American Journal of Psychiatric Research and Reviews

  • Measuring the Effectiveness of Deradicalisation: The Development of MIKRA Risk Assessment

    Instruments for identifying risk of terrorist offenders could help counterterrorism practitioners define parameters of effective rehabilitation and detect a change in risk level of offenders before and after treatment. This study aims to develop Motivation-Ideology-Capability Risk Assessment, known as MIKRA, to examine the level of risk of terrorist offenders. The study involved Indonesian counterter-rorism experts and practitioners for examining the construct validity of MIKRA and terrorist offenders at a maximum-security prison for analysing the external and criterion-related validity. External validity was implemented by comparing offenders’ MIKRA scores with their risk categories reported by Counterterror-rism Special Task Force. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) was also applied to examine MIKRA’s psychometric properties. The results indicate alpha reliability α= 0.933. Furthermore, offenders’ MIKRA scores are correlated significantly with categories of risk released by the official, but not correlated with the non-offenders’ scores. This means MIKRA is valid to investigate risks of terrorist offenders.

  • Psychological and Behavioral Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Children

    The global epidemiological trends led to the declaration of coronavirus (COVID-19) as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. This necessitated the closure of schools, parks, and recreation and community facilities in most parts of the globe. As a result, there was a rapid shift to online education delivery, and even virtual school graduation ceremonies. Thus, children became part of the sudden behavioural changes needed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. These changes include social distancing, frequent handwashing and stay-at-home restrictions. Some families had to cancel planned vacations, and others were forced to go into isolation or quarantine as recommended by the public health policies and guidelines. This paper reviews the psychological and behavioural impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on school-age children.

  • Long COVID-19 syndrome precaution and management

    COVID-19 virus defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus which first discovered in Wuhan City, China. And On January 30, 2020, the WHO awarded the global health emergency. This is a review of COVID-19’s highly affects on almost all the organs and how we precaution and management as the COVID-19 causes many systemic abnormalities like inflammation, endotheliitis, vasoconstriction, hypercoagulability, edema and Lymphocytopenia, with elevated D-dimer, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Deep vein thrombosis and venous, thrombosis with pulmonary embolization, systemic and pulmonary arterial thrombosis, embolism are reported, ischemic stroke changes, and myocardial infarction are reported also. it can lead to acute coronary syndrome, with heart failure and myocarditis, arrhythmias. Kidney affection was usually secondary to systemic allover disturbances. Stroke may occurred. Delirium and seizures symptoms are common. impaired the tastes are reported with Psychological disturbances are commonly, Lactate dehydrogenase may be elevated. Many skin manifestations including patchy erythematous rash are noticeable, also effects in sexual function and in vitro fertilization success. One of the biggest barriers standing in the way of ending the pandemic the misinformation about the COVID-19 vaccines. At this critical time the Demand for vaccines very effective as it rigorously tested and found to be safe, also Vaccines have no effect on recipients’ genetic material and not effect on fertilization also Antibodies from are estimated to last two to four months, so those who have had a previous infection still get this vaccinated.

  • Post-COVID 19 Experience of Space empty of Matter: Germination of a new science across Zero-Point-Energy

    A profound and lasting experience has the power to change the Worldview. For a scientist, this may be the reason for genesis of a path-making theory. The experience of space empty of matter by post-COVID 19 sufferers, amongst whom are many scientists, is expected to bring zero-point energy (ZPE) state in focus again, with the beginning of a new science across ZPE.

  • The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in Psychiatric Outpatient Visits in Abu Dhabi – A Retrospective Study

    Introduction: Coronavirus pandemics has affected mental health services around the globe. A marked reduction in psychiatric admission and emergency visits were reported recently. With regards to outpatient services, there was an adoption of tele-psychiatry in mental health facilities in many countries. Objectives: To examine the impact of COVID-19 pandemics on the psychiatric outpatient visits in the largest Psychiatric Hospital in Abu Dhabi, UAE, during the month of April 2020. Methodology: A descriptive retrospective study of medical records of all patients attended the general adult psychiatry clinic in the month of April 2020. Results: 1,050 patients were included in the analysis. The sample consists of 55.9% males. The mean age was 40.7 years. The predominant ethnicity was Arab (88.3%). The most prevalent diagnosis was depressive disorder 32.7%. Only 1.6 % patients attended the clinic as new appointments. Tele-assessment was conducted in 64% (N=672) visits. 9.3 % reported to be in relapse during April. Patient with schizophrenia showed the lowest relapse rate 5.7%. Only 8.5% had taken PCR COVID test, with two patients tested positive. Conclusion: The great shift to tele-assessments and the service of medications home delivery were the main reason for maintaining the service in the psychiatric outpatient settings.

