American Journal of Psychiatric Research and Reviews

  • HOSPITAL HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR MENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS IN MACEIÓ IN THE YEARS 2013 TO 2018

    Introduction: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2011, the prevalence of mental disorders in the world population is 10%, exceeding 25% to be considered during the course of life. Health information has important roles in health policies, enabling planning, prevention, promotion and recovery actions, as it forms a system for the acquisition, organization and analysis of data to define health problems and risks and to evaluate efficacy. , efficiency and influence that the services provided exert on the health of the population³. Objective: To characterize the epidemiological profile of hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders in the city of Maceió from 2014 to 2018. Methodology: This is a descriptive quantitative study based on data analysis of the Hospital Internment System (SIH). accessed by DATASUS, having the following variables: ICD 10 (Mental and Behavioral Disorders), ICD 10 List (Mental Disorders due to the use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, year (2014-2018), age group (15 – 59 years ), gender (male and female) in the city of Maceió-Alagoas. Results and discussion: From the data analyzed, Maceió totaled 4,778 thousand (47.87%) of the cases of hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders between the years 2013 to 2018, 2013 with 952 billion (9.52%), 2014 with 1.025 thousand cases (10.25%), 2015 with 635 thousand cases (6.35%), 2016 with 717 thousand cases (7.17%), 2017 with 679 thousand cases (6.79%) and 2018 with 765 thousand cases (7.65%) c the predominance of cases in 2014 with approximately 10% of cases. Age groups totaled 4,787 corresponding to 47.87% of the cases, being 15-19 years with 432 (4.32%), 20-29 years with 1.093 (10.93%), 30-39 years with 1.091 (10.91 %), 40-49 years with 1,111 (11.13%) and 50-59 years with 707 (7.07%), with predominance of cases between 40-49 years and about 11% of cases. The male gender totaled 4,111…

  • REPERCUSSIONS OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN THE FAMILY CONTEXT

    Introduction: With the change in the care environment, the family came to be seen as an ally in treating the person with mental disorders, beginning to experience the home, as a new environment full of emotions, responsibilities and changes. Thus, it is important to know by health professionals of the repercussions that mental disorders cause in the family, so that it enables planning focused on holistic action, centered on the resolution of problems that lead to the illness of the family environment. Objective: to identify the repercussions of mental disorders in the family context. Methodology: Literature review in the databases SCOPUS, CINAHL, LILACS, CUIDEN and SCIELO. The selected articles were classified as to the level of evidence and data analysis was constructed in Microsoft Excel containing the main information of the articles. Results:1,400 articles were found, of which 234 articles were selected to read the abstracts, 41 included the theme. Then, 27 articles were selected to answer the guiding question. However, after the application of methodological criteria, an article was excluded, totaling a final sample of 26 articles. Conclusion: the experience of having a family member with mental disorders was seen, as a difficult and overloading experience, but this coexistence has made it possible to search for the breakdown of paradigm of mental illness, the approximation of the family with treatment and health services, in addition to contributing to the reintegration of it into society.

  • SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL AS A FACTOR OF VULNERABILITY TO MENTAL ILLNESS IN SEXUAL AND GENDER MINORITIES

    Introduction: The population of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual, Transvestite and Transsexual is the target of social failure (Homophobias, Lesbophobia, transphobia), which contributes to social exclusion and with great association with vulnerability to their health and suffering. Objective: To identify the prevalence of social failure as a factor of vulnerability to mental illness in sexual and gender minorities. Methodology: This is a descriptive, transversal and quantitative study. Data collection took place between December 2018 and June 2019. The place where the research occurred was the Federal University of Alagoas. The instruments used were the identification questionnaire and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Students belonging to sexual and gender minorities who studied at the Federal University of Alagoas, aged 18 years and over, were included. Those who gave up graduation during data collection were excluded. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas. Results: 141 students belonging to sex and gender minorities were interviewed, 64 (45.4%) female and 77 (54.6%) male sex. Regarding sexual orientation, 83 (58.9%) were homosexuals, 50 (35.5%) were bisexual and 8 (5.8%) pansexuals. In relation to gender identity, 135 (95.7%) were cisgender, 2 (1.4%) were transgendered and 4 (2.8%) non-binary. 139 (98.6%) Individuals had already revealed their sexual orientation to someone. Of these, 112 (79.4%) already suffered social failure, being 74 (52.5%) from the family, 56 (39.7%) from unknown persons, 21 (14.9%) from friends, 12 (8.5%) from college colleagues and 10 (7.1%) from co-workers. According to MINI, 134 (95%) who had some kind of mental disorder, 89 (63.1%) presented generalized anxiety disorder. In addition, of the total number of respondents, 108 (76.6%) had psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusions: The research data identified that sexual and gender minorities are vulnerable to mental illness, highlighting generalized anxiety disorder, reflecting all social and family pressures that these…

  • INCIDENCE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN THE POPULATION OF PERNAMBUCO: AN ANALYSIS FROM NATIONAL HEALTH INDICATORS

