American Journal of Psychiatric Research and Reviews

  • Healing Relationships: co-therapists animals

    Anxiety and Depression Throughout history, humans have created various “instruments” for the survival of their species, including a need for socialization. These social relationships do not always occur successfully and when they do, there are behavioral changes, such as anxiety disorder, depression and even risk of suicide (SAVALLI; ADES, 2016; SOUSA; OLIVEIRA; CALOUI, 2018). Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) presents as main resources exacerbated fear or anxiety in social situations. Also called Social Phobia, SAD usually manifests itself before or during moments of interaction, as well as in situations where the individual feels observed or exposed to the approval of others (APA, 2013). This disorder is a consequence of one or several factors, whether psychological, biological or arising from lived situations (GOMES, 2014). Those who suffer from SAD tend to exhibit more reclusive habits, reducing their social circle to only their family members and to avoid situations in which they need to speak or even eat in the public. Physically, anxiety disorder usually manifests as hand tremors, flushing, nausea, frequent urination and/or panic attacks, signs that negatively influence the behavior of the affected individual and may cause a more intense degree of social isolation. Social Phobia physiologically impairs the functionality of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands, producing changes in production and releasing of several important hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol. This physiological change implies the maintenance of alertness, increases heart rate, alter body blood flow, and digestive processes and pupil dilation, these signals being the preparation of the body for situations of fight or escape. From the biological point of view, these characteristics are important for the survival of individuals. However, in the anxiety scenario, these effects are constantly manifesting, leading to the predominance arc of deleterious effects on the individual’s life. Early aging and cognitive signs, such…

  • ANXIETY

    With the changing age structure of the population, epidemiological shifts are observed. The incidence of infectious diseases has declined over the years and has been replaced by chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and psychological disorders. Anxiety disorders are more common among people suffering from chronic medical disease, and the number of medical illnesses is positively associated with the presence of anxiety (RAMOS; STANLEY, 2018, p.57). Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders that have their basis in one of the most rudimentary and adaptive human functions: the innate stress response (‘fight or flight’’ response) (ABRAMOWITZ; DEACON, 2010, p. 104). So, it is possible that during our lifetime we may suffer some kind of anxiety disorder. In fact, the stress response is designed to motivate us to protect ourselves by preparing to cope with a perceived threat. But when this stress or fear is disproportionate to actual threat or danger and significantly interferes with normal daily functioning, the person is said to have an anxiety disorder (ABRAMOWITZ; DEACON, 2010, p.104, OLTHUIS; WATT; BAILE; HAYDEN; STEWART, 2015, p.12). While fear is the emotional response to an imminent threat, characterized by an acute autonomic system activation, anxiety is better described as the “anticipation of a future threat” (DONELLI; ANTONELLIA; BELLINAZZIB; GENSINIC; FIRENZUOLID, 2019, p. 2). Anxiety is a disease which affects a large part of the world population. According to (Kessler et al (2007), approximately one in four individuals are likely to have, or have previously had, an anxiety disorder.

  • Speech Language Therapy and Mental Health: analysis of communicative behavior and intervention in individuals with schizophrenia

    Speech language intervention in mental health There are still a few literary reports of direct action of Speech Therapy in public care services to individuals diagnosed with mental disorders which is a current challenge for Speech language pathologist. The only mandatory presence of this professional in the minimum team is in Child and Youth Psychosocial Attention Center (PSACc), but not in the Psychosocial Attention Center (PSAC) for example, where the majority of the users are adults (SANTOS et al., 2012). If, on the one hand, mental health outpatient clinics were an important entry point for the speech therapist into the public health system, on the other hand, in front of PSAC implementation, its presence in the teams is not yet consolidated. In 20 years of SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde) and under the aegis of the advances of Psychiatric Reform it is also necessary to make consistent the practices into the field of language as a power of psychosocial rehabilitation and inclusion of children, teenagers and adults affected by psychiatric disorders of high complexity (SANTOS et al., 2012). The National Mental Health Policy (NPMH) supported by the law 10.216/2002, has as an object consolidate an open, community-based model of public mental health care. In other words, ensure the free movement of people with mental disorders through services and communities, and provide care based on the resources offered by them. The PSAC, Residential Therapeutic Services (RTS), the Centers of Coexistence and Culture and the services of integral attention (in general hospitals and PSAC) are part of a service network based on this model (BRASIL, 2001).

  • THE ROLE OF ANXIETY ON CHRONIC PAIN AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS

    How can society live with anxiety and pain? The discussion about anxiety goes through dentistry as it affects the oral condition. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a very prevalent condition in the population, and mental disorders are often associated with disabilities that affect various activities, also being associated with various diseases and syndromes that present chronic pain, such as chronic Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD). Interactions of exposure to adverse psychosocial events and mental disorders can make the etiological diagnosis of chronic pain a major challenge. Chronic pain is an important public health problem, affecting a relevant portion of the population, interfering with psychological status, social activities and work. Therefore attention and care is needed to control anxiety and promote the quality of life of the population.

