American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience


ASPERGILLOSIS AND ADVANCES IN ITS TREATMENT IN THE LAST DECADE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction: Invasive aspergillosis (AI) remains a fatal infection and difficult to treat in immunocompromised patients. Standard treatment is insufficient for these patients, often impairing their quality of life due to adverse effects, in addition to the short duration. Although mortality rates in patients with UA have decreased in the past two decades with the replacement of amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-D) with voriconazole as the first choice, treatment remains sub-ideal for patients due to adverse events and drug interactions with immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: This study aims to carry out a literary review about the scientific productions that address the treatment of AI published in the last 10 years, comparing the success and effectiveness rates of the treatments. Methodology: Through a literature review using the base dates PubMed, Lilacs and MedLine, accepting only articles published in the period 2010 to 2020, and only those in Portuguese or English, with 23 articles selected, of which 7 were included in this review. Results and discussion: There was a prevalence of treatments with voriconazole, used in six of the seven studies reviewed, in addition to being part of the standard Brazilian treatment. Studies related to the treatment of UA are heterogeneous, making it difficult to compare effectively between publications. Well-designed controlled, randomized and multicenter clinical trials are needed to adequately address the issue of the usefulness of the approaches used in Brazil. In addition, combined therapies come in many different forms, requiring cumulative evidence to support the use of combined antifungal therapy in AI, as they are still conflicting and of moderate strength.

CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF THE PLANT SPECIES JACARANDA RUGOSA A.H. GENTRY

The use of plants by man as a way to treat diseases is an ancient practice and widely used within the communities. Plants said to be medicinal present in their composition substances capable of altering the systematic functioning of organs, and may influence the treatment of diseases. The branch of science that studies plants and their ethnofarmacologic characteristics has attracted industries and researchers to elucidate their real biological influences in the organism. The Jacaranda rugosa, native plant of the caatinga biome, has been used in the treatment of infections and skin wounds and in the treatment of diseases. In order to evaluate the bioactivities of this species, the methodology of phytochemical prospecting was used, through thin layer chromatography, the verification of the antioxidant potential of leaf and branch extracts, through techniques such as neutralization of DPPH and ABTS radicals, in order to identify the functioning of the lity and the performance of cellular protection against oxidizing agents. In addition, microbiological techniques were used to evaluate the efficiency of extracts in acting as bactericide against disease-causing pathogens. As results, phytochemical prospection demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites tannins, flavonoids and coumarins, the analyses of antioxidant activities by jacanda rugosa’s DPPH radical showed considerable activities from 62.5 mg/ml. The analysis of the neutralization of ABTS radicals demonstrated efficacy of 46% and 49% of ability to react against antioxidant substances. Against the microorganisms Salmonella spp.and Staphylococcus aureus, there was the activity of the extract for Salmonella spp in 5 mg/mL of the extract, but there was no activity for S. aureus..

Nanotechnology: Transformation of agriculture and food security

Agriculture sector is the backbone of developing countries for their economy. Growing world’s population is putting more pressure on agriculture sector to address the crises of food security. Today, nanotechnology is working as technological advancement to solve problems related to food security and agriculture. Nanotechnology is providing efficient alternatives to increase the crop production by managing the insect/pests in agriculture in an eco-friendly manner. It also promotes plant efficiency to absorb nutrients. Nanotechnology in conjunction with genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas, has been used as delivery tool for template DNA and proteins. In addition, nano-formulations based pesticides and insecticides are being used in agriculture to increase solubility, mobility and durability. Moreover, food processing, packing and storage has also been improved through nanomaterials applications. Although, nanotechnology applications are advancing in almost all fields, health and environmental safety concerns do exist. In this review we summarized exciting applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector along with its prospective merits and associated risks.

ANATOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FOLIAR BLADE OF Spondias dulcis Parkinson

Introduction: Spondias dulcis Parkinson belongs to the Anacardiaceae R. Br. family, and is popularly known as Caja-manga. In folk medicine its leaves are used in teas and studies prove the presence of large amount of polyphenols, presenting pharmacological potential as antioxidant and laxative. Because of this, studies aiming to identify diagnostic characters are necessary in order to contribute to the pharmacobotanical control of the species. Objective: This study aimed to identify the anatomical characters of the leaf blade of Spondias dulcis Parkinson. Methods: Transverse and paradermic sections were obtained, freehand, and subjected to a 50% sodium hypochlorite solution for discoloration process. After washing in distilled water, the cross sections were stained with safrablau and the paradermic sections with methylene blue and mounted on semipermanent slides. The analyzes were performed on images obtained by digital camera coupled to light microscope. Results: The leaf blade, in frontal view, features in adaxial and abaxial faces straight-walled epidermal cells. It is classified as hypoestomatic, with anomocytic stomata. On the abaxial face are observed bases of in shape rosette trichomes. In cross section, the central rib features concave-convex contour and uniseriate epidermis, covered by a slightly thick cuticle. Below the epidermis is observed angular collenchyma. In the central region there are four collateral vascular bundles. Sclerenchyma is observed near the phloem. It is observed secretory cavities and the presence of druses type crystals. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, also featuring druses type crystals. Conclusion: The correct characterization provides important anatomical information useful for pharmacobotanical standardization, as there is variability in diagnostic characters.

A novel plant genome editing CRISPR/Cas9 System: To modify stress tolerance responses in plants

The plant genome modification by Crispr/Cas9 system is gaining ground. In molecular biology, the use of this indispensable tool works on the basis of target recognition due to the existence of a short protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) that is complementary to the desired strand. The components of the genome-editing tool are guide RNA, Cas9 protein. The mechanistic nature of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology i.e. adaptation, expression and interference lead the desirable mutations in the crop plants. According to the need one can use the different types of programmable DNA targeting and editing platform type. The goal of this review is to provide an idea of the production of stress-tolerant crops. The molecular perception from structural and mechanistic research grant a groundwork for rational engineering for the production of plants that can withstand different kinds of stress.

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American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience

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