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is idiopathic chronic psychosis characterized by distortions of thought, perception, inadequacy and affective dullness. The main risk factors are connected by genetic, neurobiological and psychosocial functions. In Brazil, it is estimated that over 2.5 million people are carriers of the disease, alarming given the social damage that the disease can bring. Objective: To analyze the prevalence data in new cases of schizophrenia from 2014 to 2018 by sample of municipalities in the state of Pernambuco with more than 100 new cases in the period. Methodology: It is a study in secondary databases, conducted from the Basic Data indicators of Brazil, an integral tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of variables. Results: There was a 25% reduction in new cases in 2018 compared to 2014. The municipality of Garanhuns had the largest absolute and relative reduction of new cases in the period, from 467 to 6.. The cities of Caruaru, Serra talhada and Igarassu also had a reduction in the number of cases. In contrast, in the municipality of Araripina there was an increase in the number of cases in the period. In the municipality of Recife there was the highest incidence among the municipalities, with 7,209 hospitalizations, 66% of the total cases in the state. Discussion: With the exception of the municipality of Araripina, it is generally observed that there were significant reductions in the number of new cases when evaluating the totality of the municipalities of Pernambuco. This may be associated with the expansion of preventive public health education policies aimed at raising awareness of the population about the disease, improving the effectiveness of treatment over the years and the assistance of multiprofessional health teams in psychosocial care centers, with a view to reintegration of these patients in the social context and reduction of…

  • INCIDENCE OF MOOD DISORDER IN RECIFE POPULATION: AN ANALYSIS FROM NATIONAL HEALTH INDICATORS

    Introduction: Mood Disorders are characterized by changes in affective life, towards depression (with or without associated anxiety) or mania. These are usually accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity. Most of these disorders tend to be recurrent, causing severe damage to the life of the patient and those around him, especially the family. Objective: To describe the prevalence data in new cases of mood disorders between 2014 and 2018, by sample of type of care, gender and age group in the city of Recife. Methodology: This is a study in secondary databases through the Basic Data indicators of Brazil, an integral tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of variables. Results: We analyzed the data regarding hospitalizations and concluded that Recife represented 76.8% of hospitalizations performed in Pernambuco, and 81% of cases represented urgent hospitalization. The age group most frequently led to hospitalization was between 30 and 39 years old (25.5%), followed by 40 to 49 years old (24.7%) and 50 to 59 years old (20.7%). Together, ages 10 to 14 and from 80 onwards accounted for only 0.066% of all cases. The brown color presented 71.9% of the hospitalizations and the white presented 21.6% of the cases. Regarding the prevalence between genders, 64.8% of hospitalizations corresponded to females. The total amount spent by public coffers in 2018 was 12.9% higher than 2017, but 15.3% lower than the average of the period analyzed. It is also noteworthy that the Ulysses Pernambucano Psychiatric Hospital received 77.3% of the notified hospitalizations and the average stay for 2018 was the lowest in the historical series (17.6), 28.1% lower than the average of the analyzed period (24.5). Discussion: In general, it was observed that the municipality of Recife, and especially the Ullysses Pernambucano Psychiatric Hospital, covers the vast majority…

  • Psychiatry and Diet

    The review article explains that the Food habits are uses self-treatment of different psychiatric disorders. It is reported that Diet are used in treating a broad range of mental health disorders including anxiety, stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive, affective, bipolar maniac-depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders etc…

  • Herbal treatment in Mental health

    The review article explains that the herbal remedies are uses self-treatment of different psychiatric disorders. It is reported that herbal medicines are used in treating a broad range of psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive, affective, bipolar maniac-depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders etc…

  • Psychiatric Pharmacy: New role of Pharmacists in Mental Health

    Psychiatric disorders are one of the major causes of global burden of diseases. Stigma remains a major impediment in the delivery of mental healthcare. It has been found across various studies that attitudes of doctors of other specialties and other healthcare professionals also contribute to stigma due to their lack of knowledge and awareness about psychiatry and mental health problems. The number of mental health professionals remains abysmally low. Community pharmacists are accessible, knowledgeable, and capable of providing mental health promotion and care in communities. This may not be a role that is recognized by the public, and men in particular. However, psychotherapy paired with medication is the most effective way to promote recovery. Examples include: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, etc. Pharmacists can play a key role by providing mental health medication management support to improve access and address patients’ mental health needs.

  • Sadipathy – Conceptualization and Elucidation

    Sadipathy is a unique and relevant construct that merits full scholarly consideration and scientific investigation. Sadipathy has herein been conceptualized as a psychological and behavioral pathology directly cognate with extremely violent and sadistic actions. The sadipath is an individual that takes pleasure in victimizing others, inflicting serious pain and injury on others, and often even committing murder. Sadipathic individuals derive emotional, psychological, and/or sexual delectation in repeatedly inflicting suffering on others. Sadipathy is particularly associated with certain types of the most extreme offenders, such as serial killers and violent sexual offenders. Sadipathy is an apropos phenomenon to various academic and applied fields, such as psychology, psychiatry, criminology, sociology, criminal justice, law, and corrections. In the field of psychology, sadipathy would be particularly germane to the concentrations of criminal psychology, clinical psychology, and forensic psychology.

  • Psychriatry in Ayurveda

    Synthetic drugs for human brain disorders are expensive symptomatic long treatments, sometimes showing serious and unavoidable side effects with poor patient compliance. Therefore, the herbal and Ayurvedic treatments are preferred over synthetic drugs for a range of human brain disorders including, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety, etc. Ayurvedic system of medicine has traditionally been used in several neurological conditions. The accessibility, negligible incidence of side effects and cost effectiveness of plant products offer considerable advantages. These days much attention is drawn towards the established traditional systems of herbal remedies for many brain disorders, generating positive hopes for the patients. The Ayurvedic prescriptions which contain either a single identity of plant or a mixture of plant materials have been proven to be very useful against such disorders. The plant materials prescribed for these problems range from herbs to perennial trees with varied plant parts, ranging from whole plant, roots, stem, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits to seeds. It has been attempted to review the current situation of mental disorder in the society vis-a-vis its effective solution described in the Ayurveda and problem of side effects in synthetic medicines.