Engineering Research and Reviews

  • Assessing Plausible Options For Sourcing Spare Parts Of Earthmoving Equipment On The Profitability Of Nigeria’s Iron Ore Company

    As Nigeria takes a bold step to revive her iron ore company, it is pertinent she takes adequate account of her economic and technological limitations, in order to achieve a return on this venture. To this end, the Net Discounted Present Value approach to investment appraisal in mine economics, was employed to evaluate two feasible investment options (spare part importation and conventional sand casting) for sourcing parts of earthmoving equipment on the profitability of Nigeria’s iron ore mining company (NIOMCO),over a period of five years. Findings revealed that, both options are not profitable to the federal entity, owing to the high rate of Nigeria’s inflation (15.98%) and unfavorable market exchange rate of $1 to 359.201. However, it recommends that the entity be privatized to financially buoyant investors, able to withstand the cost of operating the company. Also, a new price has to be set, using the absorption pricing technique, in order to absorb running costs, through the projected period of five years. In addition, no additional unit of labour, be employed, due to its evident burden on running expenses, over the projected period of five years. Unfortunately, selling iron ore concentrate at the prevailing market price ($62.59) was found not to be profitable to the entity. To this effect, the design of modalities aimed at penetrating and coping in the domestic market is a necessity, to enhance the entity’s sustainability, in the short-run. This is subject to further research.

  • Gravitation Flat Power Field

    A new principle of origin and the nature of the action of gravity forces are proposed. Forces of universal attraction have plane-symmetrical directions. On this basis, it becomes possible to reconsider certain regularities in natural science. The new principle of gravitation will allow to explain physical paradoxes, to improve methods of scientific research and some technological processes.

  • Comparison of Solar Irradiance between WRF simulation and Deep Learning: Case study in Nishi Akisawa, Japan

    A This paper presents a study of evaluation for the reliability of seven-days direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse irradiance (DIF) forecasts which provided by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six-hourly interval 0.5°x0.5° input dataset obtained from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) website. 3 km spatial resolution was used to estimate seven-days simulation starting from 1st to 7th January 2017 for comparison purpose. Long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm has been applied to make future prediction. The one-hourly values input dataset of LSTM obtained from Nishi Akisawa mega solar website is consist of one-year data of solar irradiance starting from 1st January to 31st December 2016. This dataset divided into training datasets (89%) and testing datasets(11%) where the testing datasets values was used to make future prediction of solar irradiance. The result shows the error of root mean square of LSTM algorithm is 129 W/m2 higher compare to 101 W/m2 from the WRF model for seven-days prediction but the result of this study proposed using LSTM algorithm for future prediction of solar irradiance or others parameter of weather.

  • Environmental Consequences of Receded Iyi-Ocha Lake Surrounded by Federal Polytechnic Oko, Amaokpala and Nanka Communities

    The purpose of this project is to share the finding of study and advocate the need for the administration of Federal Polytechnic Oko to undertake the issue of providing Water to the Polytechnic community as paramount and the solution to the receding Iyiocha lake which could useful in the provision of water. The poor state of water and sanitation facilities in the campus particularly the permanent site is a major factor for the declining health and the reduction in productivity among the students and staff. The major water and sanitation related ailments reported in the school apart from malaria are diarrhea and worm infestation, which indicates that water and sanitation facilities are inadequate in the campus and to ascertain the cause of solution to the receding lake. Therefore, there is a need for such facilities to be provided and upgraded in spite of the environmental consequences of the receding lake which is to be (-1.1) due to environmental impact, also in the rainy season to observe good contribution of water from the lake to the ground water ,as it ceases to discharge to the Lake during rainy season. The main objectives are to identify enough water to serve the population with adequate water supply and promoting better health practice focusing on the use of clean water, good hygienic and proper excretion disposal. Moreover rainfall data was collected from the department of Geography and Meteorology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, was used to determine the re

  • Implication of Environmental Impacts Assessment on Construction Projects in Nigeria

    The paper describes the consequence of environmental development as degrading, disrupting process to social activities, leading to unconducive life through economic, social system and cultural value. Environment and Development complementing each other, where a carefully nurtured environment continues to provide the basis for continuous development.

