The constant interference of human activities has had direct and indirect impacts on aquatic environments with consequences for water quality for aquatic biota and the functioning of ecosystems, thereby reducing the ability to use. This study aimed to describe the qualitative and quantitative variation of species of macroalgae from Praia do Pina, Recife-PE, in the rainy season and drought. The collections were made in August 2007 (rainy season) and January 2008 (period of drought). Data on the occurrence of macroalgae were collected by snorkeling using the combined techniques of sampling belt transects (50m x 1m) and quadrats (1m x1m). The species of greatest abundance in both periods were almost the same: Ulva lactuca, U. fasciata, U. intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularioides, C. filiformis; C.prolifera; C.racemosa, and C. lentillifera; being found in smaller quantities: Pterocladia capillaceous, Hypnea musciformis, H. pannosa, H. cervicornis, Sargassum Muticum, S. vulgare, S. ilicifolium, Padin Pavoni, P. tetrastromatica, Dictyota dichotoma, Gracilaria warts and G. Salicornia. The two species were only found in Glacilaria period of drought and the species S. ilicifolium was found during the rainy season. About 80% of macroalgal distribution in reef studied is composed of individuals belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta, 12% are representatives of the phylum Phaeophyta and 8% are belonging to the phylum Rodhophyta. These percentages are very close to the values presented in two urban beaches in the Metropolitan Region of Recife and a beach on the northern coast of the state of Pernambuco, where areas have been intensified the processes of human occupation and exploitation, and increasing industrialization. The predominance of species of Chlorophyta may represent a greater tolerance to the flora of the pollutants.
Profitability Analysis of Value Added Usipa (Engraulicypris Sardella) by Packaging In Nkhotakota, Malawi
The study was conducted to determine the profitability of value addition of Engraulicypris sardella through packaging in Nkhotakota district, central Malawi. Samples(69Kg) of fresh E. sardella purchased and sundried in solar tent dryer, packaged (34.5Kg) in plastics papers while the other 34.5Kg was unpackaged. Sales data were analyzed using gross margin and net profit analysis. Benefit-cost ratio and rate of return on investment were used to determine the viability of small scale E. sardella fish business. Results of Cost and Return Analysis packaged E. sardella showed that the total revenue of packaged E. sardella was Mk225,400.00 and total cost was Mk 40,350.00 while results for unpackaged E. sardella showed that the total revenue was Mk104,144.92 and total cost was Mk20,450.00. Results on Benefit cost ratio for packaged and unpackaged E. sardella were 5.09 and 5.58 respectively. The findings implies that packaged E. sardella was more profitable than unpackaged E. sardella. The rate of return for packaged and unpackaged Engraulicypris sardella was 4.58 and 4.09 respectively, implying that for every Mk1.00 invested for Packaged Engraulicypris sardella there was a return of Mk4.58 and Mk4.09 for unpackaged Engraulicypris sardella. Packaging should be encouraged to maximize profits from small scale fish business in Malawi.
The ever-increasing population and hence higher demand for fish and other aquatic organisms for human consumption and exports have accorded greater priority to the aquaculture subsector. Therefore, there was need to conduct research to unveil facts relating to practices adopted by farmers in rearing fish and other aquatic organisms. This study emphasized concepts and importance of aquaculture, some common breeds of fish cultured, systems of aquaculture practices and methods of rearing fish and other aquatic organisms. The study also discussed eco-friendly aquaculture practices ensure sustainable fish production. The study further discussed the benefits of adopted eco-friendly aquaculture practices and constraints encountered by aqua-culturists. The study recommended among others that government should ensure proper training of extension workers who would in turn educate fish farmers on eco-friendly practices. The study also recommended that for expansion of aqua-cultural enterprises, government should provide more funds and liberalize land acquisition procedures to avail more land. Finally, the study recommended that requisite guidelines and regulations should be enforced to ensure that only practices that are sustainable and eco-friendly be adopted in the production of fish and allied products.
Total An Investigation into Light Pollution as a Limiting factor for shift of Mass nesting ground at Rushikulya rookery Ganjam Odisha
Illumination due to artificial lights on nesting beaches and from nearby place to nesting beaches is detrimental to sea turtles because it alters critical nocturnal behaviors specifically, their choice of nesting sites and their return path to the sea after nesting. Illuminations perplex the hatchlings to find sea after emerging. Numerous studies conducted in other countries have demonstrated that artificial lights negatively impact on turtles, both female adults as they come to and go from their home beach to lay eggs, and to turtle hatchlings as they seek out the way to the open ocean. In this study we correlated the mass nesting intensity of 5years (2012 to 2018) at Rushikulya mass nesting site to the illumination zone. Illumination due to light conditions on nesting beaches are complex, and measuring light pollution in a way that effectively captures the impacts to sea turtles is difficult. But increase in intensity of illumination on selective mass nesting beaches showed gradual reduction in intensity of preferred nesting site during the mass nesting event. A gradual shift of nesting preference was also observed more toward darker zone.
Concept of Aquatic Weeds in Fish Culture: Weeds are unwanted plants that grow where they are not wanted. Aquatic weeds are plants that grow in the pond where they are not wanted. These weeds, even though are not wanted in the pond by the farmer because of their effect mainly, some of them are essential parts of natural systems and form the basis of water body’s health and productivity. The habitat for aquatic weeds involve various proportions of water and soil, including intermittently wet ditches, ditches which always hold standing water, streams, stock ponds, farm ponds, lakes, ornamental ponds, and intermediate habitats.
Wetlands perform numerous valuable functions such as recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, maintain stream flow, recharge ground water, and also serve in providing drinking water source, fish, fodder, fuel, recreation to the society. The interaction of man with wetlands during the last few decades has been a concern largely due to land loss – accompanied by intensified industrial, commercial, and residential development further leading to pollution of wetlands by domestic, industrial sewage, and agricultural runoffs- as fertilizers, insecticides. The fact that wetland values are overlooked has resulted in threat to the source of these benefits South Indian wetlands are being lost on account of various anthropogenic activities .
Fish is a animal source protein. It is one of the neglected areas because of unawareness among farming community, unfavorable government policies and high inputs involved in fish farming. Fish being rich in nutrients can help to alleviate the malnutrition of the local population. Fish plays an important role in the diet of the people of developing nations. In India, fish and fishing contribute immensely to the national economy by providing high animal food protein and generating employment, which is a means of poverty alleviation. Most importantly, it is the source of livelihood for a large section of economically backward population of the country. Integrated livestock farming will be novel approach for profitable and rumerative fish production. Poultry droppings can be a good source of nutrients for enhancing the productivity of aquatic production systems.
This study was conducted to determine the artificial breeding performance of optimum dosage of hormones HCG to induce spawning in Clarias gariepinus at a hatchery. Three doses were prepared first treatmentT1(3000IU),second treatmentT2(2000IU), and finally treatmentT3(1000IU). Fish Body weight before injection with no significant(p>0.05). after injection there was significant between treatment (p0.05).
Millions of years created water in symbiosis with the biota. For several hundred years a man has been trying to unravel her secrets. Can not. Uses it, just as a working body. It is a mobile very complex solvent and a supplier of substances to each object, living creatures and plants on Earth. The path of its transformation in the circuit: soil – flora and fauna – evaporation – the atmosphere is the soil. In each of these links it changes its properties, appearance, structure. Man for his development and comfort shortens this path. We deprive her of her main destiny in advancing through food and vegetable channels. We destroyed the biota with arable land, reservoirs, dumps, asphalt. This territory has become more than 60 percent of the land inhabited by the area and every day it grows.