American Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience

  • Nanotechnology: Transformation of agriculture and food security

    Agriculture sector is the backbone of developing countries for their economy. Growing world’s population is putting more pressure on agriculture sector to address the crises of food security. Today, nanotechnology is working as technological advancement to solve problems related to food security and agriculture. Nanotechnology is providing efficient alternatives to increase the crop production by managing the insect/pests in agriculture in an eco-friendly manner. It also promotes plant efficiency to absorb nutrients. Nanotechnology in conjunction with genome editing tools like CRISPR/Cas, has been used as delivery tool for template DNA and proteins. In addition, nano-formulations based pesticides and insecticides are being used in agriculture to increase solubility, mobility and durability. Moreover, food processing, packing and storage has also been improved through nanomaterials applications. Although, nanotechnology applications are advancing in almost all fields, health and environmental safety concerns do exist. In this review we summarized exciting applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector along with its prospective merits and associated risks.


    Introduction: Spondias dulcis Parkinson belongs to the Anacardiaceae R. Br. family, and is popularly known as Caja-manga. In folk medicine its leaves are used in teas and studies prove the presence of large amount of polyphenols, presenting pharmacological potential as antioxidant and laxative. Because of this, studies aiming to identify diagnostic characters are necessary in order to contribute to the pharmacobotanical control of the species. Objective: This study aimed to identify the anatomical characters of the leaf blade of Spondias dulcis Parkinson. Methods: Transverse and paradermic sections were obtained, freehand, and subjected to a 50% sodium hypochlorite solution for discoloration process. After washing in distilled water, the cross sections were stained with safrablau and the paradermic sections with methylene blue and mounted on semipermanent slides. The analyzes were performed on images obtained by digital camera coupled to light microscope. Results: The leaf blade, in frontal view, features in adaxial and abaxial faces straight-walled epidermal cells. It is classified as hypoestomatic, with anomocytic stomata. On the abaxial face are observed bases of in shape rosette trichomes. In cross section, the central rib features concave-convex contour and uniseriate epidermis, covered by a slightly thick cuticle. Below the epidermis is observed angular collenchyma. In the central region there are four collateral vascular bundles. Sclerenchyma is observed near the phloem. It is observed secretory cavities and the presence of druses type crystals. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, also featuring druses type crystals. Conclusion: The correct characterization provides important anatomical information useful for pharmacobotanical standardization, as there is variability in diagnostic characters.

  • A novel plant genome editing CRISPR/Cas9 System: To modify stress tolerance responses in plants

    The plant genome modification by Crispr/Cas9 system is gaining ground. In molecular biology, the use of this indispensable tool works on the basis of target recognition due to the existence of a short protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) that is complementary to the desired strand. The components of the genome-editing tool are guide RNA, Cas9 protein. The mechanistic nature of CRISPR/ Cas9 technology i.e. adaptation, expression and interference lead the desirable mutations in the crop plants. According to the need one can use the different types of programmable DNA targeting and editing platform type. The goal of this review is to provide an idea of the production of stress-tolerant crops. The molecular perception from structural and mechanistic research grant a groundwork for rational engineering for the production of plants that can withstand different kinds of stress.

  • Analysis of traditional house hold alcoholic beverage to processing plant level production

    Alcohol use is part of many cultural, religious and social practices, and provides perceived pleasure to many users. The aim of this project was to develop mini scale alcohol production, which would be very useful for those who focus for many developing countries including Ethiopia, developing this project have been valuable for such sector for those who had an idea to develop new alcoholic beverage project professionals. The paper tried to evaluate the economic performance of minimum level alcohol production, grow to in terms of productivity, profitability, capacity utilization, marketing and the socio-economic contribution of the project. Those, the total capital investments found from this study analysis estimated to be total 34, 673,529.41 birr and the total production cost is 4520833.3birr/yr. The Company will get a net income of 1,376,650,000 birr/year. The repayment for the investment cost will be paid off over the next 4.6 years. The project provides for efficient utilization of the existing resource, technological advancement, managerial efficiency and incentives to upgrade traditional beverages to large production process scales.

  • Symptoms, Gene Analysis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) syndrome

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal predominant, mucocutaneous and inclination disorder. They include it in the development of benign and malignant tumors. Hereditary change in NF1 prompts changes in the outflow of cytoplasmic protein. 90% of all cases represent NF1 in neurofibromatosis. children tainted with NF1, they distinguish them inside a year.NF1 Patients ordinarily experience the ill effects of the café au laitt, freckling, and skeletal dysplasia. The GTPase actuating protein goes about as the principal job in NF1 quality, which fills in as a negative controlled by authoritative with the RAS protein. The neurofibromatosis type 1 quality is a 287-kilo premise of chromosome 17q11.2. In NF1 patients, the dermatologists distinguished the basic cutaneous highlights. Cutaneous neurofibroma has a variable pace of development during life expectancy. The threatening fringe nerve sheath tumor is plexiform neurofibromas. Palpebral plexiform neurofibroma is mono-sidelong. We have analyzed inherent dysplasia real criteria for NF1. The more exact technique to analyze NF1 in the patient is radiological indicative. An entire body MRI can test the interior nerve sheath tumor. They have announced that the research center analytic is extremely troublesome; However , it has done the RNA and ELISA tests somewhat. The treatment of NF1 patients is exceptionally troublesome because of the adequacy of the organ of the body. There is a biopsy, medical procedure, and radiotherapy performed for NF1 patients.