  • ABSENTEEISM DUE TO MENTAL DISORDERS IN A MUNICIPALITY IN THE INTERIOR OF ALAGOAS

    Introduction: Work-related diseases cause high absenteeism rates and their occurrence has been increasing gradually and because they cause great impact on the economy of the countries. Objective: To identify the prevalence of absenteeism due to mental disorders in servers in the municipality of Arapiraca-AL, from January to December 2013. Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. For this, we analyzed all the records used in the situation of work clearance of the municipal servants of Arapiraca in the Medical Board. Results: The study subjects were 816 public servants from the municipality of Arapiraca-AL, away from work from January to December 2013. For data analysis, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-SPSS (version 20) was used. The present study showed that most professionals away from work were female (693 – 84.9%), married (426 – 52.2%), lived in rural areas (116 – 14.2%) and were permanent employees (627 – 76.8%). Education configured the stocking organ most affected by absenteeism at work (474 – 58.1%) represented by the post of teacher (281 – 34.4%). The absence of mental disorders occupied the fourth most frequent cause (151 – 18.5%) among the various reasons for distancing from work and the depressive episode was the mental disorder that stood out in relation to the others (19 – 12.6%). Conclusion: The high rate of absenteeism due to mental disorders evidences the need for a new look at the mental health of workers in order to develop strategies for immediate intervention.

  • REPERCUSSIONS OF THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS IN PERFORMANCE OF DAILY LIFE ACTIVITIES

    Introduction: The term institutionalization comes from Europe, from the middle ages, where people with mental disorders were excluded from the social environment. Thereafter the psychiatric hospitals are developed, whose principles become isolation, repression and total institutionalization. Psychiatric hospitals were then established as a place of psychiatric power and disease manipulation.Thus, in the total institutionalization the subject loses his individuality, being treated only by the disease, removed from his self, resulting in greater difficulty in social reintegration, autonomy and independence of the individual. Objectives: To report on how institutionalization may interfere with the performance of daily living activities (ADLs) of institutionalized users in a psychiatric hospital. Methods: This is a descriptive work of the experience report type, presenting experiences at the Teodora Albuquerque Psychiatric Hospital in Arapiraca / AL, between May 2019 and September 2019, with institutionalized individuals with more than one year of hospitalization. Results: Activities of daily living are basic self-care tasks that can be used and well-being, such as bathing, eating, combing or hair, among others (AOTA, 2015). Within the experiences, there was a progressive difficulty in the functional and conscious performance of ADLs, due to numerous factors, which may be pathological or acquired in institutionalization, especially among males and older age, with prevalence of acquired difficulty. by total institutionalization. In this process, individuals who are hospitalized longer are more susceptible to the gradual loss of their functional independence, both by the polypharmacy highly present in psychiatric hospitals, and by the mode of repression and isolation that leads to the aggravation of mental illness. Conclusion: Given this, it is understood that a psychiatric institutionalization negatively interferes with the performance of users’ ADLs.

  • HOSPITAL HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR MENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS IN MACEIÓ IN THE YEARS 2013 TO 2018

    Introduction: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2011, the prevalence of mental disorders in the world population is 10%, exceeding 25% to be considered during the course of life. Health information has important roles in health policies, enabling planning, prevention, promotion and recovery actions, as it forms a system for the acquisition, organization and analysis of data to define health problems and risks and to evaluate efficacy. , efficiency and influence that the services provided exert on the health of the population³. Objective: To characterize the epidemiological profile of hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders in the city of Maceió from 2014 to 2018. Methodology: This is a descriptive quantitative study based on data analysis of the Hospital Internment System (SIH). accessed by DATASUS, having the following variables: ICD 10 (Mental and Behavioral Disorders), ICD 10 List (Mental Disorders due to the use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, year (2014-2018), age group (15 – 59 years ), gender (male and female) in the city of Maceió-Alagoas. Results and discussion: From the data analyzed, Maceió totaled 4,778 thousand (47.87%) of the cases of hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders between the years 2013 to 2018, 2013 with 952 billion (9.52%), 2014 with 1.025 thousand cases (10.25%), 2015 with 635 thousand cases (6.35%), 2016 with 717 thousand cases (7.17%), 2017 with 679 thousand cases (6.79%) and 2018 with 765 thousand cases (7.65%) c the predominance of cases in 2014 with approximately 10% of cases. Age groups totaled 4,787 corresponding to 47.87% of the cases, being 15-19 years with 432 (4.32%), 20-29 years with 1.093 (10.93%), 30-39 years with 1.091 (10.91 %), 40-49 years with 1,111 (11.13%) and 50-59 years with 707 (7.07%), with predominance of cases between 40-49 years and about 11% of cases. The male gender totaled 4,111…