  • COVID-19 Lockdown Fatigue

    In this COVID-19 lockdown Survey Monkey study, as many as 75% of 260 respondents reported feeling fatigued. Correlation analyses suggested that feeling fatigued was significantly correlated with demographic variables and virtually every item on every scale of the survey. The demographic correlations suggested that fatigue occurred more frequently in younger participants, in males, and in those not working from home during the lockdown. The significant correlations for the scales suggested that those feeling fatigued engaged in fewer health activities including exercise and self-care; they spent more time on social media including gaming and Facebook; they engaged in less cooking and creative projects; they scored higher on the Stress Scale including worrying more about the virus and their finances; they reported feeling more isolated, lonely, bored and touch deprived; they did more snacking and napping and expressed more “cabin fever”; they had lower scores on connecting and activities at home; and they had higher scores on anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and PTSD scales. A regression analysis suggested that 51% of the variance in the fatigue scores was explained by the depression (37% variance), sleep disturbances (12%) and anxiety (1%) scores. These results are limited by their being self-reported data from a non-representative, cross-sectional sample. Nonetheless, they highlight the negative effects of feeling fatigued during a COVID-19 lockdown.

  • Salvador Dali Meets Sigmund Freud: Paranoia, Narcissism, Snails

    This paper examines the meeting between the artist Salvador Dalí and Sigmund Freud that took place in London in July of 1938. Freud had just escaped from the Nazi regime in Austria and was about a year away from death. Dalí had been influenced by Freud’s work for many years and had sought to meet his idol on several previous occasions. The meeting, arranged by Freud’s friend, Stefan Zweig, and attended by the poet, Edward James, is noteworthy in that Dalí brought his painting, “Metamorphosis of Narcissus,” a treatise on the subject of paranoia, and sketched Freud’s head conceived as a snail. The paper offers perspectives on each of these events. The meeting is seen in the context of Freud’s artistic sensibility and his relationship to Surrealism. For Dalí the meeting served as a way to break with Surrealism and led to a revised philosophy of art. The paper concludes with the speculation that the meeting was experienced by the artist as an idealizing/envious narcissistic transference with Freud, thus replicating the theme of the painting that the artist had brought with him.

  • Education of Healthcare Professionals on an Integrated Care Pathway in order to Standardize Practice and Improve Outcomes for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disability (IDD) who engage in Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB)

    This paper addresses the lack of knowledge and lack of standardization for treating individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) to the head. An evidence-based integrated clinical care pathway is described that was created for health care professionals treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) who engage in frequent and/or significant SIB. It is anticipated that this pathway will increase treatment team knowledge of best practices, decrease clinical variation, standardize care, and improve clinical outcomes with this vulnerable population.

  • The New Approaches Therapeutics That Complement Medicinal Therapy of Patients in Mental Health: an Analysis

    Mental illnesses represent a challenge for healthcare worldwide. In Brazil, this reality is not different, with the Unified Health System (SUS) providing or improving the therapeutic treatment of patients assisted by public health policies, through the implementation of integrative and complementary practices in mental health patient therapy. Drug therapy associated with the increase in integrative practices contributes to improvements in the patient, in addition to promoting updates to the protocols and clinical guidelines that address pathologies of the mental nature. In this context, this chapter should analyze the main mental disorders, such as drug therapies used to treat these patients, as well as the use of integrative practices that complement the use of medications.

  • Autistic Espectrum Disorder – a New Perspective About the Early Diagnostic

    The term “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) describes today a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with diverse etiologies. Autism spectrum disorder is obviously a neurodevelopmental disorder that seems to be a big challenge today for both: the family doctor and the pediatrician. The core of this disorder is mainly integrated by the patient’s communication and social interaction difficulties and by the presence of repetitive or restricted behaviors and / or interests. (AUGUSTYN, PATTERSON, TORCHIA, 2019 p. 1)1-10 Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a pervasive and permanent disorder. It has no cure, no especific treatment, and this must be clarified from the begining, however, early intervention can drastically alter prognosis and soften symptoms (SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE PEDIATRIA, 2019) 1-10. To benefit from early intervention, the patient with autistic spectrum disorder needs an early diagnosis. The key to their better social integration is the time. It is obvious that children identified with risk for autism spectrum disorder should be referred to a specialist with the purpose to establishing the diagnosis. However, it is primarily up to the primary-care physician to identify children at risk through developmental follow-up, behavioral follow-up and eventually through a valid screening and clinical judgment. In fact, early, accurate and appropriate diagnosis usually requires a clinician with experience in diagnosis and treatment. However, the contribution of a multiprofessional team to assess key symptoms, functional impairment, severity, and comorbid conditions is very important. The management of this patient should be individualized according to the child’s age and specific needs. The primary care provider can refer the child to local consultants or the public school system for ancillary evaluations (speech language, cognitive and adaptive testing, psychoeducational testing) (AUGUSTYN, PATTERSON, TORCHIA, 2019 p. 2)1-10 The key to our attitude as professionals is continuous follow-up. And it needs to be done together with an expert…