It is common to see thousands of pilgrims, both inside and out, to St. Lalibela Rock hewn churches of Ethiopia. But, it is uncommon to see studies on the role of pilgrimage for peace: much of the researches are focused on the economic importance of pilgrimage tourism in the country. Despite the existence of many religious tourist sites, scholars in Ethiopia gave little or no attention to the importance of pilgrimage for peace. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to investigate the role of pilgrimage for the inner and outer peace of pilgrims to St. Lalibela Rock hewn Churches of Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, the article employed 20 purposively selected pilgrims for in-depth interviews, four key informants (two were Tourism bureau officials of Lalibela town, and the other two were priests of the Church), personal observation and document reviews to collect data. In addition, one FGD, containing eight pilgrim discussants, was held with the pilgrims to elicit group ideas about the issue. Thematic categorization and analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The article revealed that the pilgrimage provides different inner peace for the pilgrims like, purification (healing from sin), relinquishment of self will, relinquishment of separateness, relinquishment of negative feelings, avoiding of the worrying habit, avoiding of the anger habit and the fear habit. Moreover, the article argued that the pilgrims achieved outer peace: upholding human dignity, challenging prejudice and building tolerance, promoting non-violence behavior, resolving and transforming conflicts, sharing of resources, caring not only for other pilgrims but also to the environment, and making inter-personal and inter-communal linkages. The article, therefore, concludes that pilgrimage cultivates both the inner and outer peace for the pilgrims in the study area. Finally, the article recommends that the role of pilgrimage for peace education in general and for the…
Over the years, the Afar and Amhara people of the North Eastern Ethiopia have locked horns over the control of resources. The federal government delegated power to the two regional governments to settle the conflict between the two ethnic groups. However, efforts made by this tier of governments are failed to stop the conflict in the area. As a result, they established the joint LPCs made up of local people from both ethnic groups. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the process, challenges and opportunities of these LPC in its conflict resolution journey. To this attempt, the study employed both primary and secondary data sources. The study revealed that the LPCs employ series of process to resolve the conflict in the study area. Besides, it identifies a number of glaring challenges that the LPCs faced with. Despite the challenges that the LPCs faced with, the study further identifies the existence of opportunities which can positively benefit the LPCs to transform the conflict in the study area. In nutshell, the LPCs are found to be very important institutions in conflict resolution and promoting peace in the study area. Therefore, the study recommended those governmental and non-governmental agencies, the LPC members, the community, and intellectuals altogether should strive to decrease the challenges and promote the opportunities of these LPCs to solve the Afar-Amhara conflicts at the border.
There are many conflict theories. Each of them has its own perspective that shapes the theme of its respective disciplinary approach. Despite their significant differences in treating conflicts, they may share common concerns, interests and focus on similar points that could attract their attentions. Theories of conflict are the explanations put forward to explain causes of conflict. The causes of conflict are numerous and complex, thus creating problem of analysis of specific conflict situations. The theories are advanced to simplify the causes by looking at them in categories. Hence, this term paper entitled “Conflict theories” encompasses conflict theories like Structural Conflict Theory, Realist Theory, Biological Theory, Physiological Theory, Economic Theory, Psycho-Cultural Conflict Theory, Human Needs Theory, Relational Theory, Systemic Theory, Marxist Theory of conflict, International Capitalism Theory of conflict, Game Theory. All these above mentioned theories are elucidated accordingly with their basic ideas.
This term paper entitled “Gender and Conflict responds to the need for deeper understanding of how gender and conflict interrelate. It incorporates the role of gender in conflict resolution, participation of women and conflict management policies, the basic assumption of feminist conflict resolution theory, impacts of conflict on gender and how gender is important in society Conflicts have different impacts on men and women, and on gender relations, like gender based violence, sexual harassment and so on. Conflict may also bring changes to women’s economic roles and changes in the sexual division of labour. Conflict impacts on the distribution of power and its gender dimensions in many different ways. Women are rarely in a position to make direct decisions about the waging of conflict. However, in some cases, power structures may be broken up and decentralized and there may be opportunities for women to gain access to decision-making bodies, at least at a local level. Or women who have access to power may, like their male counterparts, be able to wield it more forcefully. Generally, this paper addressed the ways in which conflict affects men and women differently and their relative positions prior to conflict.
The Role of Customary Conflict Resolution Mechanisms Among the Oromo: In Case of Dawo District of South West Shewa Zone
This study deals with the role of customary conflict resolution mechanisms in Oromia region with particular emphasis on Dawo district of south west shewa zone. Hence, the (i) purpose of this study was to examine and explore the significance of customary conflict resolution mechanisms in anthropological perspectives in the study area. The (ii) intent of the study was to identify the types of customary conflict resolution mechanisms and cause of conflict in Dawo district. The (iii) purpose of the study was to describe the structure and procedure as well as advantage and disadvantages of customary conflict resolution mechanisms. Finally, the purpose of this study was to provide information to understanding about the study area. To achieve this objective, both primary and secondary data was used. This study applied qualitative data. The data used in this study were generated from one- one interview, focus group discussion, case study and document analysis. In anthropological studies, analysis is an instrument to extract meanings from the information obtained during the field work. In such a manner, data were presented in a qualitative type. By using this methods, the study revealed that conflict in this research area emanate from land issues, theft and competition over resources.
The purpose of this study was A Mudrâ (Sanskrit: lit. “Seal”) is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism. While some Mudrâs involve the entire body, most are performed with the hands and fingers. Mudrâ (Sanskrit) is “spiritual gesture” and energetic “seal of authenticity” The different types of Yoga Mudra aid in person achieve better health and mental condition through proper and regular practice.