  • Optimization of the number, size and placement of D-STATCOM in radial distribution network using Ant Colony Algorithm

    This paper investigate an approach based on Ant Colony Optimization to identify optimal size, number, cost and placement of D-STATCOMs in radial distribution systems. Objective functions integrating power loss, voltage deviation and cost minimizations are solved by Ant Colony algorithm developed in MATLAB. This algorithm is tested on the IEEE 33- bus system and on a real distribution network of SBEE (Beninese Society of Electrical Energy). As results, it is observed that losses are reduced to 22.42 percent for IEEE 33-bus system with five D- STATCOMs and global installation and operating estimated cost of 3546762.35 dollars in first, and then, losses are reduced to 61.63 percent with four D-STATCOMs and cost of 2493146.29 dollars for a real distribution system of SBEE.

  • Analysis and research on new mechanical characteristics of narrow base steel tube tower for transmission line

    Compared with the common angle steel tower, the narrow base steel pipe tower has the advantages of simple structure, beautiful appearance, small floor area and better coordination with the urban environment. In the construction of urban high pressure transmission line, the narrow base tower has its own unique advantages and wide application prospects. It has the advantages of ordinary iron tower processing, transportation, assembly, cost saving, small occupancy of single column steel pipe rod, small line corridor and beautiful beauty. In the optimization design of the narrow tower, how to take the wind vibration coefficient of the tower, how to consider the bending moment of the rod end, the design of the narrow base tower and the structure optimization of the narrow tower tower are all the problems to be solved urgently. In this paper, the modal analysis of a single tower is carried out to determine its vibration mode, and then the wind vibration coefficient of a narrow tower is analyzed. Finally, the influence of x and y direction vibration on the frequency of the tower is obtained.

  • Analysis and Assessment of Agulu-Nnaka Erosion Impact on Human Lives and Infrastructure

    The aim of this study was to rehabilitate the gully erosion site and reduce longer term erosion vulnerability in Agulu/Nanka Community. This activity was carried out through some civil works such as construction of concrete drainage system, culverts and silty basin, spikes, rock chutes and stabilization of gully. An engineering design was used for the erosion gully intervention which highlighted on the detailed civil works that were carried out. An environmental and social management plan study was implemented aimed at identifying potential and social impacts that were associated with the rehabilitation as proposed means of minimizing and mitigating them to acceptable level.

  • Tribo evaluation of Surface Treated Carbon Fiber Reinforced Friction Material

    Carbon fiber reinforced friction material is formulated by grafting MWCNT-F on its surface. This material combination is investigated in this work by using a wear test apparatus. The surface of CF is chemically inert and hydrophobic in nature and possesses poor bonding strength with polymer matrix. Hence, an attempt is made to improve the bonding behaviour between CF and remaining ingredients. CF surface is modified by grafting multi walled carbon nano tubes functionalized (MWCNT-F) on CF surface. CF content after surface modification is varied in wt% (2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) and mixed with remaining ingredients of friction material. Composite sheets are prepared by using hand layup method. Multi walled Carbon Nano Tubes grafted friction material (MWCRFM), is characterized for SEM. MWCNTs-F on CF surface is observed. Sample specimens are cut from the friction composite sheets and the influence of performance properties like friction, wear, speed, load and time on friction is studied. The behaviour of the samples are also analyzed using regression analysis L9 (3×3) experimental design method for 3 different loads, time periods and speeds. The results reveal that, time and braking pressure plays an important role to control the wear rate and coefficient of friction of the composite. It was also observed that, MWCNT-F grafted on CF specimens for sample M5 (CF 5 wt%) possess less wear rate and high stable coefficient of friction compare to other formulations of materials.

  • Thin Film Diamond For Optical Applications

    Diamond is a unique material with robust mechanical properties, the electrical and the optical properties of the thin film diamond can be altered as they are deposited using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The thin film diamond can be used both as optical window for certain wavelengths of light and as a reflector, based on the thickness and the deposition parameters of the thin film diamond. In this paper, we are illustrating a 1 µm thin film diamond that we were able to deposit, pattern and etch selectively using standard microfabrication techniques. This patterning of diamond film allows us to create 3D structures using single crystal diamond.