  • Affordability Issues of Biotech Drugs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)

    As indicated by World Bank publication Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (third edition, 2017), about 20% all out health use universally originated from out-of-pocket payments in 2014. The equivalent was about 40% all out health use for low-income countries, 56% for lower-middle-income countries, and 30% for upper-middle-income countries (WHO, 2016). 33% of the world’s populace needs opportune access to quality-guaranteed medicines while assessments demonstrate that in any event 10% of medicine in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are substandard or distorted, costing roughly US$ 31 billion every year (Global Health, 2018). Shockingly, 80% of worldwide cardiovascular passings happen in LMICs which is (halfway) because of the absence of access to healthcare including talented HR, equipped offices and medicines (Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, WHO, 2010). Cost of drugs, antibodies, and diagnostics is a noteworthy weight in LMICs round the globe. Cost of biotech drugs are much higher because of surprising expense caused by the pharmaceutical organizations for clinical preliminary. Biotech drugs have totally changed the administration of a few diseases, including malignant growth and immune system diseases. Albeit essential yet their affordability is as yet a consuming issue, particularly in LMICs.

  • Novel urease inhibitor

    Urease, also known as urea amide hydrolase, contains two metal nickel ion active centers that catalyze the decomposition of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease is widely found in nature, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, and greatly affects the utilization of nitrogen-containing nutrients by plants and animals. At the same time, its content can also affect the normal physiological metabolism of microorganisms, which in turn affects the survival rate of microorganisms. It can be seen that the role of urease inhibitors is very important. Urease inhibitors, such substances, can affect or even inhibit the activity of urease by direct or indirect means. Guided by computer-aided drug design, the team developed two new urease inhibitors, which are low-cost, non-toxic to plants, animals and humans, and environmentally friendly urease inhibitors. After experimentally measuring the activity of urease inhibitors, the two urease inhibitors have stronger inhibition ability than the widely used acetohydroxamic acid on the market.


    This study aims to determine the LC50 for Artemia salina Leach and perform a microbial screening two C. taxifolia extracts. In these biological assays have been used larvae of A. salina Leach ob-tained from the incubation of about 20 mg of A. salina cysts, under artificial light for 48 hours. Where groups of 10 metanauplius were exposed to different concentrations (50 mg / mL to 1000 ug / ml) of methanol extract and hydroalcoholic C. taxifolia . The antimicrobial activity of extracts of C. taxifolia was evaluated by diffusion method in paper disc. The percentage mortality deter-mined after 24 hours of contact. Through the data was calculated LC50. Behavioral analysis of Artemia salina Leach showed a decrease in handling compared to those observed in the control groups. The microbial activity of the extracts were evaluated by measuring the halo of inhibition for two species of gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria. The extracts showed signifi-cant results for S. aureus and S. spp. This study demonstrates that C. taxifolia has a high cyto-toxicity suggested that its use in cell culture as a molluscicide and can be used in the production of production of antimicrobial drugs.

  • Influence of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite on apical and axillary buds regeneration of Colocasia esculenta in tissue culture

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. SCHOTT) is a staple food in many southern countries and an ancient starchy crop consumed by more than 400 million people. It is treated by diseases and pests that affect seed availability. Thus, the techniques of in vitro culture mostly used to overcome the problem of seeds production meet enormous difficulties of infection and necrosis of the explants. This study aims to determine the optimal use of mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection of apical and axillary buds of taro. For this purpose, three doses of sodium hypochlorite (8%, 10% and 12%) and mercuric chloride (0.08%, 0.1% and 0.15%) were used with three immersion times ( 25 min, 30 min and 45 min) for sodium hypochlorite and (5min, 7min and 10min) for mercuric chloride. A binary logistic analysis was performed to understand or predict the effect of different doses of NaOCl and HgCl2 on the behavior of apical and axillary buds of taro. The results showed that 8% sodium hypochlorite with immersion time of 25 minutes is favorable for the disinfection of both apical and axillary explants of taro. For mercuric chloride, only the dose of 0.15% is effective for apical bud survival. The present study offers an opportunity to make available the seed of taro through the organogenesis of the species without any risk of infection.

  • Effects of system benzylaminopurine-adenine sulphate in combination with naphthalene acetic on in vitro regeneration and proliferation of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Mill var. comosus)

    In vitro micropropagation is now used in the production of healthy and homogenous pineapple planting materials. In order to increase the in vitro proliferation of pineapple, the synergetic effect of adenine sulphate (AdS) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) in presence or not of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was evaluated. Median axillary buds of crowns bursted 6 to 8 weeks old were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with BAP (0, 1 and 2 mg/l), NAA (0 and 0.5 mg/l) with or without AdS (40 mg/l). Five buds per treatment with four replicates were used. The addition of BAP to the medium stimulated regeneration (65 to 82%) and multiplication (3.04 to 6.13 plantlets/explant) which were further enhanced by the addition of NAA (98%; 6.42 plantlets/explant). AdS highly stimulated proliferation in presence of 2 mg/l BAP and NAA (14.96 plantlets/explant), plantlet mass (1.143g) but limited plantlet growth in height which was more induced in the absence of regulators (4.88 cm) and with AdS alone (5.63 cm). Thus, BAP is necessary for the proliferation of pineapple and the addition of 0.5 mg/l NAA to 2 mg/l BAP and 40 mg/l AdS optimizes the multiplication and growth parameters of pineapple plantlets. These results allow the mass propagation of pineapple’s homogeneous healthy planting materials.