  • REPERCUSSIONS OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN THE FAMILY CONTEXT

    Introduction: With the change in the care environment, the family came to be seen as an ally in treating the person with mental disorders, beginning to experience the home, as a new environment full of emotions, responsibilities and changes. Thus, it is important to know by health professionals of the repercussions that mental disorders cause in the family, so that it enables planning focused on holistic action, centered on the resolution of problems that lead to the illness of the family environment. Objective: to identify the repercussions of mental disorders in the family context. Methodology: Literature review in the databases SCOPUS, CINAHL, LILACS, CUIDEN and SCIELO. The selected articles were classified as to the level of evidence and data analysis was constructed in Microsoft Excel containing the main information of the articles. Results:1,400 articles were found, of which 234 articles were selected to read the abstracts, 41 included the theme. Then, 27 articles were selected to answer the guiding question. However, after the application of methodological criteria, an article was excluded, totaling a final sample of 26 articles. Conclusion: the experience of having a family member with mental disorders was seen, as a difficult and overloading experience, but this coexistence has made it possible to search for the breakdown of paradigm of mental illness, the approximation of the family with treatment and health services, in addition to contributing to the reintegration of it into society.

  • SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL AS A FACTOR OF VULNERABILITY TO MENTAL ILLNESS IN SEXUAL AND GENDER MINORITIES

    Introduction: The population of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual, Transvestite and Transsexual is the target of social failure (Homophobias, Lesbophobia, transphobia), which contributes to social exclusion and with great association with vulnerability to their health and suffering. Objective: To identify the prevalence of social failure as a factor of vulnerability to mental illness in sexual and gender minorities. Methodology: This is a descriptive, transversal and quantitative study. Data collection took place between December 2018 and June 2019. The place where the research occurred was the Federal University of Alagoas. The instruments used were the identification questionnaire and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Students belonging to sexual and gender minorities who studied at the Federal University of Alagoas, aged 18 years and over, were included. Those who gave up graduation during data collection were excluded. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas. Results: 141 students belonging to sex and gender minorities were interviewed, 64 (45.4%) female and 77 (54.6%) male sex. Regarding sexual orientation, 83 (58.9%) were homosexuals, 50 (35.5%) were bisexual and 8 (5.8%) pansexuals. In relation to gender identity, 135 (95.7%) were cisgender, 2 (1.4%) were transgendered and 4 (2.8%) non-binary. 139 (98.6%) Individuals had already revealed their sexual orientation to someone. Of these, 112 (79.4%) already suffered social failure, being 74 (52.5%) from the family, 56 (39.7%) from unknown persons, 21 (14.9%) from friends, 12 (8.5%) from college colleagues and 10 (7.1%) from co-workers. According to MINI, 134 (95%) who had some kind of mental disorder, 89 (63.1%) presented generalized anxiety disorder. In addition, of the total number of respondents, 108 (76.6%) had psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusions: The research data identified that sexual and gender minorities are vulnerable to mental illness, highlighting generalized anxiety disorder, reflecting all social and family pressures that these…

  • INCIDENCE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN THE POPULATION OF PERNAMBUCO: AN ANALYSIS FROM NATIONAL HEALTH INDICATORS

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is idiopathic chronic psychosis characterized by distortions of thought, perception, inadequacy and affective dullness. The main risk factors are connected by genetic, neurobiological and psychosocial functions. In Brazil, it is estimated that over 2.5 million people are carriers of the disease, alarming given the social damage that the disease can bring. Objective: To analyze the prevalence data in new cases of schizophrenia from 2014 to 2018 by sample of municipalities in the state of Pernambuco with more than 100 new cases in the period. Methodology: It is a study in secondary databases, conducted from the Basic Data indicators of Brazil, an integral tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of variables. Results: There was a 25% reduction in new cases in 2018 compared to 2014. The municipality of Garanhuns had the largest absolute and relative reduction of new cases in the period, from 467 to 6.. The cities of Caruaru, Serra talhada and Igarassu also had a reduction in the number of cases. In contrast, in the municipality of Araripina there was an increase in the number of cases in the period. In the municipality of Recife there was the highest incidence among the municipalities, with 7,209 hospitalizations, 66% of the total cases in the state. Discussion: With the exception of the municipality of Araripina, it is generally observed that there were significant reductions in the number of new cases when evaluating the totality of the municipalities of Pernambuco. This may be associated with the expansion of preventive public health education policies aimed at raising awareness of the population about the disease, improving the effectiveness of treatment over the years and the assistance of multiprofessional health teams in psychosocial care centers, with a view to reintegration of these patients in the social context and reduction of…