American Journal of Psychiatric Research and Reviews

  • Psychiatric Pharmacy: New role of Pharmacists in Mental Health

    Psychiatric disorders are one of the major causes of global burden of diseases. Stigma remains a major impediment in the delivery of mental healthcare. It has been found across various studies that attitudes of doctors of other specialties and other healthcare professionals also contribute to stigma due to their lack of knowledge and awareness about psychiatry and mental health problems. The number of mental health professionals remains abysmally low. Community pharmacists are accessible, knowledgeable, and capable of providing mental health promotion and care in communities. This may not be a role that is recognized by the public, and men in particular. However, psychotherapy paired with medication is the most effective way to promote recovery. Examples include: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, etc. Pharmacists can play a key role by providing mental health medication management support to improve access and address patients’ mental health needs.

  • Sadipathy – Conceptualization and Elucidation

    Sadipathy is a unique and relevant construct that merits full scholarly consideration and scientific investigation. Sadipathy has herein been conceptualized as a psychological and behavioral pathology directly cognate with extremely violent and sadistic actions. The sadipath is an individual that takes pleasure in victimizing others, inflicting serious pain and injury on others, and often even committing murder. Sadipathic individuals derive emotional, psychological, and/or sexual delectation in repeatedly inflicting suffering on others. Sadipathy is particularly associated with certain types of the most extreme offenders, such as serial killers and violent sexual offenders. Sadipathy is an apropos phenomenon to various academic and applied fields, such as psychology, psychiatry, criminology, sociology, criminal justice, law, and corrections. In the field of psychology, sadipathy would be particularly germane to the concentrations of criminal psychology, clinical psychology, and forensic psychology.

  • Psychriatry in Ayurveda

    Synthetic drugs for human brain disorders are expensive symptomatic long treatments, sometimes showing serious and unavoidable side effects with poor patient compliance. Therefore, the herbal and Ayurvedic treatments are preferred over synthetic drugs for a range of human brain disorders including, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety, etc. Ayurvedic system of medicine has traditionally been used in several neurological conditions. The accessibility, negligible incidence of side effects and cost effectiveness of plant products offer considerable advantages. These days much attention is drawn towards the established traditional systems of herbal remedies for many brain disorders, generating positive hopes for the patients. The Ayurvedic prescriptions which contain either a single identity of plant or a mixture of plant materials have been proven to be very useful against such disorders. The plant materials prescribed for these problems range from herbs to perennial trees with varied plant parts, ranging from whole plant, roots, stem, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits to seeds. It has been attempted to review the current situation of mental disorder in the society vis-a-vis its effective solution described in the Ayurveda and problem of side effects in synthetic medicines.

  • To report the experience of training in suicide prevention for health professionals in Pernambuco

    Introduction: Nowadays, mental health work is understood through team work and aimed at the collective with the perspective of articulating and adding knowledge. In this sense, the broadening of the professionals perspective and training is essential to enhance care, especially in the issues of coping with self-inflicted violence, especially the suicidal behavior responsible for the death of approximately 800,000 people per year. Objective: to report the experience of training in the subject of suicide prevention for health professionals in the state of Pernambuco. Methodology: The proposal was developed in September 2017 in the training format, offered by a group of researchers from the Federal University of Pernambuco. The target audience was the professionals who work at the various levels of mental healthcare in the State of Pernambuco. The training was structured in three thematic axes: 1- Basic concepts; 2- Risk factors and profiles; 3- Management and prevention. Results and Discussion: The vast majority of professionals approved the proposal, in its 90,3% format, thematic 95,0% and content 97,0%. In total 99,0% considered the action to be important for their professional training and ensures afety regarding retention and apprehension of the subject, and can contribute more effectively to the issue of suicidal behavior. It can be considered that the experience contributed significantly to teaching and scientific research through the articulation of university researchers and professionals in mental healthcare, being considered as an action of permanent education and training, indispensable tools in the content of public health. Conclusion: It is considered that the action was successful in order to enable the comprehension and broadened view of the professionals of the multi professional team to promote the integral care of the subject who suffers, enabling the listening and support even the engagement in a specialized network.

  • The Role of the Psychologist in Palliative Care in Response to Patients With Cancer

    Introduction: The psychologist’s intervention in palliative care has widened glances on the dignity of the patient with chronic-degenerative diseases. In this way we perceive the relevance of the psychologist’s possibilities in acting together with the patient-family-health team. The aim of this study is to discuss the role of the psychologist in the context of palliative care in patients with cancer, relatives and staff. The methodology used was a bibliographic review. About the results found, points to the increasing number of people with chronic-degenerative diseases having cancers as one of the leading causes of death in the world. This fact emerges the need to include palliative care in the ongoing training of psychologists. In oncology, the recurrence of palliative chemotherapy, where patients adhere to relieve symptoms in their final months, promise to increase the life span and may also slow down the pain. But prolonging the life span is always the best option? In this scenario, the hospital psychologist, along with the team and their families, is responsible for promoting respect for the patient’s rights to make their own choices, presenting clear data about the disease and its evolution and respecting its limits of understanding and emotional tolerance. In addition to also acting on the quality of life of patients with end-stage cancer, as a facilitating agent in coping with stressful, sometimes aversive, events related to the treatment process, among them: aggressive pharmacological therapy and its side effects. The psycho oncology concludes that palliativeness deals with the acceptance of the human condition in the face of finitude, presenting to the patient outside the possibilities of healing, to his relatives and friends, the necessary conditions for the understanding of his finitude, since, in this perspective, is a disease to be cured, but the end of the life cycle. Therefore, the study made…

