The paper describes the consequence of environmental development as degrading, disrupting process to social activities, leading to unconducive life through economic, social system and cultural value. Environment and Development complementing each other, where a carefully nurtured environment continues to provide the basis for continuous development.
Optimization of the number, size and placement of D-STATCOM in radial distribution network using Ant Colony Algorithm
This paper investigate an approach based on Ant Colony Optimization to identify optimal size, number, cost and placement of D-STATCOMs in radial distribution systems. Objective functions integrating power loss, voltage deviation and cost minimizations are solved by Ant Colony algorithm developed in MATLAB. This algorithm is tested on the IEEE 33- bus system and on a real distribution network of SBEE (Beninese Society of Electrical Energy). As results, it is observed that losses are reduced to 22.42 percent for IEEE 33-bus system with five D- STATCOMs and global installation and operating estimated cost of 3546762.35 dollars in first, and then, losses are reduced to 61.63 percent with four D-STATCOMs and cost of 2493146.29 dollars for a real distribution system of SBEE.
Analysis and research on new mechanical characteristics of narrow base steel tube tower for transmission line
Compared with the common angle steel tower, the narrow base steel pipe tower has the advantages of simple structure, beautiful appearance, small floor area and better coordination with the urban environment. In the construction of urban high pressure transmission line, the narrow base tower has its own unique advantages and wide application prospects. It has the advantages of ordinary iron tower processing, transportation, assembly, cost saving, small occupancy of single column steel pipe rod, small line corridor and beautiful beauty. In the optimization design of the narrow tower, how to take the wind vibration coefficient of the tower, how to consider the bending moment of the rod end, the design of the narrow base tower and the structure optimization of the narrow tower tower are all the problems to be solved urgently. In this paper, the modal analysis of a single tower is carried out to determine its vibration mode, and then the wind vibration coefficient of a narrow tower is analyzed. Finally, the influence of x and y direction vibration on the frequency of the tower is obtained.
The aim of this study was to rehabilitate the gully erosion site and reduce longer term erosion vulnerability in Agulu/Nanka Community. This activity was carried out through some civil works such as construction of concrete drainage system, culverts and silty basin, spikes, rock chutes and stabilization of gully. An engineering design was used for the erosion gully intervention which highlighted on the detailed civil works that were carried out. An environmental and social management plan study was implemented aimed at identifying potential and social impacts that were associated with the rehabilitation as proposed means of minimizing and mitigating them to acceptable level.
Carbon fiber reinforced friction material is formulated by grafting MWCNT-F on its surface. This material combination is investigated in this work by using a wear test apparatus. The surface of CF is chemically inert and hydrophobic in nature and possesses poor bonding strength with polymer matrix. Hence, an attempt is made to improve the bonding behaviour between CF and remaining ingredients. CF surface is modified by grafting multi walled carbon nano tubes functionalized (MWCNT-F) on CF surface. CF content after surface modification is varied in wt% (2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) and mixed with remaining ingredients of friction material. Composite sheets are prepared by using hand layup method. Multi walled Carbon Nano Tubes grafted friction material (MWCRFM), is characterized for SEM. MWCNTs-F on CF surface is observed. Sample specimens are cut from the friction composite sheets and the influence of performance properties like friction, wear, speed, load and time on friction is studied. The behaviour of the samples are also analyzed using regression analysis L9 (3×3) experimental design method for 3 different loads, time periods and speeds. The results reveal that, time and braking pressure plays an important role to control the wear rate and coefficient of friction of the composite. It was also observed that, MWCNT-F grafted on CF specimens for sample M5 (CF 5 wt%) possess less wear rate and high stable coefficient of friction compare to other formulations of materials.
Diamond is a unique material with robust mechanical properties, the electrical and the optical properties of the thin film diamond can be altered as they are deposited using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The thin film diamond can be used both as optical window for certain wavelengths of light and as a reflector, based on the thickness and the deposition parameters of the thin film diamond. In this paper, we are illustrating a 1 µm thin film diamond that we were able to deposit, pattern and etch selectively using standard microfabrication techniques. This patterning of diamond film allows us to create 3D structures using single crystal diamond.
The atomic structure is presented on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation. The feasibility and calculation of the values of the density and mass of electromagnetic particles are proposed. A calculation is made, which proves that the photon must have mass. In the calculations, some physical characteristics of electromagnetic particles that are accepted by modern physics are refuted.
The evidence that the strength of any body provide nuclear forces of gravity. The nuclear force of gravity generated by the essential micro vortices. The vortex creates a pressure gradient in the ether. The pressure gradient is the source of nuclear energy. The nuclear force of gravity on the surface of the cores is equal for all elementary particles.
Are investigated a trajectory of new type in distant, space flights unlike usual trajectories of direct flight to heavenly object (Moon) it is supposed to use asymmetry of a gravitational field and to carry out flight bypassing the most power gravitational impact on the spacecraft. It leads to economy of power for 20-30 %.