Cardiology Research and Reviews

  • Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity: Preliminary report from a tertiary cancer centre in India

    Cancer has emerged as a major public health issue in India owing to significant epidemiological and demographic transition. As per literature, the overall ten-year survival rate for cancer is at 50% across the 20 most common malignancies. However, the ten-year survival rate is even more high, i.e. approximately 80% or higher for breast, melanoma, lymphoma, and uterine cancers. Contrary to the improved long-term cancer survival rates there has been an increase in adverse cardiac effects of cancer treatment. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted at HCG Manavata Cancer Centre, Nashik was conducted. The study was conducted at a single center comprising of 115 participants. Anthracyline chemotherapy has remained a mainstay treatment approach for cancer patients. Cardiotoxic side-effects of anthracyline chemotherapy regimens often limits their dosing. Although anthracylines have been associated with improved cancer outcomes, there remains an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Doxorubicin-induced cardio toxicity was 5.45% while trastuzumab cardio toxicity was 5.26% (Table 4). The estimated cardio toxicity rate for our two-year follow-up was 4.08% for all specified chemotherapy regimens. The early detection of cardio toxicity by appropriate follow-up and monitoring is essential. Evaluation of patients using LVEF as a key parameter would help prevent irreversible cardio toxic events. Our preliminary report may act as a base for researchers and academicians to conduct and review ongoing chemotherapy regimens.

  • RVOT Septal Pacing: Short review of History and Technical Requirements for successful implantation

    The idea of Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT) septal pacing is based on the fact that the septal region of the RVOT and mid RV are the first zones of the ventricle to depolarise , suggesting that pacing from these areas on the right side of the septum would achieve as normal a contraction pattern as possible. This mini review describes short history of pacemaker and evolution of concept of physiological pacing like RVOT Pacing and its technical aspects of successful implantation.

  • Hematological Change in Dogs Infected by Babesia Canis From Recife/Pernambuco

    Introduction: The canine babesiosis is a disease caused by the intra-erythrocyte hematozoa Babesia canis, B. gibsoni and B. vogeli, mainly transmitted by Rhipicefalus sanguineus tick. In Brazil, the most common species is B. canis. Cases of canine babesiosis have been reported in several Brazilian states, and may cause serious damage to the health of animals. Objective: this study aims to analyze the hematological alterations of dogs treated at a veterinary clinic. Methodology: the research was retrospective, exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional with quantitative-qualitative approach, and it was carried out at the clinic Bicho Estimado – Cordeiro, Recife-PE. Data collection was performed in the database of the Clinic laboratory, where reports of complete blood count and hematozoal examination were consulted, referring to the period from May 2012 to December 2014. Results: 716 laboratory reports were analyzed. A mean positivity of 20.11% was found for canine babesiosis, diagnosed by the blood draw technique stained by Giemsa. With regard to the hemogram, the following results were obtained: erythrocytes with an average value of 5.36 million/μL [reference value (VR)= 5,5 to 8,5] and platelets 183.5 thousand/μL (200-500 thousand/μL). Discussion: The hemogram showed the presence of anemia, with values of hemoglobin below the reference values. In the leukogram, monocytopenia and mild neutrophilia were observed. He also had thrombocytopenia and a high positivity for babesia. Conclusion: the results showed that babesiosis affects dogs of this region with a relevant frequency, causing alterations in some hematological parameters. The data indicate that the city has favorable conditions and an environment conducive to the contact of dogs with the transmitting agent, an important fact to outline future prevention, education and treatment strategies.

  • Psychological Care Occurs in Pre and Postoperative Cardiac Valve Replacement Surgery

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases affect many individuals and their medical evaluation identifies the need for surgery, such as myocardial revascularization, valve replacement, among others. Cardiac valve replacement is a possibility for patients to promote their quality of life, which requires the performance of a multidisciplinary team, and the psychological support to the patient collaborates for its recovery. Objective: To describe how psychological care occurs in pre and postoperative cardiac valve replacement surgery. Methodology: Experience report. Results and discussion: In the preoperative period of this surgery, the psychologist performs an interview to evaluate the patient, analyzes whether he has a history of mental disorder and establishes a host and attachment for follow-up, and in the postoperative period, focuses on recovery and psychological support to the patient, aiming to raise awareness of the quality of life. Conclusion: The insertion of the psychologist in the health team is essential for the patient care in this surgery, offering psychological support and speech space to express the patient’s desires before surgery and the chronicity of this disease.

  • Prevalence of Obesity in Hypertensive Patients

    Introduction: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome, which involves hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of hypertension is about 3 times higher in obese patients. In the treatment of hypertension associated with obesity the decrease of the BMI plays central role in the reduction of the pressure. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of obesity in hypertensive patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of the documental type with a quantitative approach was carried out from 150 medical records of adult hypertensive patients followed up by the HIPERDIA program in the first half of 2017 at the Pororoca basic health unit in the municipality of Santa Cecília -PB. The body mass index was used to classify the nutritional status. Results and Discussion: 51% female, 49% male. 10% adequate weight, 65% overweight and 25% obesity. The prevalence of obesity in the studied population was 25%, while 65% of the sample were overweight. Only a small part, 10%, was found as the proper weight. There was no discrepancy in the percentage of male and female users. Conclusion: The results of the present study show a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, reinforcing the need for strategies that promote the reduction of obesity among hypertensive individuals. For this, the identification of obesity should be part of the routine actions of basic attention to the health of the hypertensive ones.

  • Health Education in Systemic Arterial Hypertension: an Approach to Nursing

    A Introduction: Systemic arterial hypertension is a multifactorial clinical condition characterized by elevated and sustained blood pressure levels, which when not adequately treated causes temporary and / or permanent complications. Constantly associated with injuries such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure and renal and vascular disease of extremities. Objective: Describe nursing care in systemic arterial hypertension, with emphasis on health education for patients and their families. Methodology: An integrative review was performed using articles as criteria between 2013 and 2017, combining the descriptors: nursing care, health education and hypertension, in the electronic databases Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SCIELO), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS) and National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE). We selected 67 articles initially and after reading the titles and summaries of them, only 12 presented a relation with the researched topic. Being 02 from SCIELO, 05 from LILACS and 05 from MEDLINE. Results and Discussion: In the context of systemic arterial hypertension, the nurse should assist the client, assist him in controlling blood pressure levels and in the development of skills and attitudes that provide effective self-care, such as stimulating the modification of unfavorable habits. For this, it is essential that the interaction between professional and client takes place in an effective way, with the purpose of enabling adherence to treatment. As part of this process, in addition to individual monthly consultations it is necessary to have group activities addressing hypertension, guiding control measures and encouraging the continuity of treatment. Conclusion: It is up to the professional, therefore, to consider that the care given by him is not an imposition of knowledge, but rather an exchange of knowledge and trust, valuing the autonomy, the protagonism of the patient and the help of the family in the caring process.

  • Multidisciplinary Care in Elderly Patients With Immobility Due to Femur Fractures

    Introduction: the aging of the brazilian population is a growing and inevitable phenomenon. Concomitantly, Brazil has a high number of cases of femur fractures in the elderly due to its propensity for falls and osteoporosis. There were more than 180,000 cases between 2008 and 2012, generating a great economic and social impact, as well as being responsible for a high morbidity and mortality rate in this population. Objective: this study aims to highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary care of immobilized elderly as a result of femur fractures. Methodology: a bibliographic review was performed through the electronic databases Scielo, Uptodate and Pubmed with the following descriptors “idosos E fratura de fêmur E cuidado” and “elderly AND femoral fracture AND care”. Out of the articles found, 7 were selected that were published in Portuguese and English between 2010 and 2017. Results and Discussion: femur fractures have a great impact on the health of the elderly. Most of the procedures for the treatment of these fractures have a surgical approach. However, due to the general state of this population, conservative treatments are sometimes chosen. Many of these patients become bedridden, generating some degree of functional dependency. In addition, an estimated one-third of elderly patients with a femur fracture are estimated to die within a year. Conclusion: considering that the brazilian elderly population is increasing, it should be expected the increase in cases of femur fracture. It is important that health professionals who work with the elderly population are aware of the possible risk factors that lead to this event and the possible complications once the event has occurred, acting together to provide a better quality of life for this population.