  • Association Between Cognitive Factors and Visual Hallucinations in Parkinsons Disease

    Introduction: Parkinson’s disease has a chronic and neurodegenerative evolution. With population aging, its incidence and prevalence increase. Its clinical features consist mainly of tremor, stiffness and bradykinesia; however, it is increasingly evident that non-motor symptoms, even if they are outside the diagnostic criteria, may be more disabling than motor manifestations. Studies indicate that visual hallucinations may be a prodromal symptom for cognitive impairment in these patients. Objective: To verify the association between visual hallucinations as a predictive factor for the development of cognitive alterations in Parkinson’s disease. Methodology: A search was performed on the PubMed and BVS databases, using the descriptors “Hallucinations”, “Cognition” and “Parkinson’s disease”. The inclusion criteria were: articles published between 2013 and 2017, in English and that fit the theme chosen. Review articles and on animals were excluded. Results and Discussion: From the 54 articles located, only 15 were in the focus of this review. Although visual hallucinations occur in about a quarter of patients with Parkinson’s disease, they are not well recognized in medical practice, even though they are associated with the onset of psychosis, motor signals and more severe depression, and are an important risk factor for the development of dementia in Parkinson’s Disease. Therefore, the early recognition of visual hallucinations and cognitive changes in this disease would allow directed intervention in the early stages and a better prognosis. Conclusion: The studies point to the need of the identification of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease who have not been properly recognized. This perception may contribute to an earlier, holistic and integrated care, also considering these non-motor symptoms in the treatment, providing quality of life for patients, their families, caregivers and reducing the need for institutionalization.

  • Speech Therapy Intervention in Relation of the Patient With Chronic Non-progressive Encephalopathy Experience Report

    Introduction: Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy, commonly known as cerebral palsy, is one of the most common childhood disorders, arising in early childhood. It is characterized by being a persistent disorder in several structures and functions (of tonus, posture and movement), causing a series of limitations regarding the accomplishment of functional activities. Objective: To report the experience of the practical activities of the compulsory supervised internship of speech therapy course in relation to the patient with Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy. Methodology: During the supervised stage, actions were carried out for speech-language intervention in patients with CNPE, where was carried out anamnesis, evaluation, speech-language therapy, guidelines and, when necessary, the patients were referred to the other specialties according to the needs observed. During the speech-language evaluation process, the analysis of the development of language aspects, communicative skills, evaluation of the functions and structures of the stomatoglossognatic system and auditory perception through musical resources and sound instruments were made. The intervention occurred on a weekly basis, with half an hour of duration, being stimulated the aspects of the language and worked the orofacial myofunctional structures. Results and Discussion: It was possible to observe that all the patients had enough communicative intention, development of language appropriate to the age group, however, they presented alterations in the stomatoglossognatic system with impairment of mobility, sensitivity and tonicity of the phonoarticulatory organs, emphasizing: orofacial hypotonia, with interference of the musculature for the complete absence of lip seal, protrusion and lateralization of the tongue and phonemic articulation. Rehabilitation for speech-language disorders in individuals with Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy will depend on the type and degree of overall motor impairment, comprehension and language aspects of each patient. Conclusion: It is necessary the speech-language and multidisciplinary intervention in an early, effective and humanized way, favoring the development of these skills and seeking to…

  • To conduct a literature review on the effects of virtual reality in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinsons disease

    Introduction: Due to the increased aging, growing chronic and degenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by the degeneration of substantia nigra cells. The main signs of PD are tremor at rest, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, idle and commitment in postural control and balance. Being frequent the use of technology applied to rehabilitation, one of them is virtual reality (VR), which stimulates the movement of the whole body by means of computer-based games, in order to recreate and enhance the sense of reality to the player with interactive games. The RV not immersive, the player interacts with the game, but it has the feeling of being in the real world by using, for example, joystick or common screen uses more interfaces for Nitendo Wii or Microsoft KinectTM, to assist in the rehabilitation of elderly people with PD. Objectives: To conduct a literature review on the effects of RV in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: A literature review was performed from items available in Scielo databases, PubMed, Lilacs, Medline in August 2017, selecting articles published from 2012 to 2017. Results and Discussion: Initially found 85 studies with the theme proposal, among them, 77 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Selecting articles 8, 4 case studies and literature reviews 4. Results report that RV helps increase the speed and movement time, gait, balance, postural control and reduction of falls. Conclusion: RV helps enhance the physiotherapeutic treatment both in motor control, functionality, balance, and cognitive ability on account of the treatment be playful and need concentration, but still needs more scientific studies with methodological qualities to confirm the results of the RV in rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease.