As opposed to the species-nature of animal. Animal behavior is rooted in the internal repetition of activities, accepting what nature has to offer. However, alienated labor perverts’ human character as “species-being” into a means of existence, rather than a free, conscious creative activity. Moreover, humanity feels free only to act in a most animal function (rather than as a free creative activity decreasing humanities advantage over animals).  Thus, productive life is species-life where humanity consciously transforms the outside world into ones’ self-identity. Lastly, private property is the all-summarized expression of alienated labor for humanity is transformed into a commodity, to be owned and used by the Power-elite. Marx labels this “The ...

On the Nature of the French Verbal Forms in the Code-Switching of Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah Speakers of French

Research Article of International Journal of Social Research On the Nature of the French Verbal Forms in the Code-Switching of Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah Speakers of French Ibrahima ABDOULAYE1*, Mohamed MINKAILOU1 1Université des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines de Bamako. Code-Switching is a process of bilingualism that involves the alternation of two languages in the course of a single conversation as a result of language contact phenomenon. This paper is about the conjugation of the verbal forms in the switches of bilingual Songhay-French, Bamanankan-French and Fulfulde-French speakers as pointed out in several studies by I. Abdoulaye (2013, 2016), M. Minkailou and I. Abdoulaye (2016, 2018), I. Abdoulaye and M. Minkailou (2017, 2019). The main objective of the present paper is to describe the verbal paradigm in the switches of these three different groups of francophone speakers according to the existing theories and models on Code-Switching and Code-Mixing constraints. Based on the Matrix Language Frame Model of C. Myers-Scotton (1993a, b), the paper aims at proposing and analysing a francophone alternative of grammatical constraint in code switching. The study uses secondary data collected from the research works cited above in which spontaneous and fresh conversations have been recorded, transcribed and translated into English in an oral corpus. The population of these three different investigations is heterogeneous consisting of bilingual Songhay, Bamanan and Fulah civil servants and university students. Examining the nature of the switches, the study purposely focuses on the intra-sentential code-switching, in which the participants alternate the two codes, inserting words from French into their respective native languages. Analysing the inflected forms of the French verbs embedded in Songhay, Bamanankan or Fulfulde codes, the study has revealed that all the switched verbs belong to the same verb form, the French past participle of the three verb groups (first, second and third) ...

Alternative Family Forms or Social / Emotional Exploitation

Review Article of International Journal of Social Research Alternative Family Forms or Social / Emotional Exploitation Steven Gerardi. Ph. D Professor Emeritus for Sociology, New York City College of Technology (CUNY), Social Science Department. Throughout recent history there has been progress toward social equality specifically within the nuclear family. Unfortunately, occurring currently with this social progress has been a movement which has exploited woman and fostered the total rationalization of the emotional family member’s psyco-social emotional being. This effort will exam the Nuclear family from opposite Sociological perspectives: Marx’s Alienated Labor and Parsons’ Functionalist view of the nuclear family. Keywords:  social equality specifically; social equality specifically ...

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International Journal of social research

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