American Journal of Orthopedic Research and Reviews

  • Single-cell transcriptome analyses profile tissue macrophages in the human osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been considered as a degenerative disease, but growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a vital role in its pathogenesis. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, inflammation in OA is chronic and in relatively low-grade, mainly mediated by the innate immune system, especially macrophages. However, due to its low abundance, there is a lack of systematic studies on macrophages in the OA condition. Here, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing analysis to gain insight into the heterogeneity and functional specialization of human knee macrophages. We also compared the gene expression profiles of macrophages in healthy people and OA patients, and found the characteristic changes of special macrophages in the OA knee. We believe that this in-depth understanding of the basis of OA inflammation will bring hope for the development of new therapies.


    The previous chronic instability of the knee is a secondary progressive disease in the break of the previous crossed ligament (LCA) hiring the functional forecast of the lower and compromising limb sports activity. The objective of our job is to assess the clinical results of the surgical treatment of the breaks of LCA according to the Technology of DIDT under arthroscopie with a femoral fixing by the system of the ultrabutton and to analyse the interest of this last in international series and magazine of literature We report a series of 17 patients who introduced a previous chronic laxity, performed by arthroplasty of the hamstrings tendon (right internal DIDT – half tendon) arthroscopy of ACL, collected over a period of 12 months. Femoral fixation was provided by the endobutton system. After a medium detachment of 8 months, and according to the score of objective International Knee Material Committee (IKDC) the total score of IKDC showed 91 % of our patients belonging to the group A, 7 % in the group B, 2 % to the group C and 0 % to the group D.


    Subtalar dislocations are uncommon limb lesion representing 1% of all dislocations that occurs in polytraumatism context. We here report the case of a young patient presenting with sports-related internal astragalo-scapho-calcaneal dislocation. The patient underwent orthopedic treatment with good clinical and radiological outcome


    Introduction: Fracture is a bone loss that can be discovered by pathological factors, congenital diseases, avitaminosis or even surgeries, and the cicatricial process as recovery of tissue stability. We have the possibility of assisting in the healing of the bone tissue of biochemical and biophysical modulators, from the use of hydroxyapathy, chitosone, ultrasound and cryotherapy. Objective: This literature review aimed to discuss the characteristics of bone tissue, its regeneration and the main biochemical and biophysical treatments without the use of auxiliary agents in the cicatricial process. Methodology: A research of data on PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, Journal of Cell Science and the Ministério da saúde was done through the keywords “Bone healing”, “Modulators” and its components in Portuguese and English, in the last 10 years. 92 articles were found, with 43 articles selected. Results: According to the studies of literary bases, the biochemical and biochemical ones were constituted and are great auxiliaries in the cicatricial process of the bone tissue. Conclusion: Evidence in the literature has shown that modulators can reduce the time of regeneration of bone tissue.


    Introduction. Osteopetrosis (Albers-Schonberg disease) is an inherited bone disease characterized by the occurrence of osteoclast dysfunction, this causes bone density to increase, making it dense, hard and brittle. Goal. This is an integrative review in order to answer the following research question: what factors lead the individual to develop osteopothesis. Methodology. The search was performed in the following databases and online libraries: Pubmed, Medline and SciELO. Results and discussion. Osteopetrosis is a disease caused by gene mutations, which manifests itself mainly in two classifications: of recessive (malignant) and dominant (benign) type, its main diagnostic methods are radiographic analysis and histopathological exams. In both disease classifications some biochemical and physiological characteristics are altered as bone matrix components, genes, hormones and cells in the blood tissue causing both abnormal proliferation and the malfunctioning of cell members responsible for bone maintenance. Conclusion. Since it is a condition that has serious health consequences, osteopetrosis is still little known in the medical and social spheres. Thus, it is of fundamental importance that there is greater dissemination of research on this disease so that there is an increasingly early diagnosis and, thus, minimize its consequences and to establish an increasingly concise and efficient treatment plan.

  • An Extensive Review of the Surgical Supplies

    Damage to the skin gives an extraordinary test, as wound healing is a mind boggling and perplexing procedure. Intense wounds can possibly move from the intense wound to ceaseless wounds, requiring the physician to have a careful comprehension of outside intercessions to bring these wounds once more into the healing course. Careful improvement/dressings are applications for wounds, consumes, and ulcers. They ought to be viewed as strong of healing; are attractive however not fundamental in a crisis. There are as of now a lot of dressings accessible in the market to help in wound healing. Before picking a dressing for particular damage, a physician must survey cautiously the requirements of the wound to comprehend which dressing would guarantee most extreme intrigue. Essentially, there is nothing called best decision, and it is urgent that the benefits/faults of each dressing framework be comprehended. This article has given a system to help with dressing appraisal. This article uncovers estimation of wound healing and the elements of wound dressings. An assortment of dressings and their particular subtleties are point by point.


    Traumatic carpal-metacarpal dislocations without associated fracture are rare lesions and their dorsal component is exceptional. Untreated, these lesions can lead to joint instability and early joint degeneration. We report the case of a dislocated dislocation of the dorsal carpo-metacarpal of the fifth metacarpal in a 26-year-old man. On clinical examination, the patient had a rotational defect with a limitation of adduction (radial inclination). The imaging assessment revealed a diastasis between the base of the fourth and fifth metacarpals, accompanied by the dorsal dislocation of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The treatment consisted of an open reduction maintained by racking. The joint was immobilized for 6 weeks. At 14 months of follow-up, the patient presented no pain and had resumed all her activities without any embarrassment.

  • Ponseti casting for clubfoot – fiberglass or plaster casting?

    Background: Various cast materials have been used to manage idiopathic club foot by Ponseti method of serial casting and bracing each material have it`s advantage and disadvantage. Objectives: To compare between two cast materials used to treat idiopathic clubfoot in response to the number of casts required in achieving correction, the need for tenotomy, and skin problems that can result from using these materials. Methods: Patients were randomized to fiberglass cast group and plaster cast group. The outcome measures were: the number of casts required to obtain clubfoot correction, need for Achilles tenotomy, and skin problems that are associated with the use of different cast materials Results: We enrolled 33 children in the study with 40 clubfeet. 22 (55%) clubfeet were randomized to fiberglass and 18 (45%) to plaster casts. taking in consideration that bilateral feet have the same cast material for correction. There was a significant difference in the number of casts required for clubfoot correction between the two groups (p=0.005). Tenotomy was performed in 19 (47.5%) clubfeet with no significant association between tenotomy and cast material groups. Skin problem occurred in 8 (20%) clubfeet during the process of their correction. Conclusion: The historical plaster of Paris remain to be the material of choice which can be used for correction of clubfeet by Ponseti method.

  • Intramuscular myxoma of the thigh: a rare case report

    Myxoma is a rare, benign mesenchymal tumor composed of undifferentiated stellate cells within a myxoid stromaresembling that of the umbilical cord . Apart from cardiac locations, skeletalmuscle involvement is commonly seen around thigh muscles, although other muscles could be affected with intermuscular, para-articular and even subcutaneous subsets. The authors intend to highlight the diagnostic challenge that could arise in the management of what is a benign tumor through a case report and review of relevant literature.

  • Interrelationship Between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Periodontitis

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis are two chronic inflammatory diseases where inflammatory mediators induce bone loss and destruction involving joints and supporting tooth tissues, respectively. The observance of similarities in its pathogenic mechanisms has aroused interest in research on the association between these conditions. Objectives: To verify the interrelationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Methodology: Literature review where articles were searched in the 2007-2017 period, available on the Internet, in the database systems: Medlars on line International Literature (Medline), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs) and Brazilian Bibliography of Dentistry (BBO) present on the website of the Virtual Health Library (BVS). Results and Discussion: The literature does not yet confirm the interrelation between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. However, considering the similarity of the pathogenic processes, these chronic and destructive inflammatory diseases are still under investigation worldwide, and it is believed that the relationship between the two processes can be scientifically proven. Although several clinical trials show worse periodontal conditions and higher frequency of dental loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, when compared to healthy controls; yet it is not possible to point out the interrelation or degree of dependence and / or favoring the development of these processes between these two diseases. Conclusion: The interrelation between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis has not been completely clarified nor scientifically proven despite the similarity between pathogenic mechanisms. However, considering the severity of the same should seek the prevention, diagnosis and appropriate treatment, as early as possible.